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Drenowatz C.,University of South Carolina | Gribben N.,University of South Carolina | Wirth M.D.,University of South Carolina | Wirth M.D.,Connecting Health Innovations, Llc | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Obesity | Year: 2016

Physical activity (PA) is a key contributor in long-term weight management but there remains limited research on the association between weekly PA patterns and weight change. The purpose of the present study was to examine the prospective association between weekly PA patterns and weight change in generally healthy young adults. Anthropometric measurements, including dual X-ray absorptiometry, were obtained every 3 months over a period of one year in 338 adults (53% male). At each measurement time, participants wore a multisensor device for a minimum of 10 days to determine total daily energy expenditure and time spent sleeping, sedentary, in light PA (LPA), in moderate PA (MPA), and in vigorous PA (VPA). PA did not differ between weekdays and the weekend at baseline. Twenty-four-hour sleep time, however, was significantly longer during weekends compared to weekdays, which was associated with less time spent sedentary. Weight loss was associated with a significant increase in LPA at the expense of sedentary time during the weekend but not during weekdays. Regression analyses further revealed an inverse association between change in VPA during the weekend and body composition at 12-month follow-up. Taken together, these results suggest that weekend PA plays an important role in long-term weight management. © 2016 Clemens Drenowatz et al. Source

Agency: Department of Health and Human Services | Branch: National Institutes of Health | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 1.46M | Year: 2015

DESCRIPTION provided by applicant A large persuasive and ever increasing body of evidence links chronic inflammation to virtually all of the chronic diseases that cause the majority of disability and death in the U S including diabetes cardiovascular diseases CVD and cancer Diet plays a central role in the regulation of chronic inflammation However until we developed the dietary inflammatory index DII there had been no scientifically valid way to relate what individuals eat to the capacity of foods consumed to modulate inflammation The new generation DII has now produced an impressive research base that ranges from predicting blood levels of inflammatory markers to clinical conditions associated with inflammation to a variety of health related endpoints including cancer incidence and mortality Connecting Health Innovations CHI and our scientific and clinical research partners at the University of South Carolina are committed to translating these research findings to places of clinical need andPUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE Although we know both that chronic systemic inflammation is linked to virtually all of the chronic diseases that cause the majority of disability and death in he U S and that diet plays a central role in the regulation of chronic inflammation there is virtualy no data linking all three factors With our development of the dietary inflammatory index DII we have been able to fill this void The work proposed here will allow us to translate an impressive body of evidence based results linking diet inflammation and health related endpoints to places of clinical need and public health relevance

Panagos P.G.,Floating Hospital for Children at Tufts Medical Center | Vishwanathan R.,Tufts University | Penfield-Cyr A.,Brigham and Womens Hospital | Matthan N.R.,Tufts University | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Perinatology | Year: 2016

Objective: To determine the impact of maternal obesity on breastmilk composition. Study Design: Breastmilk and food records from 21 lean and 21 obese women who delivered full-term infants were analyzed at 2 months post-partum. Infant growth and adiposity were measured at birth and 2 months of age. Result: Breastmilk from obese mothers had higher omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acid ratio and lower concentrations of docosahexaenoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, docasapentaenoic acid and lutein compared with lean mothers (P<0.05), which were strongly associated with maternal body mass index. Breastmilk saturated fatty acid and monounsaturated fatty acid concentrations were positively associated with maternal dietary inflammation, as measured by dietary inflammatory index. There were no differences in infant growth measurements. Conclusion: Breastmilk from obese mothers has a pro-inflammatory fatty acid profile and decreased concentrations of fatty acids and carotenoids that have been shown to have a critical role in early visual and neurodevelopment. Studies are needed to determine the link between these early-life influences and subsequent cardiometabolic and neurodevelopmental outcomes. © 2016 Nature America, Inc. Source

Babatunde O.A.,University of South Carolina | Adams S.A.,University of South Carolina | Eberth J.M.,University of South Carolina | Wirth M.D.,University of South Carolina | And 4 more authors.
Cancer Causes and Control | Year: 2016

Purpose: Endometrial cancer (EC) exhibits striking racial disparities with higher mortality in Blacks compared to Whites. The mortality-to-incidence ratio (MIR) provides a population-based measure of survival which accounts for incidence. The objective of this study was to map EC MIRs by race for eight health regions within South Carolina (SC) and chart EC incidence by race and grade across the four cancer stages. Methods: Cancer incidence and mortality data were obtained from the SC Community Access Network (SCAN), the online data query system provided by the SC Department of Health and Environmental Control (DHEC). The underlying data for SCAN were generated from the SC Central Cancer Registry and SC DHEC Vital Records and used to construct MIRs. ArcGIS 10.1 was used to map EC MIRs by race for eight health regions within SC. Four categories of MIR were derived using the national MIR for EC among Whites as the reference category. Results: Blacks had higher levels of poorly differentiated tumors across all stages and higher incidence and mortality rates. In all eight health regions, Blacks were in the highest MIR category. By contrast, the MIRs for Whites were more evenly represented over the four categories. Conclusions: The MIR proved useful for identifying disparities in EC incidence and mortality among Black and White women in SC. Cancer surveillance programs may use the MIR to monitor disparities across racial/ethnic groups and geographic regions going forward. MIRs have the potential to serve as an indicator of the long-term success of cancer surveillance programs. © 2016, Springer International Publishing Switzerland. Source

Shivappa N.,University of South Carolina | Shivappa N.,Connecting Health Innovations, Llc | Hebert J.R.,University of South Carolina | Hebert J.R.,Connecting Health Innovations, Llc | And 3 more authors.
Cancer Causes and Control | Year: 2016

Background: Besides tobacco and alcohol, diet and inflammation have been suggested to be important risk factors for laryngeal cancer. In this study, we examined the role of diet-associated inflammation, as estimated by dietary inflammatory index (DII) scores, in laryngeal cancer in a multicentre case–control study conducted between 1992 and 2000 in Italy. Methods: This study included 460 cases with incident, histologically confirmed laryngeal cancer, and 1,088 controls hospitalized for acute non-neoplastic diseases unrelated to tobacco and alcohol consumption. DII scores were computed from a reproducible and valid 78-item food-frequency questionnaire. Logistic regression models controlling for age, sex, study center, education, body mass index, tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, and non-alcohol energy intake were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and the corresponding 95 % confidence intervals (CIs). Results: Subjects with higher DII scores (i.e., with a more pro-inflammatory diet) had a higher risk of laryngeal cancer. The OR was 3.30 (95 % CI 2.06, 5.28; p for trend <0.0001) for the highest versus the lowest DII quartile. When DII was considered as a continuous variable, the OR was 1.27 (95 % CI 1.15, 1.40) for a one-unit (9 % of the DII range) increase. Stratified analyses produced slightly stronger associations between DII and laryngeal cancer risk among Subjects <60 years old (ORquartile4vs1 = 4.68), overweight subjects (ORQuartile4vs1 = 3.62), and among those with higher education (ORQuartile4vs1 = 3.92). We also observed a strong combined effect of higher DII and tobacco smoking or alcohol consumption on risk of laryngeal cancer. Compared with non-smokers having low DII scores, the OR was 6.64 for smokers with high DII scores. Likewise, compared with non/moderate drinkers with low DII, the OR was 5.82 for heavy drinkers with high DII. Conclusion: These results indicate that a pro-inflammatory diet is associated with increased risk of laryngeal cancer. © 2016, Springer International Publishing Switzerland. Source

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