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Conicet, National University of Costa Rica and Plant Bioscience Ltd | Date: 2015-04-30

A polynucleotide having at least 80% sequence identity with the fill-length nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1 and substantially identical polynucleotides; an isolated polypeptide having at least 80% sequence identity with the full-length amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO: 2 and substantially identical polypeptides; and polynucleotides encoding the Ha WRKY76 polypeptide and substantially identical polypeptides are described. Also described are vectors and recombinant expression cassettes containing the c DNA polynucleotide, a polynucleotide encoding the Ha WRKY76 polypeptide, or substantially identical polynucleotides. Transgenic plants containing such expression cassettes, related methods and uses are also provided.

News Article | May 10, 2017
Site: phys.org

An image of the Crab Nebula, a supernova remnant that was assembled by combining data from five telescopes spanning nearly the entire breadth of the electromagnetic spectrum: the Very Large Array, the Spitzer Space Telescope, the Hubble Space Telescope, the XMM-Newton Observatory, and the Chandra X-ray Observatory. Credit: NASA, ESA, NRAO/AUI/NSF and G. Dubner (University of Buenos Aires) Astronomers have produced a highly detailed image of the Crab Nebula, by combining data from telescopes spanning nearly the entire breadth of the electromagnetic spectrum, from radio waves seen by the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) to the powerful X-ray glow as seen by the orbiting Chandra X-ray Observatory. And, in between that range of wavelengths, the Hubble Space Telescope's crisp visible-light view, and the infrared perspective of the Spitzer Space Telescope. The Crab Nebula, the result of a bright supernova explosion seen by Chinese and other astronomers in the year 1054, is 6,500 light-years from Earth. At its center is a super-dense neutron star, rotating once every 33 milliseconds, shooting out rotating lighthouse-like beams of radio waves and light—a pulsar (the bright dot at image center). The nebula's intricate shape is caused by a complex interplay of the pulsar, a fast-moving wind of particles coming from the pulsar, and material originally ejected by the supernova explosion and by the star itself before the explosion. This image combines data from five different telescopes: The VLA (radio) in red; Spitzer Space Telescope (infrared) in yellow; Hubble Space Telescope (visible) in green; XMM-Newton (ultraviolet) in blue; and Chandra X-ray Observatory (X-ray) in purple. The new VLA, Hubble, and Chandra observations all were made at nearly the same time in November of 2012. A team of scientists led by Gloria Dubner of the Institute of Astronomy and Physics (IAFE), the National Council of Scientific Research (CONICET), and the University of Buenos Aires in Argentina then made a thorough analysis of the newly revealed details in a quest to gain new insights into the complex physics of the object. They are reporting their findings in the Astrophysical Journal. "Comparing these new images, made at different wavelengths, is providing us with a wealth of new detail about the Crab Nebula. Though the Crab has been studied extensively for years, we still have much to learn about it," Dubner said.

News Article | April 17, 2017
Site: cerncourier.com

Fluorescence is rare in land animals, being largely limited to parrots and marine turtles. Now, for the first time, it has been found in a frog. Carlos Taboada of CONICET in Buenos Aires and colleagues studied South American polka-dot tree frogs (Hypsiboas punctuatus) collected near Santa Fe in Argentina. The colours of these frogs are normally a combination of muted greens, yellows and reds, but in dim light and UV illumination they glow bright blue and green. This is genuine fluorescence, not the more common bioluminescence in which organisms make their own light. The fluorescent molecules are unlike those in any other animals, being derived from dihydroisoquinoline. In twilight or night-time conditions, the fluorescence contributes 18–29% of the total emerging light, enhancing a creature’s visibility, particularly for amphibians, but the reasons for the fluorescence are still not known.

French National Center for Scientific Research and Conicet | Date: 2017-07-26

The present invention concerns a composition comprising at least three peptides derived from Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigen Rv2626c, its use in the diagnostic of latently infected Mycobacterium tuberculosis (LTBI) subjects, corresponding methods of use and kits.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: SFS-14a-2014 | Award Amount: 5.35M | Year: 2016

