New Haven, CT, United States
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Farley M.M.,Emory University | Reingold A.L.,University of California at Berkeley | Hadler J.,Connecticut Emerging Infections Program | Schaffner W.,Vanderbilt University | And 2 more authors.
AIDS | Year: 2010

Objective: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and AIDS increase the risk of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). We evaluated IPD among HIV-infected adults over a 10-year period in the US to identify opportunities for prevention of IPD among HIV-infected adults. Design: IPD and HIV surveillance in seven population-based and laboratory-based Active Bacterial Core surveillance areas. Methods: IPD cases were adults 18-64 years old with pneumococcus isolated from a normally sterile site during 1998-2007. Isolates were serotyped using the Quellung reaction. HIV/AIDS status was determined by medical record review. We calculated incidence of IPD among adults with AIDS using national case-based surveillance data. Results: Of 13 812 IPD cases among 18-64-year-olds, 3236 (23%) occurred among HIV-infected adults (with or without AIDS) and 1313 (10%) occurred among the subset of HIV-infected adults with AIDS. Compared with the period (1998-1999) before childhood 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) introduction in the US, the overall incidence of IPD among adults with AIDS decreased 25% from 399 to 298 cases per 100 000 by 2007 (P = 0.008). In 2006-2007, 8, 39 and 55% of IPD cases among adults with AIDS were caused by serotypes included in the 7-valent PCV, 13-valent PCV and 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccines, respectively. Conclusion: Sustained declines in IPD have occurred among adults with AIDS in the US, but incidence remained high 7 years after PCV7 introduction. More aggressive efforts, including HIV-prevention measures and the use of new PCVs in children and possibly HIV-infected adults, are necessary to further reduce IPD among HIV-infected adults. © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


Gould L.H.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Mody R.K.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Ong K.L.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Clogher P.,Connecticut Emerging Infections Program | And 8 more authors.
Foodborne Pathogens and Disease | Year: 2013

Background: Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are an important cause of diarrhea and the major cause of postdiarrheal hemolytic uremic syndrome. Non-O157 STEC infections are being recognized with greater frequency because of changing laboratory practices. Methods: Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) site staff conducted active, population-based surveillance for laboratory-confirmed STEC infections. We assessed frequency and incidence of STEC infections by serogroup and examined and compared demographic factors, clinical characteristics, and frequency of international travel among patients. Results: During 2000-2010, FoodNet sites reported 2006 cases of non-O157 STEC infection and 5688 cases of O157 STEC infections. The number of reported non-O157 STEC infections increased from an incidence of 0.12 per 100,000 population in 2000 to 0.95 per 100,000 in 2010; while the rate of O157 STEC infections decreased from 2.17 to 0.95 per 100,000. Among non-O157 STEC, six serogroups were most commonly reported: O26 (26%), O103 (22%), O111 (19%), O121 (6%), O45 (5%), and O145 (4%). Non-O157 STEC infections were more common among Hispanics, and infections were less severe than those caused by O157 STEC, but this varied by serogroup. Fewer non-O157 STEC infections were associated with outbreaks (7% versus 20% for O157), while more were associated with international travel (14% versus 3% for O157). Conclusions: Improved understanding of the epidemiologic features of non-O157 STEC infections can inform food safety and other prevention efforts. To detect both O157 and non-O157 STEC infections, clinical laboratories should routinely and simultaneously test all stool specimens submitted for diagnosis of acute community-acquired diarrhea for O157 STEC and for Shiga toxin and ensure that isolates are sent to a public health laboratory for serotyping and subtyping. © Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.


Hale C.R.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Lathrop S.,University of New Mexico | Tobin-D'Angelo M.,Georgia community health | Clogher P.,Connecticut Emerging Infections Program
Clinical Infectious Diseases | Year: 2012

Background.Contact with animals and their environment is an important, and often preventable, route of transmission for enteric pathogens. This study estimated the annual burden of illness attributable to animal contact for 7 groups of pathogens: Campylobacter species, Cryptosporidium species, Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157, STEC non-O157, Listeria monocytogenes, nontyphoidal Salmonella species, and Yersinia enterocolitica.Methods.By using data from the US Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network and other sources, we estimated the proportion of illnesses attributable to animal contact for each pathogen and applied those proportions to the estimated annual number of illnesses, hospitalizations, and deaths among US residents. We established credible intervals (CrIs) for each estimate.Results.We estimated that 14% of all illnesses caused by these 7 groups of pathogens were attributable to animal contact. This estimate translates to 445 213 (90% CrI, 234 197-774 839) illnesses annually for the 7 groups combined. Campylobacter species caused an estimated 187 481 illnesses annually (90% CrI, 66 259-372 359), followed by nontyphoidal Salmonella species (127 155; 90% CrI, 66 502-219 886) and Cryptosporidium species (113 344; 90% CrI, 22 570-299 243). Of an estimated 4933 hospitalizations (90% CrI, 2704-7914), the majority were attributable to nontyphoidal Salmonella (48%), Campylobacter (38%), and Cryptosporidium (8%) species. Nontyphoidal Salmonella (62%), Campylobacter (22%), and Cryptosporidium (9%) were also responsible for the majority of the estimated 76 deaths (90% CrI, 5-211).Conclusions.Animal contact is an important transmission route for multiple major enteric pathogens. Continued efforts are needed to prevent pathogen transmission from animals to humans, including increasing awareness and encouraging hand hygiene. © 2012 The Author.


