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Li B.C.,University of California at San Francisco | Hogue J.,U.S. Army | Mehrotra P.,University of California at San Francisco | Hyland J.,Connective Tissue Gene Tests | Slavotinek A.M.,University of California at San Francisco
American Journal of Medical Genetics, Part A | Year: 2013

We present two patients with Atelosteogenesis Type I (AO type I) caused by two novel Filamin B (FLNB) mutations affecting the same FLNB residue: c.542G>A, predicting p.Gly181Asp and c.542G>C, predicting p.Gly181Arg. Both children had typical manifestations of AO type I, with severe rhizomelic shortening of the extremities, limited elbow and knee extension with mild webbing, pectus excavatum, broad thumbs with brachydactyly that was most marked for digits 3-5, dislocated hips and bilateral talipes equinovarus. Facial features included proptosis, hypertelorism, downslanting palpebral fissures, cleft palate, and retromicrognathia. The clinical course of one child was influenced by airway instability and bronchopulmonary dysplasia that complicated intubation and prevented separation from ventilator support. Respiratory insufficiency with tracheal hypoplasia, laryngeal stenosis, and pulmonary hypoplasia have all been described in patients with AO type I and we conclude that compromised pulmonary function is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality in this condition. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Milewicz D.M.,University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston | Ostergaard J.R.,Aarhus University Hospital | Ala-Kokko L.M.,Connective Tissue Gene Tests | Khan N.,Stanford University | And 11 more authors.
American Journal of Medical Genetics, Part A | Year: 2010

Smooth muscle cells (SMCs) contract to perform many physiological functions, including regulation of blood flow and pressure in arteries, contraction of the pupils, peristalsis of the gut, and voiding of the bladder. SMC lineage in these organs is characterized by cellular expression of the SMC isoform of α-actin, encoded by the ACTA2 gene. We report here on a unique and de novo mutation in ACTA2, R179H, that causes a syndrome characterized by dysfunction of SMCs throughout the body, leading to aortic and cerebrovascular disease, fixed dilated pupils, hypotonic bladder, malrotation, and hypoperistalsis of the gut and pulmonary hypertension. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.


Regalado E.S.,University of Houston | Guo D.-C.,University of Houston | Prakash S.,University of Houston | Bensend T.A.,University of Houston | And 24 more authors.
Circulation: Cardiovascular Genetics | Year: 2015

Background - ACTA2 mutations are the major cause of familial thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections. We sought to characterize these aortic diseases in a large case series of individuals with ACTA2 mutations. Methods and Results - Aortic disease, management, and outcome associated with the first aortic event (aortic dissection or aneurysm repair) were abstracted from the medical records of 277 individuals with 41 various ACTA2 mutations. Aortic events occurred in 48% of these individuals, with the vast majority presenting with thoracic aortic dissections (88%) associated with 25% mortality. Type A dissections were more common than type B dissections (54% versus 21%), but the median age of onset of type B dissections was significantly younger than type A dissections (27 years versus 36 years). Only 12% of aortic events were repair of ascending aortic aneurysms, which variably involved the aortic root, ascending aorta, and aortic arch. Overall, cumulative risk of an aortic event at age 85 years was 0.76 (95% confidence interval, 0.64-0.86). After adjustment for intrafamilial correlation, sex and race, mutations disrupting p.R179 and p.R258 were associated with significantly increased risk for aortic events, whereas p.R185Q and p.R118Q mutations showed significantly lower risk of aortic events compared with other mutations. Conclusions - ACTA2 mutations are associated with high risk of presentation with an acute aortic dissection. The lifetime risk for an aortic event is only 76%, suggesting that additional environmental or genetic factors play a role in expression of aortic disease in individuals with ACTA2 mutations. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.


