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Pilani, India

Pundir J.,Assisted Conception Unit | Pundir V.,Conquest | Omanwa K.,Assisted Reproduction and Gynaecology Center | Khalaf Y.,Assisted Conception Unit | El-Toukhy T.,Assisted Conception Unit
Reproductive BioMedicine Online | Year: 2014

This systematic review and meta-analysis investigated the use of routine hysteroscopy prior to starting the first IVF cycle on treatment outcome in asymptomatic women. Searches were conducted on MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, National Research Register and ISI Conference Proceedings. The main outcome measures were clinical pregnancy and live birth rates achieved in the index IVF cycle. One randomized and five non-randomized controlled studies including a total of 3179 participants were included comparing hysteroscopy with no intervention in the cycle preceding the first IVF cycle. There was a significantly higher clinical pregnancy rate (relative risk, RR, 1.44, 95% CI 1.08-1.92, P = 0.01) and LBR (RR 1.30, 95% CI 1.00-1.67, P = 0.05) in the subsequent IVF cycle in the hysteroscopy group. The number needed to treat after hysteroscopy to achieve one additional clinical pregnancy was 10 (95% CI 7-14) and live birth was 11 (95% CI 7-16). Hysteroscopy in asymptomatic woman prior to their first IVF cycle could improve treatment outcome when performed just before commencing the IVF cycle. Robust and high-quality randomized trials to confirm this finding are warranted. Currently, there is evidence that performing hysteroscopy (camera examination of the womb cavity) before starting IVF treatment could increase the chance of pregnancy in the subsequent IVF cycle in women who had one or more failed IVF cycles. However, recommendations regarding the efficacy of routine use of hysteroscopy prior to starting the first IVF treatment cycle are lacking. We reviewed systematically the trials related to the impact of hysteroscopy prior to starting the first IVF cycle on treatment outcomes of pregnancy rate and live birth rate in asymptomatic women. Literature searches were conducted in all major database and all randomized and non-randomized controlled trials were included in our study (up to March 2013). The main outcome measures were the clinical pregnancy rate and live birth rate. The secondary outcome measure was the procedure related complication rate. A total of 3179 women, of which 1277 had hysteroscopy and 1902 did not have a hysteroscopy prior to first IVF treatment, were included in six controlled studies. Hysteroscopy in asymptomatic woman prior to their first IVF cycle was found to be associated with improved chance of achieving a pregnancy and live birth when performed just before commencing the IVF cycle. The procedure was safe. Larger studies are still required to confirm our findings. © 2013, Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Toqeer M.,Conquest
BMJ case reports | Year: 2012

A 64-year-old man was admitted with fever, weight loss, fatigue and night sweats. He was known to have rheumatoid arthritis and had been taking methotrexate for 1 year. He had worked in Saudi Arabia until 1994 and had been living in Spain for 6 months every year. Clinical examination showed an enlarged spleen. Routine investigations showed pancytopaenia. Serial blood cultures were negative. CT scan confirmed splenomegaly and was otherwise unremarkable. Bone marrow biopsy revealed Leishmania amastigote consistent with a diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis. After discussing with the hospital for tropical diseases (HTD), he was started on liposomal amphotericin B. Following two infusions of amphotericin B, he started improving as his fever, night sweats and weakness had settled. He was then discharged and followed up in HTD clinic 4 weeks later where he was found to be consistently improving.

Ypsilantis E.,Conquest | Tang T.Y.,University of Cambridge
Annals of Vascular Surgery | Year: 2010

Background: Chronic stump and phantom limb pain after amputation for critical ischemia significantly affect patients' quality of life and pose challenging clinical problems. Pre-emptive analgesia attempts to prevent chronic postoperative pain by minimizing painful stimuli before and during surgery. Methods: This systematic literature review aimed to evaluate the evidence supporting the use of pre-emptive analgesia in minimizing the risk of chronic stump and phantom pain after lower limb amputation for critical ischemia of peripheral vascular disease. Results: A total of 11 studies have been retrieved. Five different types of analgesic drugs were evaluated (local anesthetics, opiates, N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonists, a2-agonist, and gamma-aminobutyric acid analogues), administered separately or in combinations, through the oral, intravenous, epidural, or regional (perineural) route. The beneficial effect of combined bupivacaine, diamorphine, and clonidine in reducing the risk of phantom limb pain was supported by only one study (level 3 evidence). Epidural and perineural infusions containing local anesthetic ± opiates are effective in treating acute perioperative pain, although not without potentially serious complications. Most studies were characterized by high drop-out rates because of disease-associated mortality. Conclusions: There is no robust evidence supporting the use of pre-emptive analgesia to minimize the risk of chronic pain after amputation for critical ischemia of peripheral vascular disease. The methods used are, however, effective in treating acute postoperative pain. © Annals of Vascular Surgery Inc.

Blunt ocular trauma from a child's plastic foam-covered toy baseball bat caused traumatic optic neuropathy and choroidal rupture in a 9-year-old child. The examination revealed a visual acuity of 6/60, a relative afferent pupillary defect, optic nerve swelling, commotio retinae and retinal haemorrhages. There was no orbital fracture or intraorbital haematoma on CT scanning. Optical coherence tomography showed macular oedema and disruption of the retinal pigment epithelium and Bruch's membrane. The child was admitted for intravenous methylprednisolone and discharged on topical steroid treatment. At 1 month follow-up, visual acuity had improved to 6/12. Optic nerve swelling had resolved and the fundus had two crescent-shaped choroidal rupture scars. Choroidal rupture and optic neuropathy can be secondary to indirect trauma, and even when the mechanism of injury is with a piece of equipment designated as suitable for children, serious ocular injury can occur.

Raman V.,University of Sussex | McWilliams E.T.M.,Conquest | Holmberg S.R.M.,University of Sussex | Miles K.,University of Sussex
European Radiology | Year: 2012

Objective: To conduct an economic analysis (EA) of coronary calcium scoring (CCS) using a 0 score, as alternative to stress electrocardiography (sECG) in diagnosing coronary artery disease (CAD). Method: A decision tree was constructed to compare four strategies for investigation of suspected CAD previously assessed in the formulation of clinical guidelines for the United Kingdom (UK) to two new strategies incorporating CCS. Sensitivity (96%; 95% CI 95.4-96.4%) and specificity (40%; 95% CI 38.7-41.4%) values for CCS were derived from a meta-analysis of 10,760 patients. Other input variables were obtained from a previous EA and average prices for hospital procedures in the UK. A threshold of £30,000/Quality-adjusted Life Year (QALY) was considered cost-effective. Results: Using net monetary benefit calculations, CCS-based strategies were found to be cost-effective compared to sECG equivalents at all assessed prevalence of CAD. Using CCS prior to myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) and catheter angiography (CA) was found to be cost-effective at pre-test probabilities (PTP) below 30%. Conclusions: Adoption of CCS as an alternative to sECG in investigating suspected stable angina in low PTP population (<30%) would be cost-effective. In patients with PTP of CAD >30%, proceeding to MPS or CA would be more cost-effective than performing either CCS or sECG. Key Points : Coronary calcium scoring (CCS) is useful for assessing coronary artery atherosclerosis It can be performed with multi-detector CT, which is now widely available It plays a role in excluding disease in suspected stable angina Our study assesses its role in this setting as alternative to stress-ECG Adoption of CCS as an alternative to sECG could prove cost-effective © 2011 European Society of Radiology.

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