Kattan J.A.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Cadwell B.L.,Laboratory Services | Hadler J.L.,Connecticut Emerging Infections Program
American Journal of Public Health | Year: 2014

Objectives: We examined socioeconomic status (SES) disparities and the influence of state Immunization Action Plan-funded vaccination coordinators located in low-SES areas of Connecticut on childhood vaccination up-to-date (UTD) status at age 24 months. Methods: We examined predictors of underimmunization among the 2006 birth cohort (n= 34 568) in the state's Immunization Information System, including individual demographic and SES data, census tract SES data, and residence in an area with a vaccination coordinator. We conducted multilevel logistic regression analyses. Results: Overall, 81% of children were UTD. Differences by race/ethnicity and census tract SES were typically under 5%. Not being UTD at age 7 months was the strongest predictor of underimmunization at age 24 months. Among children who were not UTD at age 7 months, only Medicaid enrollment (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.6; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.5, 0.7) and residence in an area with a vaccination coordinator (AOR = 0.7; 95% CI = 0.6, 0.9) significantly decreased the odds of subsequent underimmunization. Conclusions: SES disparities associated with underimmunization at age 24 months were limited. Efforts focused on vaccinating infants born in low SES circumstances can minimize disparities.


Kattan J.A.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Hadler J.L.,Connecticut Emerging Infections Program
Journal of Infectious Diseases | Year: 2011

In 2006, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommended that children routinely receive 2 varicella vaccine doses in place of the 1 dose previously recommended. This recommendation's initial impact on varicella epidemiology in Connecticut was assessed. Reported incidence and case-specific data were compared for 2005 and 2008. Varicella incidence decreased from 48.7 cases/100,000 persons in 2005 to 24.5 in 2008. Age-specific incidence decreased significantly (P< .05) among children aged 1-14 years. Reported varicella incidence has declined in Connecticut after implementation of routine 2-dose varicella vaccination for children. Continued surveillance is needed to determine the recommendation's full impact.


PubMed | Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Oregon Health Authority, University of Rochester, University of New Mexico and 3 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Open forum infectious diseases | Year: 2015

Background. Antibiotic use predisposes patients to Clostridium difficile infections (CDI), and approximately 32% of these infections are community-associated (CA) CDI. The population-level impact of antibiotic use on adult CA-CDI rates is not well described. Methods. We used 2011 active population- and laboratory-based surveillance data from 9 US geographic locations to identify adult CA-CDI cases, defined as C difficile-positive stool specimens (by toxin or molecular assay) collected from outpatients or from patients 3 days after hospital admission. All patients were surveillance area residents and aged 20 years with no positive test 8 weeks prior and no overnight stay in a healthcare facility 12 weeks prior. Outpatient oral antibiotic prescriptions dispensed in 2010 were obtained from the IMS Health Xponent database. Regression models examined the association between outpatient antibiotic prescribing and adult CA-CDI rates. Methods. Healthcare providers prescribed 5.2 million courses of antibiotics among adults in the surveillance population in 2010, for an average of 0.73 per person. Across surveillance sites, antibiotic prescription rates (0.50-0.88 prescriptions per capita) and unadjusted CA-CDI rates (40.7-139.3 cases per 100 000 persons) varied. In regression modeling, reducing antibiotic prescribing rates by 10% among persons 20 years old was associated with a 17% (95% confidence interval, 6.0%-26.3%; P = .032) decrease in CA-CDI rates after adjusting for age, gender, race, and type of diagnostic assay. Reductions in prescribing penicillins and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid were associated with the greatest decreases in CA-CDI rates. Conclusions and Relevance. Community-associated CDI prevention should include reducing unnecessary outpatient antibiotic use. A modest reduction of 10% in outpatient antibiotic prescribing can have a disproportionate impact on reducing CA-CDI rates.


PubMed | Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Connecticut Emerging Infections Program, Oregon Public Health Division and New York State Emerging Infections Program
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Journal of pediatrics | Year: 2015

To assess the clinical spectrum of postdiarrheal hemolytic uremic syndrome (D(+)HUS) hospitalizations and sought predictors of in-hospital death to help identify children at risk of poor outcomes.We assessed clinical variables collected through population-based surveillance of D(+)HUS in children <18 years old hospitalized in 10 states during 1997-2012 as predictors of in-hospital death by using tree modeling.We identified 770 cases. Of children with information available, 56.5% (430 of 761) required dialysis, 92.6% (698 of 754) required a transfusion, and 2.9% (22 of 770) died; few had a persistent dialysis requirement (52 [7.3%] of 716) at discharge. The tree model partitioned children into 5 groups on the basis of 3 predictors (highest leukocyte count and lowest hematocrit value during the 7 days before to 3 days after the diagnosis of hemolytic uremic syndrome, and presence of respiratory tract infection [RTI] within 3 weeks before diagnosis). Patients with greater leukocyte or hematocrit values or a recent RTI had a greater probability of in-hospital death. The largest group identified (n = 533) had none of these factors and had the lowest odds of death. Many children with RTI had recent antibiotic treatment for nondiarrheal indications.Most children with D(+)HUS have good hospitalization outcomes. Our findings support previous reports of increased leukocyte count and hematocrit as predictors of death. Recent RTI could be an additional predictor, or a marker of other factors such as antibiotic exposure, that may warrant further study.


