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Ruiz-Sanchez E.,Conkal Institute of Technology | O'Donnell M.J.,McMaster University
Current Opinion in Insect Science | Year: 2015

The insect excretory system plays essential roles in osmoregulation, ionoregulation and toxin elimination. Understanding the mechanisms of fluid and ion transport by the epithelial cells of the excretory system provides a foundation for development of novel pest management strategies. In the present review, we focus on two such strategies: first, impairment of osmoregulation by manipulation of diuretic or antidiuretic signaling pathways and second, interference with toxin elimination by inhibition of toxin transport systems. ©Elsevier Inc.All rights reserved.

Gonzalez-Moreno A.,Conkal Institute of Technology | Bordera S.,University of Alicante | Delfin-Gonzalez H.,Autonomous University of Yucatan
Journal of Insect Conservation | Year: 2015

Currently efforts for conservation have been globally increasing, with the declaration of Protected Natural Areas. However, these efforts are usually focused on mammal, bird or plant species, but there is a considerable lack of data in regard to insect fauna in most of the world’s reserves. In order to redress the balance, the aim of this work was to assess spatial and temporal diversity of Cryptinae, one of the most species-rich subfamily of hymenopteran parasitoids, in a Protected Natural Area in Mexico. The sampling program was conducted using Malaise traps, which were functioning throughout 2008–2009, in three vegetation types of Ría Lagartos Biosfere Reserve (Mexico). A total of 108 species were found. Rarefaction showed that there are no differences in species richness between vegetation types, but there are significant seasonal changes, being most specious in the rainy season. Regarding abundance, this was significantly affected by vegetation and season. Related to community structure, Agonocryptus chichimecus, Camera euryaspis, and Acerastesmyartsevae were the dominating species in the assemblages. Dry forest and rainy season showed highest diversity and evenness. β-Diversity between vegetation types and season was high; the complementarity value reaches 82.4 and 77.7 % respectively. Spatial and temporal diversity partitions show that diversity had more changes related to vegetation types than to seasons. Diversity was strongly influenced by β-diversity between vegetation types and by β-diversity among months and among seasons, with a contribution to the total species richness with 49.4, 19.4 and 14.5 %, respectively. © 2015, Springer International Publishing Switzerland.

Andueza-Noh R.H.,Conkal Institute of Technology | Martinez-Castillo J.,Research Center Cientifica Of Yucatan | Chacon-Sanchez M.I.,National University of Colombia
Genetica | Year: 2015

Previous studies have suggested that the Mesoamerican small-seeded landraces of Lima bean may have been domesticated more than once in Mesoamerica, once in central-western Mexico and another one in an area between Guatemala and Costa Rica. However, these findings were based on sequencing of only one locus from nuclear DNA, and additional confirmation was needed. Here we contribute with additional data on the origin of the Mesoamerican landraces and document the founder effect due to domestication. We characterized 62 domesticated, 87 wild and six weedy Lima bean accessions with ten microsatellite loci. Genetic relationships were analyzed using genetic distances and Bayesian clustering approaches. Domestication bottlenecks were documented using inter-population comparisons and M ratios. The results support at least one domestication event in the area of distribution of gene pool MI in central-western Mexico and also show that some landraces are genetically related to wild accessions of gene pool MII. Also, our data support founder effects due to domestication in Mesoamerican Lima bean landraces. Although we could not establish more specifically the place of origin of the Mesoamerican Lima bean landraces, our results show that these are not a genetically homogeneous group, a finding that may be compatible with a scenario of more than one domestication event accompanied by gene flow. The complex genetic makeup of landraces that we found indicates that a more comprehensive geographic and genomic sampling is needed in order to establish how domestication processes and gene flow have shaped the current genetic structure of landraces. © 2015, Springer International Publishing Switzerland.

Quezada-Euan J.J.G.,Autonomous University of Yucatan | Lopez-Velasco A.,Autonomous University of Yucatan | Perez-Balam J.,Autonomous University of Yucatan | Moo-Valle H.,Autonomous University of Yucatan | And 2 more authors.
Insectes Sociaux | Year: 2011

Although variation in body size has been recently reported in stingless bees (Meliponini), empirical evidence evaluating possible factors related to such variation is lacking, and thus it is not clear if it may have an adaptive significance. We evaluated if variation in the body size and weight of workers of stingless bees fluctuates across a seasonal pattern and if this could be related to characteristics of the food consumed during the larval stage. The weight of larval provisions, their protein, and sugar content were evaluated in four colonies of Nannotrigona perilampoides every 2 months across 1 year. Worker-destined larvae from the same combs were allowed to develop and were sampled as callow workers to determine their weight and size using morphometric data. The weight and size of workers were highly correlated and varied across the seasons in established colonies, suggesting that size variation cycles across the year in stingless bees. An increase in the protein content and, to a lesser degree, the quantity of larval food were positively linked to variation in body weight and size; food with richer protein content resulted in larger and heavier workers. This study provides the first evidence of an effect of the quantity and composition of larval food on the size of workers in stingless bees. Although body weight and size of workers differed across seasons, they were not readily noticeable as changes seem to occur as a continuum across the year. Since size polymorphism was of a larger magnitude across time but not within age cohorts and as it was highly determined by food resources, it may not be an adaptive feature in stingless bees. However, more studies are needed to determine the role of the cyclical change in worker body size on colony performance and thus its adaptive significance in stingless bees. © 2010 International Union for the Study of Social Insects (IUSSI).

Bordera S.,University of Alicante | Gonzalez-Moreno A.,Conkal Institute of Technology
Canadian Entomologist | Year: 2015

The New World fauna of the genus Oxytorus Förster, 1869 (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) comprises 11 species, two of them, O. bahiensis new species and O. sinopae new species, both from eastern Brazil, are described as new. New data about distribution and variation of several species are reported. Oxytorus peruvianus Alvarado, Bordera, and Rodríguez-Berrío, 2011 is reported for the first time from Brazil and Ecuador, and O. alfredi Gauld and Mallet, 2000 from Guatemala, Mexico, and Trinidad and Tobago. An illustrated key to the New World species of Oxytorus is provided. © Entomological Society of Canada 2014.

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