The OLEUM project will generate innovative, more effective and harmonized analytical solutions to detect and fight the most common and emerging frauds and to verify the overall quality of olive oils (OOs). By a core group of 20 partners from 15 countries OLEUM will undertake RESEARCH ACTIVITIES based on the development of IMPROVED and NEW ANALYTICAL METHODS by targeted and omics approaches with the aim: i) to detect new markers of the soft deodorization process; ii) to discover illegal blends between OOs and other vegetable oils; iii) to control OO quality (e.g. freshness); iv) to improve the organoleptic assessment with a Quantitative Panel Test, based on current official methods, and supported by tailored reference materials for better calibration of the sensory panels coupled with rapid screening tools to facilitate the work of the panelists. The most promising OLEUM solutions will be subjected to VALIDATION in conformity with internationally agreed standards by peer laboratories. OLEUM will recreate a realistic deodorization scenario by producing tailored, soft deodorized OOs by lab-scale and up-scaled pilot plants to apply analytical solutions to known samples. Substantial KNOWLEDGE and TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER activities will be envisaged to aid in implementation of: a) a web-based easily-accessible, scalable and constantly updated OLEUM DATABANK, containing all the information from OLEUM research and other reliable international sources, will be available for download data and spectra and to help achieve satisfactory harmonization of analytical approaches among control laboratories; b) the OLEUM NETWORK of relevant OOs stakeholders to maximize the impact of proposed analytical solutions. Finally, a robust dissemination strategy by the OLEUM project aimed at effectively sharing results with all stakeholders in the OO supply chain has the potential to improve consumer and market confidence, and preserve the image of OOs on a global scale.

Ballare C.L.,CONICET
Annual Review of Plant Biology | Year: 2014

Precise allocation of limited resources between growth and defense is critical for plant survival. In shade-intolerant species, perception of competition signals by informational photoreceptors activates shade-avoidance responses and reduces the expression of defenses against pathogens and insects. The main mechanism underlying defense suppression is the simultaneous downregulation of jasmonate and salicylic acid signaling by low ratios of red:far-red radiation. Inactivation of phytochrome B by low red:far-red ratios appears to suppress jasmonate responses by altering the balance between DELLA and JASMONATE ZIM DOMAIN (JAZ) proteins in favor of the latter. Solar UVB radiation is a positive modulator of plant defense, signaling through jasmonate-dependent and jasmonate-independent pathways. Light, perceived by phytochrome B and presumably other photoreceptors, helps plants concentrate their defensive arsenals in photosynthetically valuable leaves. The discovery of connections between photoreceptors and defense signaling is revealing novel mechanisms that control key resource allocation decisions in plant canopies. Copyright © 2014 by Annual Reviews.

Ballare C.L.,CONICET
Trends in Plant Science | Year: 2011

Plants have sophisticated defense systems to protect their tissues against the attack of herbivorous organisms. Many of these defenses are orchestrated by the oxylipin jasmonate. A growing body of evidence indicates that the expression of jasmonate-induced responses is tightly regulated by the ecological context of the plant. Ecological information is provided by molecular signals that indicate the nature of the attacker, the value of the attacked organs, phytochrome status and thereby proximity of competing plants, association with beneficial organisms and history of plant interactions with pathogens and herbivores. This review discusses recent advances in this field and highlights the need to map the activities of informational modulators to specific control points within our emerging model of jasmonate signaling. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Golombek D.A.,CONICET | Rosenstein R.E.,University of Buenos Aires
Physiological Reviews | Year: 2010

Mammalian circadian rhythms are controlled by endogenous biological oscillators, including a master clock located in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN). Since the period of this oscillation is of ∼24 h, to keep synchrony with the environment, circadian rhythms need to be entrained daily by means of Zeitgeber ("time giver") signals, such as the light-dark cycle. Recent advances in the neurophysiology and molecular biology of circadian rhythmicity allow a better understanding of synchronization. In this review we cover several aspects of the mechanisms for photic entrainment of mammalian circadian rhythms, including retinal sensitivity to light by means of novel photopigments as well as circadian variations in the retina that contribute to the regulation of retinal physiology. Downstream from the retina, we examine retinohypothalamic communication through neurotransmitter (glutamate, aspartate, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide) interaction with SCN receptors and the resulting signal transduction pathways in suprachiasmatic neurons, as well as putative neuron-glia interactions. Finally, we describe and analyze clock gene expression and its importance in entrainment mechanisms, as well as circadian disorders or retinal diseases related to entrainment deficits, including experimental and clinical treatments. Copyright © 2010 the American Physiological Society.

Ramirez M.J.,CONICET
Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History | Year: 2014

