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Kochhar A.,Mayo Medical School | Kirmani S.,Mayo Medical School | Cetta F.,Mayo Medical School | Younge B.,Mayo Medical School | And 2 more authors.
American Journal of Medical Genetics, Part A | Year: 2013

The acromelic dysplasias comprise short stature, hands and feet, and stiff joints. Three disorders are ascribed to this group, namely Weill-Marchesani syndrome, geleophysic dysplasia, and acromicric dysplasia, although similar in phenotype, can be distinguished clinically. Weill-Marchesani syndrome, on the basis of microspherophakia and ectopia lentis; geleophysic dysplasia by progressive cardiac valvular thickening, tracheal stenosis, and/or bronchopulmonary insufficiency, often leading to early death. Microspherophakia has not been reported previously in geleophysic dysplasia. Mutations in FBN1, ADAMTS10, or ADAMTS17 cause Weill-Marchesani syndrome by disrupting the microfibrillar environment, while geleophysic dysplasia is associated with enhanced TGF-β signaling mediated through mutations in FBN1 or ADAMTSL2. We studied a 35-year-old woman with geleophysic dysplasia, with short stature, small hands and feet, limitation of joint mobility, mild skin thickening, cardiac valvular disease, restrictive pulmonary disease, and microspherophakia. Sequencing of ADAMTSL2 demonstrated two changes: IVS8-2A>G consistent with a disease-causing mutation, and IVS14-7G>A with potential to generate a new splice acceptor site and result in aberrant mRNA processing. The unaffected mother carries only the IVS8-2A>G transition providing evidence that the two changes are in trans-configuration in our patient. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

Tompson S.W.,University of California at Los Angeles | Tompson S.W.,Cedars Sinai Medical Center | Faqeih E.A.,King Fahad Medical Center | Ala-Kokko L.,Connective Tissue Gene Tests | And 11 more authors.
American Journal of Medical Genetics, Part A | Year: 2012

Fibrochondrogenesis is a severe, recessively inherited skeletal dysplasia shown to result from mutations in the gene encoding the proα1(XI) chain of type XI collagen, COL11A1. The first of two cases reported here was the affected offspring of first cousins and sequence analysis excluded mutations in COL11A1. Consequently, whole-genome SNP genotyping was performed to identify blocks of homozygosity, identical-by-descent, wherein the disease locus would reside. COL11A1 was not within a region of homozygosity, further excluding it as the disease locus, but the gene encoding the proα2(XI) chain of type XI collagen, COL11A2, was located within a large region of homozygosity. Sequence analysis identified homozygosity for a splice donor mutation in intron 18. Exon trapping demonstrated that the mutation resulted in skipping of exon 18 and predicted deletion of 18 amino acids from the triple helical domain of the protein. In the second case, heterozygosity for a de novo 9bp deletion in exon 40 of COL11A2 was identified, indicating that there are autosomal dominant forms of fibrochondrogenesis. These findings thus demonstrate that fibrochondrogenesis can result from either recessively or dominantly inherited mutations in COL11A2. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

Regalado E.S.,University of Houston | Guo D.-C.,University of Houston | Prakash S.,University of Houston | Bensend T.A.,University of Houston | And 24 more authors.
Circulation: Cardiovascular Genetics | Year: 2015

Background - ACTA2 mutations are the major cause of familial thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections. We sought to characterize these aortic diseases in a large case series of individuals with ACTA2 mutations. Methods and Results - Aortic disease, management, and outcome associated with the first aortic event (aortic dissection or aneurysm repair) were abstracted from the medical records of 277 individuals with 41 various ACTA2 mutations. Aortic events occurred in 48% of these individuals, with the vast majority presenting with thoracic aortic dissections (88%) associated with 25% mortality. Type A dissections were more common than type B dissections (54% versus 21%), but the median age of onset of type B dissections was significantly younger than type A dissections (27 years versus 36 years). Only 12% of aortic events were repair of ascending aortic aneurysms, which variably involved the aortic root, ascending aorta, and aortic arch. Overall, cumulative risk of an aortic event at age 85 years was 0.76 (95% confidence interval, 0.64-0.86). After adjustment for intrafamilial correlation, sex and race, mutations disrupting p.R179 and p.R258 were associated with significantly increased risk for aortic events, whereas p.R185Q and p.R118Q mutations showed significantly lower risk of aortic events compared with other mutations. Conclusions - ACTA2 mutations are associated with high risk of presentation with an acute aortic dissection. The lifetime risk for an aortic event is only 76%, suggesting that additional environmental or genetic factors play a role in expression of aortic disease in individuals with ACTA2 mutations. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc. Source

Tompson S.W.,Cedars Sinai Medical Center | Bacino C.A.,Baylor College of Medicine | Safina N.P.,Childrens Hospital of the Kings Daughters | Bober M.B.,DuPont Company | And 12 more authors.
American Journal of Human Genetics | Year: 2010

Fibrochondrogenesis is a severe, autosomal-recessive, short-limbed skeletal dysplasia. In a single case of fibrochondrogenesis, whole-genome SNP genotyping identified unknown ancestral consanguinity by detecting three autozygous regions. Because of the predominantly skeletal nature of the phenotype, the 389 genes localized to the autozygous intervals were prioritized for mutation analysis by correlation of their expression with known cartilage-selective genes via the UCLA Gene Expression Tool, UGET. The gene encoding the α1 chain of type XI collagen (COL11A1) was the only cartilage-selective gene among the three candidate intervals. Sequence analysis of COL11A1 in two genetically independent fibrochondrogenesis cases demonstrated that each was a compound heterozygote for a loss-of-function mutation on one allele and a mutation predicting substitution for a conserved triple-helical glycine residue on the other. The parents who were carriers of missense mutations had myopia. Early-onset hearing loss was noted in both parents who carried a loss-of-function allele, suggesting COL11A1 as a locus for mild, dominantly inherited hearing loss. These findings identify COL11A1 as a locus for fibrochondrogenesis and indicate that there might be phenotypic manifestations among carriers. © 2010 The American Society of Human Genetics. All rights reserved. Source

Jobling R.,University of Toronto | D'Souza R.,University of Toronto | Baker N.,Murdoch Childrens Research Institute | Lara-Corrales I.,University of Toronto | And 5 more authors.
Current Rheumatology Reports | Year: 2014

Genetic defects of collagen formation (the collagenopathies) affect almost every organ system and tissue in the body. They can be grouped by clinical phenotype, which usually correlates with the tissue distribution of the affected collagen subtype. Many of these conditions present in childhood; however, milder phenotypes presenting in adulthood are increasingly recognized. Many are difficult to differentiate clinically. Precise diagnosis by means of genetic testing assists in providing prognosis information, family counseling, and individualized treatment. This review provides an overview of the current range of clinical presentations associated with collagen defects, and the molecular mechanisms important to understanding how the results of genetic testing affect medical care. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source

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