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Risco-Castillo V.,Complutense University of Madrid | Risco-Castillo V.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Wheeler J.C.,Conopa Institute Investigacion Y Desarrollo Of Camelidos Sudamericanos | Rosadio R.,National Major San Marcos University | And 6 more authors.
Tropical Animal Health and Production | Year: 2014

To determine the impact of farming over vicuña population in Peru, serum samples were collected from 207 vicuñas (126 captive vicuñas and 81 free-ranging vicuñas) and 614 domestic South American camelids (571 alpacas and 43 llamas), in ten Andean communities at the Salinas y Aguada Blanca reserve, province of Arequipa, southern Peru. Samples were tested for the presence of leptospirosis, foot and mouth disease (FMD), bovine viral diarrhea (BVD), bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1), brucellosis, bluetongue disease (BT), paratuberculosis, and neosporosis. Serological results showed that 1.9 % (4/207) of vicuñas, 18.6 % (106/571) of alpacas, and 23.3 % (10/43) of llamas were positive to one or more Leptospira serovars. One percent of vicuñas (2/207) and 2.4 % of domestic camelids (15/614) had Neospora caninum antibodies tested by ELISA, but only two vicuñas and two alpacas were confirmed by Western blot. Epidemiological evaluation found an association of leptospirosis to sex and age (p < 0.001), with female subjects older than 2.5 years at higher risk of infection. Interestingly, antibodies against Leptospira serovars were only found in captive vicuñas. This is the first study where health status of free-ranging and captive vicuñas has been compared. Results indicate minimal to nil presence of FMD, BVD, BHV-1, brucellosis, BT, paratuberculosis, and neosporosis allied to health disorders in our sample. The detection of seropositive animals against Leptospira, however, unveils the likely significance of leptospirosis in wild and domestic South American camelids, the impact of mixed husbandry over vicuña population and the risk to human health. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Rosadio A.R.,National Major San Marcos University | Rosadio A.R.,Conopa Institute Investigacion Y Desarrollo Of Camelidos Sudamericanos | Veliz A.T.,Conopa Institute Investigacion Y Desarrollo Of Camelidos Sudamericanos | Castillo D.H.,Conopa Institute Investigacion Y Desarrollo Of Camelidos Sudamericanos | And 4 more authors.
Small Ruminant Research | Year: 2015

Micro agglutination testing was used to detect specific antibodies against five pathogenic Leptospiraserovars ( icterohaemorrhagiae, pomona, canicola, wolfii and ballum) in 793 alpaca and 195 vicuña serum samples collected in the Huancavelica and Ayacucho Departments of Peru. The study revealed that 89.6% of the alpacas and 77.4% of the vicuñas were positive to one or more serovars. In alpacas, the titers varied from 1:100 to 1:1600 for reactions to icterohaemorrhagiae (43.4%) and pomona (37.8%), whereas among vicuñas titers varied from 1:100 to 1:400 for reactions to the same serovarsi. cterohaemorrhagiae (69.2%) and pomona (8.2%). The alpacas also had antibodies to canicola (7.8%) and wolfii (0.6%). These results show that these animals had previous exposure to 4 of the 5 serovars tested, and the elevated titers to icterohaemorrhagiae and pomona in alpacas suggest a recent infection event. © 2015 Elsevier B.V..

Rosadio R.,National Major San Marcos University | Rosadio R.,Conopa Institute Investigacion Y Desarrollo Of Camelidos Sudamericanos | Cirilo E.,National Major San Marcos University | Manchego A.,National Major San Marcos University | Rivera H.,National Major San Marcos University
Small Ruminant Research | Year: 2011

The etiopathogenesis of acute pneumonia, the second most important cause of mortality among neonatal alpacas in Peru, is still poorly understood. The objective of this study was to characterize gross and histopathology lesions, as well as to identify viruses [parainfluenza type 3 (PI-3) and/or bovine respiratory syncytial (BRS)] by direct inmunofluorescence test, and isolate bacteria [. Pasteurella multocida (Pm) and/or Mannheimia haemolytica (Mh)] from 24 fatal acute pneumonia cases of alpaca neonates 7-39 days old. At necropsy the gross lesions corresponded to moderate purulent focal bronchopneumonia or severe necrotic purulent fibrinous (n=13), and moderate to severe pulmonary congestion and/or pulmonary edema (n=11). Histopathological analysis revealed: acute severe and diffuse necrotizing, fibrinous, suppurative bronchopneumonia (n=3), acute mild to moderate and focally diffuse suppurative bronchopneumonia (n=10) and acute moderate to severe diffuse congestion and pulmonary edema (n=11). Among these 24 fatal cases, 22 yielded virus identification and/or bacterial isolation. Eight of these 22 cases were positive for only one pathogen (5 for viruses and 3 for bacteria), 10/22 were positive for 2 pathogens RSV plus bacteria (n=7), PI-3 plus bacteria (n=2) and 1 for both bacteria and 4/22 were positive for 3 pathogens [RSV, PI-3 plus bacteria (n=3) and PI-3 plus both bacteria (n=1)]. Among the affected lung tissues, virus was identified 19 times (13 positive for RSV, 9 for PI-3, and 3/19 for both viruses) whereas bacteria were isolated 14 times [. P. multocida (n=8), M. haemolytica (n=6), and both bacteria (n=2)]. The presence of multiple pathogens was observed in 14/22 positive cases with an observation of virus-bacteria association in 13/14 of the cases. The coexistence of RSV-Pm was the most frequently observed (6/13) followed by the simultaneous presence of RSV-Mh (4/13) and PI-3 Pm or Mh (4/13). These results appear to indicate that acute pneumonia in alpaca neonates may well result from virus and bacterial interactions in a similar way to pneumonic lesions of other ruminants. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

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