PubMed | Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Connecticut Emerging Infections Program
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Open forum infectious diseases | Year: 2015

Background. Varicella is a highly contagious vaccine-preventable illness. In 1996, the Advisory Committee for Immunization Practices recommended 1 dose of vaccine for children, and in 2006 it recommended 2 doses; Connecticut required 1 dose for school entry in 2000 and 2 doses for school entry starting in 2011. Connecticut varicella incidence overall and among persons aged 1-14 years declined during 2005-2008. We analyzed varicella surveillance data for 2009-2014 to characterize overall and age group-specific trends in the setting of the 2-dose requirement. Methods. Passive surveillance was used to collect data and identify incidence trends and changes in proportions, and these were assessed by (2) tests for trend and proportion, respectively. Results. Varicella incidence decreased from 13.8 cases/100 000 persons during 2009 to 5.1 cases/100 000 persons during 2014 (P < .001); significant declines in incidence occurred among children aged 1-4, 5-9, and 10-14 years (P < .01 for each age group). Cases classified as preventable decreased from 44% during 2009 to 25% during 2014 (P < .01); significant declines in percentages of preventable cases occurred only among those aged 5-9 years (P < .05) and 10-14 (P < .01) years. Conclusions. Varicella incidence continued to decline in Connecticut in the setting of the 2-dose school-entry program. Continued surveillance is needed to assess the full influence of the 2-dose recommendation.


Patrick M.E.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Mahon B.E.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Zansky S.M.,New York State Department of Health | Hurd S.,Connecticut Emerging Infections Program | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Food Protection | Year: 2010

Riding in a shopping cart next to raw meat or poultry is a risk factor for Salmonella and Campylobacter infections in infants. To describe the frequency of, and factors associated with, this behavior, we surveyed parents of children aged younger than 3 years in Foodbome Disease Active Surveillance Network sites. We defined exposure as answering yes to one of a series of questions asking if packages of raw meat or poultry were near a child in a shopping cart, or if a child was in the cart basket at the same time as was raw meat or poultry. Among 1,273 respondents, 767 (60%) reported that their children visited a grocery store in the past week and rode in shopping carts. Among these children, 103 (13%) were exposed to raw products. Children who rode in the baskets were more likely to be exposed than were those who rode only in the seats (odds ratio [OR], 17.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 11.0 to 28,9), In a multivariate model, riding in the basket (OR, 15,5; 95% CI, 9.2 to 26.1), income less than $55,000 (OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.0 to 3.1), and Hispanic ethnicity (OR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.2 to 4.5) were associated with exposure. Our study shows that children can be exposed to raw meat and poultry products while riding in shopping carts. Parents should separate children from raw products and place children in the seats rather than in the baskets of the cart. Retailer use of leak-proof packaging, customer placement of product in a plastic bag and on the rack underneath the cart, use of hand sanitizers and wipes, and consumer education may also be helpfuL.


Hall R.L.,LifeSource Biomedical LLC | Hall R.L.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Jones J.L.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Hurd S.,Connecticut Emerging Infections Program | And 3 more authors.
Clinical Infectious Diseases | Year: 2012

Background.Cyclosporiasis is an enteric disease caused by the parasite Cyclospora cayetanensis. Since the mid-1990s, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has been notified of cases through various reporting and surveillance mechanisms.Methods.We summarized data regarding laboratory-confirmed cases of Cyclospora infection reported during 1997-2009 via the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet), which gradually expanded to include 10 sites (Connecticut, Georgia, Maryland, Minnesota, New Mexico, Oregon, Tennessee, and selected counties in California, Colorado, and New York) that represent approximately 15% of the US population. Since 2004, the number of sites has remained constant and data on the international travel history and outbreak status of cases have been collected.Results.A total of 370 cases were reported, 70.3% (260) of which were in residents of Connecticut (134 [36.2%]) and Georgia (126 [34.1%]), which on average during this 13-year period accounted for 29.0% of the total FoodNet population under surveillance. Positive stool specimens were collected in all months of the year, with a peak in June and July (208 cases [56.2%]). Approximately half (48.6%) of the 185 cases reported during 2004-2009 were associated with international travel, known outbreaks, or both.Conclusions.The reported cases were concentrated in time (spring and summer) and place (2 of 10 sites). The extent to which the geographic concentration reflects higher rates of testing, more sensitive testing methods, or higher exposure/infection rates is unknown. Clinicians should include Cyclospora infection in the differential diagnosis of prolonged or relapsing diarrheal illness and explicitly request stool examinations for this parasite. © 2012 The Author.

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