Trends in Plant Science | Year: 2011
Plants have sophisticated defense systems to protect their tissues against the attack of herbivorous organisms. Many of these defenses are orchestrated by the oxylipin jasmonate. A growing body of evidence indicates that the expression of jasmonate-induced responses is tightly regulated by the ecological context of the plant. Ecological information is provided by molecular signals that indicate the nature of the attacker, the value of the attacked organs, phytochrome status and thereby proximity of competing plants, association with beneficial organisms and history of plant interactions with pathogens and herbivores. This review discusses recent advances in this field and highlights the need to map the activities of informational modulators to specific control points within our emerging model of jasmonate signaling. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source
Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History | Year: 2014
A phylogenetic analysis of the two-clawed spiders grouped in Dionycha is presented, with 166 representative species of 49 araneomorph families, scored for 393 characters documented through standardized imaging protocols. The study includes 44 outgroup representatives of the main clades of Araneomorphae, and a revision of the main morphological character systems. Novel terminology is proposed for stereotyped structures on the chelicerae, and the main types of setae and silk spigots are reviewed, summarizing their characteristics. Clear homologs of posterior book lungs are described for early instars of Filistatidae, and a novel type of respiratory structure, the epigastric median tracheae, is described for some terminals probably related with Anyphaenidae or Eutichuridae. A new type of crypsis mechanism is described for a clade of thomisids, which in addition to retaining soil particles, grow fungi on their cuticle. Generalized patterns of cheliceral setae and macrosetae are proposed as synapomorphies of the Divided Cribellum and RTA clades. Dionycha is here proposed as a member of the Oval Calamistrum clade among the lycosoid lineages, and Liocranoides, with three claws and claw tufts, is obtained as a plausible sister group of the dionychan lineage. The morphology of the claw tuft and scopula is examined in detail and scored for 14 characters highly informative for relationships. A kind of seta intermediate between tenent and plumose setae (the pseudotenent type) is found in several spider families, more often reconstructed as a derivation from true tenent setae rather than as a phylogenetic intermediate. Corinnidae is retrieved in a restricted sense, including only the subfamilies Corinninae and Castianeirinae, while the "corinnid" genera retaining the median apophysis in the copulatory bulb are not clearly affiliated to any of the established families. Miturgidae is redefined, including Zoridae as a junior synonym. The Eutichuridae is raised to family status, as well as the Trachelidae and Phrurolithidae. New synapomorphies are provided for Sparassidae, Philodromidae, and Trachelidae. Philodromidae is presented as a plausible sister group of Salticidae, and these sister to Thomisidae; an alternative resolution placing thomisids in Lycosoidea is also examined. The Oblique Median Tapetum (OMT) clade is proposed for a large group of families including gnaphosoids, trachelids, liocranids, and phrurolithids, all having the posterior median eye tapeta forming a 90° angle, used for navigation by means of the polarized light in the sky as an optical compass; prodidomines seem to have further enhanced the mechanism by incorporating the posterior lateral eyes to the system. The Teutamus group is recognized for members of the OMT clade that are usually included in Liocranidae, but not closely related to Liocranum or phrurolithids. The Claw Tuft Clasper (CTC) clade is proposed for a group of families within the OMT clade, all having a peculiar mechanism grasping the folded base of the claw tuft setae with a hook on the superior claws. The CTC clade includes Trachelidae, Phrurolithidae, and several gnaphosoids such as Ammoxenidae, Cithaeronidae, Gnaphosidae, and Prodidomidae. A remarkable syndrome involving the expansion of the anterior lateral spinnerets, often sexually dimorphic, is here reported for some Miturgidae and several members of the CTC clade, in addition to the known cases in Clubionidae and "Liocranidae." The following genera are transferred from Miturgidae to Eutichuridae: Calamoneta, Calamopus, Cheiracanthium, Cheiramiona, Ericaella, Eutichurus, Macerio, Radulphius, Strotarchus, Summacanthium, and Tecution; Lessertina is transferred from Corinnidae to Eutichuridae. The following genera are transferred to Miturgidae: Argoctenus, Elassoctenus, Hestimodema, Hoedillus, Israzorides, Odomasta, Simonus, Thasyraea, Tuxoctenus, Voraptus, Xenoctenus, Zora, and Zoroides, from Zoridae; Odo and Paravulsor, from Ctenidae; Pseudoceto from Corinnidae. The following genera are transferred from Corinnidae to Trachelidae: Afroceto, Cetonana, Fuchiba, Fuchibotulus, Meriola, Metatrachelas, Paccius, Paratrachelas, Patelloceto, Planochelas, Poachelas, Spinotrachelas, Thysanina, Trachelas, Trachelopachys, and Utivarachna. The following genera are transferred from Corinnidae to Phrurolithidae: Abdosetae, Drassinella, Liophrurillus, Plynnon, Orthobula, Otacilia, Phonotimpus, Phrurolinillus, Phrurolithus, Phruronellus, Phrurotimpus, Piabuna, and Scotinella. Dorymetaecus is transferred from Clubionidae to Phrurolithidae. Oedignatha and Koppe are transferred from Corinnidae to Liocranidae. Ciniflella is transferred from Amaurobiidae to Tengellidae. ©2014 American Museum of Natural History. Source
Compositions, Kits, And Methods For The Diagnosis, Prognosis, Monitoring, Treatment And Modulation Of Post-Transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorders And Hypoxia Associated Angiogenesis Disorders Using Galectin-1
Brigham, Women's Hospital, Conicet and Fundacion Sales | Date: 2015-01-16
The present invention is based, in part, on the discovery that galectin-1 (Gal1) plays a role in viral-associated PTLD, e.g., EBV-associated PTLD and hypoxia associated angiogenesis disorders. Accordingly, the invention relates to compositions, kits, and method for diagnosing, prognosing, monitoring, treating and modulating viral-associated PTLD, e.g., EBV-associated PTLD and hypoxia associated angiogenesis disorders.
Conicet and Inis Biotech Llc | Date: 2014-03-14
The present disclosure provides engineered microorganisms, engineered biosynthetic pathways, methods of producing lipid compounds using genetically engineered microorganisms, and the products synthesized by those organisms. In particular, the disclosure provides genetically engineered microorganisms for the production of multi-methyl branched fatty acids (MMBFAs) and MMBFA esters (wax esters) derived from these fatty acids. In addition, the disclosure provides methods for producing acylglycerols with one of more of their acyl substituents being an MMBFA, and methods for producing alcohols derived from MMBFAs (fatty alcohols).
Ypf Sociedad Anonima and Conicet | Date: 2014-06-11
A method and apparatus is provided for detecting and identifying faults in a process having a set of sensors, each of which produces an associated sensor output signal. The method and apparatus extracts the qualitative trend of each variable after detecting an abnormal situation. The set of variable trends constitutes the fault signature which can be compared to a previously generated signature database.