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PubMed | Connecting Health Innovations, Llc, French National Institute for Agricultural Research and French National Conservatory of Arts and Crafts
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The American journal of clinical nutrition | Year: 2016

Chronic inflammation is a central mechanism involved in cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes, and chronic respiratory diseases, 4 leading causes of mortality. Diet is a major source of pro- and anti-inflammatory bioactive compounds. The Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) was designed to estimate the overall inflammatory potential of the diet.Our aim was to study the prospective association between the DII and mortality, as well as assess whether antioxidant supplementation could modulate this association.The Supplmentation en Vitamines et Minraux Antioxydants study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in which participants received low-dose antioxidants or a placebo from 1994 to 2002. In this observational prospective analysis, 8089 participants (mean SD age at baseline: 49.0 6.3 y) were followed between 1994 and 2007 (median: 12.4 y). The DII was calculated from repeated 24-h dietary records; higher scores correspond to more proinflammatory diets. A total of 207 deaths occurred during follow-up, including 123 due to cancer and 41 due to cardiovascular events. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were computed.Sex-specific tertiles of the DII were positively associated with cardiovascular + cancer mortality (HR for tertile 3 compared with tertile 1 = 1.53; 95% CI: 1.01, 2.32; P-trend = 0.05) and specific cancer mortality (HR for tertile 3 compared with tertile 1 = 1.83; 95% CI: 1.12, 2.99; P-trend = 0.02). The corresponding P value was 0.07 for all-cause mortality. The DII was statistically significantly associated with increased all-cause mortality in the placebo group (HR for tertile 3 compared with tertile 1 = 2.10; 95% CI: 1.15, 3.84; P-trend = 0.02) but not in the antioxidant-supplemented group (P-trend = 0.8; P-interaction = 0.098).These results suggest that a proinflammatory diet is associated with increased all-cause and cancer mortality and antioxidants may counteract some of the proinflammatory effects of the diet. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00272428.


PubMed | University of Catania, Instituto Nazionale Tumori, Connecting Health Innovations, Llc, Italian National Cancer Institute and University of Milan
Type: | Journal: Urology | Year: 2016

To evaluate the association between diet in relation to its inflammatory property and bladder cancer (BC) risk.In this study we explored the association between the dietary inflammatory index (DII) and BC risk in an Italian case-control study conducted between 2003 and 2014. Cases were 690 patients with incident and histologically confirmed BC from 4 areas in Italy. Controls were 665 cancer-free subjects admitted to the same network of hospitals as cases for a wide spectrum of acute, non-neoplastic conditions. The DII was computed based on dietary intake assessed using a reproducible and valid 80-item food frequency questionnaire. Odds ratios (OR) were estimated through logistic regression models adjusting for age, sex, total energy intake, and other recognized confounding factors.Subjects in the highest quartile of DII scores (ie, with a more pro-inflammatory diet) had a higher risk of BC compared to subjects in the lowest quartile (ie, with an anti-inflammatory diet) (ORA pro-inflammatory diet as indicated by higher DII scores is associated with increased BC risk.


Grant
Agency: Department of Health and Human Services | Branch: National Institutes of Health | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 1.46M | Year: 2015

DESCRIPTION provided by applicant A large persuasive and ever increasing body of evidence links chronic inflammation to virtually all of the chronic diseases that cause the majority of disability and death in the U S including diabetes cardiovascular diseases CVD and cancer Diet plays a central role in the regulation of chronic inflammation However until we developed the dietary inflammatory index DII there had been no scientifically valid way to relate what individuals eat to the capacity of foods consumed to modulate inflammation The new generation DII has now produced an impressive research base that ranges from predicting blood levels of inflammatory markers to clinical conditions associated with inflammation to a variety of health related endpoints including cancer incidence and mortality Connecting Health Innovations CHI and our scientific and clinical research partners at the University of South Carolina are committed to translating these research findings to places of clinical need andPUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE Although we know both that chronic systemic inflammation is linked to virtually all of the chronic diseases that cause the majority of disability and death in he U S and that diet plays a central role in the regulation of chronic inflammation there is virtualy no data linking all three factors With our development of the dietary inflammatory index DII we have been able to fill this void The work proposed here will allow us to translate an impressive body of evidence based results linking diet inflammation and health related endpoints to places of clinical need and public health relevance


Grant
Agency: Department of Health and Human Services | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 304.34K | Year: 2014

DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): A large, persuasive, and ever-increasing body of evidence links chronic inflammation to virtually all of the chronic diseases that cause the majority of disability and death in the U.S., including diabetes, cardiovascular diseases (CVD), and cancer. Diet plays a central role in the regulation of chronic inflammation. However, until we developed the dietary inflammatory index (DII) there had been no scientifically valid way to relate what individuals eat to the capacity of foods consumed to modulate inflammation. The new generation DII has now produced an impressive research base that ranges from predicting blood levels of inflammatory markers, to clinical conditions associated with inflammation, to a variety of health-related endpoints including cancer incidence and mortality. Connecting Health Innovations (CHI) and our scientific and clinical research partners at the University of South Carolina are committed to translating these research findings to places of clinic


Grant
Agency: Department of Agriculture | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 99.79K | Year: 2016

Through this proposal we offer a literature-derived, population-based dietary inflammatory index (C-DII) developed to characterize children diets on a scale from maximally anti- to pro-inflammatory. Diet is a strong moderator of chronic systemic inflammation. This C-DII will be used as a basis to:• Direct school lunch programs towards foods that will reduce inflammatrion-associated health risks, such as obesity, while maintaining current school lunch program budgetary limitations. Anti-inflammatory diets include more options and thus may entail adding, not taking away, key food ingredients that reduce inflammation. Even a slight modification to a recipe may have a large impact on the inflammatory effects of a food item.• Develop and deliver food products that reduce inflammation. The team will work to identify a few key additional food items such as snack bars that taste great and reduce inflammation.• Help parents and children choose great-tasting, nutrient-dense and affordable foods that reduce obesity and inflammation.Dietary inflammation is at the heart of every major chronic health condition. Through diet, these conditions are completely preventable and reversible. School lunch programs are the largest single place where children obtain food. Addressing dietary inflammation within school cafeterias will create the largest potential impact on kids across our nation.The DII has been proven and documented as successful in adults. This SBIR proposal will modify a heavily researched and proven index for children.


PubMed | Iowa State University, Connecting Health Innovations, Llc, West Virginia University and University of South Carolina
Type: | Journal: Journal of obesity | Year: 2016

Physical activity (PA) is a key contributor in long-term weight management but there remains limited research on the association between weekly PA patterns and weight change. The purpose of the present study was to examine the prospective association between weekly PA patterns and weight change in generally healthy young adults. Anthropometric measurements, including dual X-ray absorptiometry, were obtained every 3 months over a period of one year in 338 adults (53% male). At each measurement time, participants wore a multisensor device for a minimum of 10 days to determine total daily energy expenditure and time spent sleeping, sedentary, in light PA (LPA), in moderate PA (MPA), and in vigorous PA (VPA). PA did not differ between weekdays and the weekend at baseline. Twenty-four-hour sleep time, however, was significantly longer during weekends compared to weekdays, which was associated with less time spent sedentary. Weight loss was associated with a significant increase in LPA at the expense of sedentary time during the weekend but not during weekdays. Regression analyses further revealed an inverse association between change in VPA during the weekend and body composition at 12-month follow-up. Taken together, these results suggest that weekend PA plays an important role in long-term weight management.


PubMed | Center of Oncology of Poland, Wroclaw Medical University, Connecting Health Innovations, Llc and University of South Carolina
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Nutrition research (New York, N.Y.) | Year: 2016

Inflammation due to poor diet may contribute to the development of metabolic syndrome (MetSyn). The Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) was created to characterize diet on a scale from anti- to pro-inflammatory. Our hypothesis was that higher (i.e., more pro-inflammatory) DII scores are associated with an increased prevalence of MetSyn compared to those with lower (i.e., more anti-inflammatory) DII scores. Data from the Polish-Norwegian (PONS) Study were analyzed using logistic and linear regression procedures in SAS (version 9.4). Comparisons of interest were between the first and fourth DII quartiles; analyses were stratified by sex. Mean waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and diastolic blood pressure were greater among those in DII quartile 4 compared to 1. No statistically significantly increased MetSyn risks were observed for DII quartile 4 among men or women. Men in DII quartile 4 had elevated odds of fulfilling the waist component of MetSyn (odds ratio=1.65, 95% confidence interval=1.01-2.69). Although this study benefited from the DII and large sample sizes for both men and women, its cross-sectional nature and use of self-reported data may limit interpretation of results. Further work must be done in longitudinal studies to understand whether pro-inflammatory diets are associated with an increased risk of MetSyn, its components or other metabolic-related conditions. Additionally, further examination of the DII in relation to body habitus will be needed to understand the role of pro-inflammatory diets on anthropometrics, as observed in this study.