A phylogenetic analysis of the two-clawed spiders grouped in Dionycha is presented, with 166 representative species of 49 araneomorph families, scored for 393 characters documented through standardized imaging protocols. The study includes 44 outgroup representatives of the main clades of Araneomorphae, and a revision of the main morphological character systems. Novel terminology is proposed for stereotyped structures on the chelicerae, and the main types of setae and silk spigots are reviewed, summarizing their characteristics. Clear homologs of posterior book lungs are described for early instars of Filistatidae, and a novel type of respiratory structure, the epigastric median tracheae, is described for some terminals probably related with Anyphaenidae or Eutichuridae. A new type of crypsis mechanism is described for a clade of thomisids, which in addition to retaining soil particles, grow fungi on their cuticle. Generalized patterns of cheliceral setae and macrosetae are proposed as synapomorphies of the Divided Cribellum and RTA clades. Dionycha is here proposed as a member of the Oval Calamistrum clade among the lycosoid lineages, and Liocranoides, with three claws and claw tufts, is obtained as a plausible sister group of the dionychan lineage. The morphology of the claw tuft and scopula is examined in detail and scored for 14 characters highly informative for relationships. A kind of seta intermediate between tenent and plumose setae (the pseudotenent type) is found in several spider families, more often reconstructed as a derivation from true tenent setae rather than as a phylogenetic intermediate. Corinnidae is retrieved in a restricted sense, including only the subfamilies Corinninae and Castianeirinae, while the "corinnid" genera retaining the median apophysis in the copulatory bulb are not clearly affiliated to any of the established families. Miturgidae is redefined, including Zoridae as a junior synonym. The Eutichuridae is raised to family status, as well as the Trachelidae and Phrurolithidae. New synapomorphies are provided for Sparassidae, Philodromidae, and Trachelidae. Philodromidae is presented as a plausible sister group of Salticidae, and these sister to Thomisidae; an alternative resolution placing thomisids in Lycosoidea is also examined. The Oblique Median Tapetum (OMT) clade is proposed for a large group of families including gnaphosoids, trachelids, liocranids, and phrurolithids, all having the posterior median eye tapeta forming a 90° angle, used for navigation by means of the polarized light in the sky as an optical compass; prodidomines seem to have further enhanced the mechanism by incorporating the posterior lateral eyes to the system. The Teutamus group is recognized for members of the OMT clade that are usually included in Liocranidae, but not closely related to Liocranum or phrurolithids. The Claw Tuft Clasper (CTC) clade is proposed for a group of families within the OMT clade, all having a peculiar mechanism grasping the folded base of the claw tuft setae with a hook on the superior claws. The CTC clade includes Trachelidae, Phrurolithidae, and several gnaphosoids such as Ammoxenidae, Cithaeronidae, Gnaphosidae, and Prodidomidae. A remarkable syndrome involving the expansion of the anterior lateral spinnerets, often sexually dimorphic, is here reported for some Miturgidae and several members of the CTC clade, in addition to the known cases in Clubionidae and "Liocranidae." The following genera are transferred from Miturgidae to Eutichuridae: Calamoneta, Calamopus, Cheiracanthium, Cheiramiona, Ericaella, Eutichurus, Macerio, Radulphius, Strotarchus, Summacanthium, and Tecution; Lessertina is transferred from Corinnidae to Eutichuridae. The following genera are transferred to Miturgidae: Argoctenus, Elassoctenus, Hestimodema, Hoedillus, Israzorides, Odomasta, Simonus, Thasyraea, Tuxoctenus, Voraptus, Xenoctenus, Zora, and Zoroides, from Zoridae; Odo and Paravulsor, from Ctenidae; Pseudoceto from Corinnidae. The following genera are transferred from Corinnidae to Trachelidae: Afroceto, Cetonana, Fuchiba, Fuchibotulus, Meriola, Metatrachelas, Paccius, Paratrachelas, Patelloceto, Planochelas, Poachelas, Spinotrachelas, Thysanina, Trachelas, Trachelopachys, and Utivarachna. The following genera are transferred from Corinnidae to Phrurolithidae: Abdosetae, Drassinella, Liophrurillus, Plynnon, Orthobula, Otacilia, Phonotimpus, Phrurolinillus, Phrurolithus, Phruronellus, Phrurotimpus, Piabuna, and Scotinella. Dorymetaecus is transferred from Clubionidae to Phrurolithidae. Oedignatha and Koppe are transferred from Corinnidae to Liocranidae. Ciniflella is transferred from Amaurobiidae to Tengellidae. ©2014 American Museum of Natural History.

Casal J.J.,University of Buenos Aires | Casal J.J.,CONICET
Annual Review of Plant Biology | Year: 2013

The dynamic light environment of vegetation canopies is perceived by phytochromes, cryptochromes, phototropins, and UV RESISTANCE LOCUS 8 (UVR8). These receptors control avoidance responses to preclude exposure to limiting or excessive light and acclimation responses to cope with conditions that cannot be avoided. The low red/far-red ratios of shade light reduce phytochrome B activity, which allows PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTORS (PIFs) to directly activate the transcription of auxin-synthesis genes, leading to shade-avoidance responses. Direct PIF interaction with DELLA proteins links gibberellin and brassinosteroid signaling to shade avoidance. Shade avoidance also requires CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENESIS 1 (COP1), a target of cryptochromes, phytochromes, and UVR8. Multiple regulatory loops and the input of the circadian clock create a complex network able to respond even to subtle threats of competition with neighbors while still compensating for major environmental fluctuations such as the day-night cycles. © Copyright ©2013 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

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