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Talavera J.A.,University of La Laguna | Perez D.I.,Consejeria de Educacion
Systematics and Biodiversity | Year: 2011

This is an investigation of the earthworm species identified in the evergreen laurel forests of La Palma and Hierro, characterised by the presence of Palaearctic species and to a lesser extent by an exotic component of different origins such as Amynthas corticis (native to Southeast Asia), Microscolex phosphoreus (South America) and Ocnerodrilus occidentalis (Central America). There is little evidence of local speciation, confirming that this ancient forest (more than 300 000 years old) does not harbour endemic species. Soil pH and moisture influence the spatial ordination of some earthworm species. However, anthropogenic disturbance, greatly intensified since the fifteenth century, emerges as the strongest factor to explain their distribution, particularly of the tropical invasives, e.g. A. corticis and O. occidentalis, which once established are difficult to remove. Species such as the Eiseniella tetraedra and Heraclescolex moebii complex maintain narrow microhabitat preferences and their current distribution and perhaps subsistence is threatened, mainly due to the overexploited water resources. The colonisation history of earthworms can be linked with the human settlers who began to arrive almost three millennia ago, bringing rootstocks of some of their habitual crops and domestic animals. Faunistic similarities are found with those Southern Iberian, Mediterranean basin and Maghreb areas that during the Miocene harboured humid subtropical Tertiary-Tethian flora, now largely extinct. © 2011 The Natural History Museum.

The aim of this study was to compare the learning performance of students in secondary physical education lessons after receiving two teaching units in which the theoretical content of Anatomy, Physiology and Body Health, was given with the support of Moodle and Mahara 2.0. We used a quasi-experimental, descriptive and sectional design. The total sample consisted of 122 students in the 4th year of Secondary Education (ESO), 57 males and 65 females. We worked with an experimental group of 72 people who received theoretical training of two teaching units supported by Moodle 2.0 and Mahara, and a control group of 50 students who received no support classes of virtual platforms. Practical classes were similar in both groups. The measuring instrument was a multiple choice assessment questionnaire. Pretest measure was obtained before training and other measures after the intervention (posttest). Improvements were analyzed in each group according to the theoretical method used and compared the results obtained by analysis of gain score (posttest-pretest) with T-test for related samples. After intervention, the average score is greater than fifty percent in both groups, without significant gain scores of physiology, anatomy and health in the experimental group. These data confirm that the use of LMS platforms contribute more to the acquisition of this content among students. An important contribution in the field of EF is the fact that less theoretical contact hours are necessary, as the students work on time on the practical elective content made in class, thus having more hours of practice teaching time. © 2015, Universidad de la Frontera. All rights reserved.

Rodriguez-Perez M.A.,National Polytechnic Institute of Mexico | Rodriguez-Perez M.A.,Institute Salud Carlos III | Fernandez-Santos N.A.,Secretaria de Salud | Orozco-Algarra M.E.,Secretaria de Salud | And 9 more authors.
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases | Year: 2015

Background Mexico is one of the six countries formerly endemic for onchocerciasis in Latin America. Transmission has been interrupted in the three endemic foci of that country and mass drug distribution has ceased. Three years after mass drug distribution ended, post-treatment surveillance (PTS) surveys were undertaken which employed entomological indicators to check for transmission recrudescence. Methodology/Principal findings In-depth entomologic assessments were performed in 18 communities in the three endemic foci of Mexico. None of the 108,212 Simulium ochraceum s.l. collected from the three foci were found to contain parasite DNA when tested by polymerase chain reaction-enzymelinked immunosorbent assay (PCR-ELISA), resulting in a maximum upper bound of the 95% confidence interval (95%-ULCI) of the infective rate in the vectors of 0.035/2,000 flies examined. This is an order of magnitude below the threshold of a 95%-ULCI of less than one infective fly per 2,000 flies tested, the current entomological criterion for interruption of transmission developed by the international community. The point estimate of seasonal transmission potential (STP) was zero, and the upper bound of the 95% confidence interval for the STP ranged from 1.2 to 1.7 L3/person/season in the different foci. This value is below all previous estimates for the minimum transmission potential required to maintain the parasite population. Conclusions/Significance The results from the in-depth entomological post treatment surveillance surveys strongly suggest that transmission has not resumed in the three foci of Mexico during the three years since the last distribution of ivermectin occurred; it was concluded that transmission remains undetectable without intervention, and Onchocerca volvulus has been eliminated from Mexico. © 2015 Rodríguez-Pérez et al.

This paper presents an analysis of a catillus fragment corresponding to a rotary grain mill from the Roman era found in the San Chuis Fort in Allande, Asturias. One distinctive feature of this grain mill is the fact that it contains an inscription that mentions the word Turro. Among the possible interpretations of this epigraph, we advocate the hypothesis that this word designates the owner or user of mola manuaria. To support this theory, we analyze other mills with inscriptions found in the Roman world that refer to concrete military units -contubernium, centuria, turma- or prayers and other records from the civilian circles. In the absence of any military structure, we argue that this inscription indicates there were no military units present in that fort during that time, or that at least they didn't adhere to a particular military hierarchy, even though this does not refute the fact that the civilian population lived in a heavily militarized area. © Universidad de Salamanca.

Gonzalez-Pumariega M.,Consejeria de Educacion | De la Rasilla M.,University of Oviedo | Santamaria D.,University of Oviedo | Duarte E.,University of Oviedo | Santos-Delgado G.,University of Salamanca
Quaternary International | Year: 2015

La Viña rock shelter (La Manzaneda, Oviedo, Asturias) is the easternmost of the thirteen open sites with rock engravings spread along the Nalón river basin. La Viña is the largest settlement in that valley and contains the most extensive archaeological sequence, from the Middle Palaeolithic to the Holocene, as well as an important set of engravings, clustered along the rock face with diverse level of preservation. Fortea organized those carvings into two successive graphical horizons, Aurignacian and Gravettian-Solutrean. Recent topographical surveys (coordinates in the ETRS89) in the site have specified those proposals and have released new data about the spatial and chronological organization of the engravings. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA.

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