Tompson S.W.,Cedars Sinai Medical Center | Bacino C.A.,Baylor College of Medicine | Safina N.P.,Childrens Hospital of the Kings Daughters | Bober M.B.,DuPont Company | And 12 more authors.
American Journal of Human Genetics | Year: 2010

Fibrochondrogenesis is a severe, autosomal-recessive, short-limbed skeletal dysplasia. In a single case of fibrochondrogenesis, whole-genome SNP genotyping identified unknown ancestral consanguinity by detecting three autozygous regions. Because of the predominantly skeletal nature of the phenotype, the 389 genes localized to the autozygous intervals were prioritized for mutation analysis by correlation of their expression with known cartilage-selective genes via the UCLA Gene Expression Tool, UGET. The gene encoding the α1 chain of type XI collagen (COL11A1) was the only cartilage-selective gene among the three candidate intervals. Sequence analysis of COL11A1 in two genetically independent fibrochondrogenesis cases demonstrated that each was a compound heterozygote for a loss-of-function mutation on one allele and a mutation predicting substitution for a conserved triple-helical glycine residue on the other. The parents who were carriers of missense mutations had myopia. Early-onset hearing loss was noted in both parents who carried a loss-of-function allele, suggesting COL11A1 as a locus for mild, dominantly inherited hearing loss. These findings identify COL11A1 as a locus for fibrochondrogenesis and indicate that there might be phenotypic manifestations among carriers. © 2010 The American Society of Human Genetics. All rights reserved.


Levy B.,Columbia University | Tegay D.,York College | Papenhausen P.,LabCorp | Tepperberg J.,LabCorp | And 9 more authors.
Genetics in Medicine | Year: 2012

Purpose:The aim of this study was to characterize the clinical phenotype of patients with tetrasomy of the distal 15q chromosome in the form of a neocentric marker chromosome and to evaluate whether the phenotype represents a new clinical syndrome or is a phenocopy of Shprintzen-Goldberg syndrome.Methods:We carried out comprehensive clinical evaluation of four patients who were identified with a supernumerary marker chromosome. The marker chromosome was characterized by G-banding, fluorescence in situ hybridization, single nucleotide polymorphism oligonucleotide microarray analysis, and immunofluorescence with antibodies to centromere protein C.Results:The marker chromosomes were categorized as being neocentric with all showing tetrasomy for regions distal to 15q25 and the common region of overlap being 15q26qter.Conclusion:Tetrasomy of 15q26 likely results in a distinct syndrome as the patients with tetrasomy 15q26 share a strikingly more consistent phenotype than do the patients with Shprintzen-Goldberg syndrome, who show remarkable clinical variation. © American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics.


PubMed | University of Helsinki, CAS Institute of Psychology, University of Eastern Finland, University of Oulu and 2 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Osteoarthritis and cartilage | Year: 2016

The aim of the study was to identify genetic variants predisposing to primary hip and knee osteoarthritis (OA) in a sample of Finnish families.Genome wide analysis was performed using 15 independent families (279 individuals) originating from Central Finland identified as having multiple individuals with primary hip and/or knee OA. Targeted re-sequencing was performed for three samples from one 33-member, four-generation family contributing most significantly to the LOD score. In addition, exome sequencing was performed in three family members from the same family.Genome wide linkage analysis identified a susceptibility locus on chromosome 2q21 with a multipoint LOD score of 3.91. Targeted re-sequencing and subsequent linkage analysis revealed a susceptibility insertion variant rs11446594. It locates in a predicted strong enhancer element region with maximum LOD score 3.42 under dominant model of inheritance. Insertion creates a recognition sequence for ELF3 and HMGA1 transcription factors. Their DNA-binding affinity is highly increased in the presence of A-allele compared to wild type null allele.A potentially novel functional OA susceptibility variant was identified by targeted re-sequencing. This variant locates in a predicted regulatory site and creates a recognition sequence for ELF3 and HMGA1 transcription factors that are predicted to play a significant role in articular cartilage homeostasis.


Jobling R.,University of Toronto | D'Souza R.,University of Toronto | Baker N.,Murdoch Childrens Research Institute | Lara-Corrales I.,University of Toronto | And 5 more authors.
Current Rheumatology Reports | Year: 2014

Genetic defects of collagen formation (the collagenopathies) affect almost every organ system and tissue in the body. They can be grouped by clinical phenotype, which usually correlates with the tissue distribution of the affected collagen subtype. Many of these conditions present in childhood; however, milder phenotypes presenting in adulthood are increasingly recognized. Many are difficult to differentiate clinically. Precise diagnosis by means of genetic testing assists in providing prognosis information, family counseling, and individualized treatment. This review provides an overview of the current range of clinical presentations associated with collagen defects, and the molecular mechanisms important to understanding how the results of genetic testing affect medical care. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.


