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Cardiff, United Kingdom

Chen J.,Xian Jiaotong University | Luo M.,Xian Jiaotong University | Wang W.,Xian Jiaotong University | Zhang Z.,Xian Jiaotong University | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Orthopaedic Research | Year: 2015

Kashin-Beck disease (KBD) is a chronic, deforming endemic osteoarticular disease with altered metabolism of the cartilage matrix. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), aggrecanases (ATAMTSs), and their inhibitors (TIMPs) play important roles in cartilage formation and matrix degradation. This study investigated these proteases and inhibitors in young KBD cartilage. The percentages of chondrocytes staining for MMP-1/-13 and MMP-generated DIPEN neoepitope, aggrecanase-generated ITEGE neoepitope in aggrecan in KBD patients were significantly higher than in controls. However, TIMP-1 was significantly less numerous than in controls in the superficial and middle zones of KBD samples, the percentage of chondrocytes staining for the TIMP-2 was significantly higher than in controls. Staining for MMP-1/-13 and, TIMP-1/-2 in KBD patients was prominent in the superficial zone and the middle zoneof articular cartilage. Staining for ITEGE and DIPEN neoepitopes in KBD samples was prominent in the superficial zone and the middle zone of articular cartilage. The strongest staining for the MMP and aggrecanase-generated neoepitopes was adjacent to areas of chondronecrosis. These results indicated that KBD cartilage destruction depends on collagen- and aggrecan-degrading proteases such as collagenases (MMP-1/-13), as well as aggrecanases. Increased TIMP-2 level adjacent to necrotic areas suggest that attempted repair mechanism are also activated. © 2014 Orthopaedic Research Society.

Edwards G.O.,Connective Tissue Biology Laboratories | Terence Coakley W.,Connective Tissue Biology Laboratories | Ralphs J.R.,Connective Tissue Biology Laboratories | Archer C.W.,Connective Tissue Biology Laboratories
European Cells and Materials | Year: 2010

Chick wing bud mesenchymal cell micromass culture allows the study of a variety of developmental mechanisms, ranging from cell adhesion to pattern formation. However, many cells remain in contact with an artificial substratum, which can influence cytoskeletal organisation and differentiation. An ultrasound standing wave trap facilitates the rapid formation of 2-D monolayer cell aggregates with a defined zero time-point, independent from contact with a surface. Aggregates formed rapidly (within 2 min) and intercellular membrane spreading occurred at points of contact. This was associated with an increase in peripheral F-actin within 10 min of cell-cell contact and aggregates had obtained physical integrity by 30 min. The chondrogenic transcription factor Sox9 could be detected in cells in the ultrasound trap within 3 h (ultrasound exposure alone was not responsible for this effect). This approach facilitates the study of the initial cell-cell interactions that occur during condensation formation and demonstrates that a combination of cell shape and cytoskeletal organisation is required for the initiation and maintenance of a differentiated phenotype, which is lost when these phenomena are influenced by contact with an artificial substrate.

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