PubMed | University of Paris 13 and Connecting Health Innovations, Llc
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of the American Heart Association | Year: 2016

Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the leading cause of death in the world, and diet plays a major role in CVD incidence, especially through lipid oxidation mechanisms. This, in turn, leads to tissue inflammation and formation of atheromatous plaques.Our objective was to evaluate the association between the inflammatory potential of the diet and the incidence of overall CVD or its subclasses. We included 7743 participants from the Supplmentation en Vitamines et Minraux AntioXydants (SU.VI.MAX) cohort. All cardiovascular events were recorded using self-reported information or clinical visits, and were validated. The dietary inflammatory index (DII) was computed using repeated 24-hour dietary records (mean=9.53.4 records/subject). Hazard ratio and 95% CI for outcomes (CVD and subclasses) were estimated across sex-specific quartiles of the DII using Cox proportional hazard models. A total of 292 cardiovascular events were recorded and validated during an average of 11.4years of follow-up: 93 myocardial infarctions, 58 strokes, 128 angina pectoris and revascularization interventions, and 13 sudden deaths. When considering CVD subclasses, a diet with pro-inflammatory properties, as expressed by higher DII scores, was significantly associated with a higher risk of myocardial infarction (hazard ratioQuartile 4 versus Quartile 1=2.24, 95% CI: 1.08-4.67). No significant association was observed between the DII score and stroke or both angina pectoris and revascularization intervention.A pro-inflammatory diet, as measured by a higher DII score, was prospectively associated with a higher risk of myocardial infarction. Promotion of a diet exhibiting anti-inflammatory properties may help prevent myocardial infarctions.


PubMed | Iowa State University, Connecting Health Innovations, Llc, West Virginia University and University of South Carolina
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Nutrition research (New York, N.Y.) | Year: 2016

Dietary components are important determinants of systemic inflammation, a risk factor for most chronic diseases. The Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) was developed to assess dietary inflammatory potential. It was hypothesized that anti-inflammatory DII scores would be associated with healthier scores on other dietary indices. The Energy Balance Study is an observational study focusing on energy intake and expenditure in young adults; only baseline data were used for this analysis (n=430). The DII, as well as the Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010), the Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI), and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension Index (DASH) were calculated based on one to three 24-hour dietary recalls. General linear models were used to estimate least square means of the AHEI, HEI-2010, and DASH according to DII quartiles. Those with higher (ie, more proinflammatory) DII scores were more likely to be males, have less than a completed college education, and be younger. In addition, those with higher scores for cognitive restraint for eating or drive for thinness had lower (ie, anti-inflammatory) DII scores. Linear regression analyses indicated that as the DII increased, the AHEI, HEI-2010, and DASH dietary indices decreased (ie, became more unhealthy, all P<.01). The DII is a novel tool that characterizes the inflammatory potential of diet and is grounded in the peer-reviewed literature on diet and inflammation. Findings from the Energy Balance Study indicate that the DII is associated with other dietary indices, but has the added advantage of specifically measuring dietary inflammatory potential, a risk factor for chronic disease.


PubMed | Connecting Health Innovations, Llc and University of South Carolina
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Nutrition research (New York, N.Y.) | Year: 2016

Inflammation is a key contributor to the development or recurrence of circulatory disorders. Diet is a strong modifier of inflammation. It was hypothesized that more pro-inflammatory diets, as indicated by higher Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) scores, would be associated with self-reported previously diagnosed circulatory disorders using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data. This analysis included NHANES respondents from 2005-2010 (n = 15,693). The DII was calculated from micro and macronutrients derived from a single 24-hour recall. Logistic regression, stratified by sex and adjusted for important covariates, was used to determine the odds of previous circulatory disorder diagnoses by quartile of DII scores. Excluding hypertension, which had a prevalence of 30%, the prevalence of any circulatory disorder was 8%. Those in DII quartile 4 were 1.30 (95%CI = 1.06-1.58) times more likely to have a previous circulatory disorder (excluding hypertension) compared to those in DII quartile 1. Similar findings were observed for specific CVDs including congestive heart failure, stroke, and heart attack. Participants in DII quartile 4 were more likely to have a diagnosis of hypertension compared to those in DII quartile 1 (prevalence odds ratio = 1.19, 95%CI = 1.05-1.34). Results tended to be stronger among females. Individuals with a previous circulatory disorder diagnosis from NHANES appear to have more pro-inflammatory diets compared to those without a previous diagnosis. Because inflammation is an important factor related to recurrence of circulatory disorders, the DII could be used in treatment programs to monitor dietary modulators of inflammation among individuals with these conditions.

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