Shanske A.L.,Yeshiva University | Goodrich J.T.,Yeshiva University | Ala-Kokko L.,Connective Tissue Gene Tests | Baker S.,Connective Tissue Gene Tests | And 2 more authors.
American Journal of Medical Genetics, Part A | Year: 2012

We report on maternal half-sibs born to unaffected, non-consanguineous parents with classical Shprintzen-Goldberg syndrome (SGS) who had in addition intestinal malrotation and an aberrant subclavian artery. In one other SGS family germline mosaicism has been described. SGS is molecularly heterogeneous and has been linked to mutations in three genomic loci. This suggests there may be multiple other genetic factors that result in a common clinical phenotype and a number of investigators have implicated a fourth region (15q25-qter) in the etiology of SGS. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Baker S.,Connective Tissue Gene Tests | Booth C.,Advocate Lutheran General Childrens Hospital | Fillman C.,Connective Tissue Gene Tests | Shapiro M.,Retina Consultants Ltd. | And 3 more authors.
American Journal of Medical Genetics, Part A | Year: 2011

Stickler syndrome is characterized by ocular, auditory, skeletal, and orofacial abnormalities. We describe a family with autosomal recessive Stickler syndrome. The main clinical findings consisted of high myopia, vitreoretinal degeneration, retinal detachment, hearing loss, and short stature. Affected family members were found to have a homozygous loss-of-function mutation in COL9A2, c.843-c.846+4del8. A family with autosomal recessive Stickler syndrome was previously described and found to have a homozygous loss-of-function mutation in COL9A1. COL9A1, COL9A2, and COL9A3 code for collagen IX. All three collagen IX α chains, α1, α2, and α3, are needed for formation of functional collagen IX molecule. In dogs, two causative loci have been identified in autosomal recessive oculoskeletal dysplasia. This dysplasia resembles Stickler syndrome. Recently, homozygous loss-of-function mutations in COL9A2 and COL9A3 were found to co-segregate with the loci. Together the data from the present study and the previous studies suggest that loss-of-function mutations in any of the collagen IX genes can cause autosomal recessive Stickler syndrome. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.


Kochhar A.,Mayo Medical School | Kirmani S.,Mayo Medical School | Cetta F.,Mayo Medical School | Younge B.,Mayo Medical School | And 2 more authors.
American Journal of Medical Genetics, Part A | Year: 2013

The acromelic dysplasias comprise short stature, hands and feet, and stiff joints. Three disorders are ascribed to this group, namely Weill-Marchesani syndrome, geleophysic dysplasia, and acromicric dysplasia, although similar in phenotype, can be distinguished clinically. Weill-Marchesani syndrome, on the basis of microspherophakia and ectopia lentis; geleophysic dysplasia by progressive cardiac valvular thickening, tracheal stenosis, and/or bronchopulmonary insufficiency, often leading to early death. Microspherophakia has not been reported previously in geleophysic dysplasia. Mutations in FBN1, ADAMTS10, or ADAMTS17 cause Weill-Marchesani syndrome by disrupting the microfibrillar environment, while geleophysic dysplasia is associated with enhanced TGF-β signaling mediated through mutations in FBN1 or ADAMTSL2. We studied a 35-year-old woman with geleophysic dysplasia, with short stature, small hands and feet, limitation of joint mobility, mild skin thickening, cardiac valvular disease, restrictive pulmonary disease, and microspherophakia. Sequencing of ADAMTSL2 demonstrated two changes: IVS8-2A>G consistent with a disease-causing mutation, and IVS14-7G>A with potential to generate a new splice acceptor site and result in aberrant mRNA processing. The unaffected mother carries only the IVS8-2A>G transition providing evidence that the two changes are in trans-configuration in our patient. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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