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Moser M.L.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | Jackson A.D.,Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation | Lucas M.C.,Durham University | Mueller R.P.,Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries | Year: 2014

Upon metamorphosis, anadromous juvenile lamprey (macrophthalmia) exhibit distinct migration behaviors that take them from larval rearing habitats in streams to the open ocean. While poorly studied, lamprey larvae (ammocoetes) also engage in downstream movement to some degree. Like migrating salmon smolts, lamprey macrophthalmia undergo behavioral changes associated with a highly synchronized metamorphosis. Unlike salmon smolts, the timing of juvenile migration in lamprey is protracted and poorly documented. Lamprey macrophthalmia and ammocoetes are not strong swimmers, attaining maximum individual speeds of less than 1 m s−1, and sustained speeds of less than 0.5 m s−1. They are chiefly nocturnal and distribute throughout the water column, but appear to concentrate near the bottom in the thalweg of deep rivers. At dams and irrigation diversions, macrophthalmia can become impinged on screens or entrained in irrigation canals, suffer increased predation, and experience physical injury that may result in direct or delayed mortality. The very structures designed to protect migrating juvenile salmonids can be harmful to juvenile lamprey. Yet at turbine intakes and spillways, lampreys, which have no swim bladder, can withstand changes in pressure and shear stress large enough to injure or kill most teleosts. Lamprey populations are in decline in many parts of the world, with some species designated as species of concern for conservation that merit legally mandated protections. Hence, provisions for safe passage of juvenile lamprey are being considered at dams and water diversions in North America and Europe. © 2014, Springer International Publishing Switzerland (outside the USA).

Ranco D.J.,University of Maine, United States | O'Neill C.A.,Seattle University | Donatuto J.,Swinomish Indian Tribal Community | Harper B.L.,Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation
Environmental Justice | Year: 2011

Environmental justice in the tribal context cannot be contemplated apart from a recognition of American Indian tribes' unique historical, political, and legal circumstances. American Indian tribes are sovereign governments, with inherent powers of self-government over their citizens and their territories. Their status as sovereign entities predates contact with European settlers. This separate status, nonetheless, was affirmed by the United States early on and is enshrined in the U.S. Constitution. Tribes today continue to exist as distinct sovereigns within the boundaries of the United States. © Copyright 2011, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

Mock K.E.,Utah State University | Brim Box J.C.,Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation | Chong J.P.,Utah State University | Furnish J.,U.S. Forest Service Pacific Southwest Region | Howard J.K.,Nature Conservancy
Molecular Ecology | Year: 2013

We investigate population genetic structuring in Margaritifera falcata, a freshwater mussel native to western North America, across the majority of its geographical range. We find shallow rangewide genetic structure, strong population-level structuring and very low population diversity in this species, using both mitochondrial sequence and nuclear microsatellite data. We contrast these patterns with previous findings in another freshwater mussel species group (Anodonta californiensis/A. nuttalliana) occupying the same continental region and many of the same watersheds. We conclude that differences are likely caused by contrasting life history attributes between genera, particularly host fish requirements and hermaphroditism. Further, we demonstrate the occurrence of a 'hotspot' for genetic diversity in both groups of mussels, occurring in the vicinity of the lower Columbia River drainage. We suggest that stream hierarchy may be responsible for this pattern and may produce similar patterns in other widespread freshwater species. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Black B.A.,University of Texas at Austin | Dunham J.B.,U.S. Geological Survey | Blundon B.W.,Bureau of Land Management | Brim-Box J.,Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation | Tepley A.J.,University of Colorado at Boulder
Global Change Biology | Year: 2015

Analyses of how organisms are likely to respond to a changing climate have focused largely on the direct effects of warming temperatures, though changes in other variables may also be important, particularly the amount and timing of precipitation. Here, we develop a network of eight growth-increment width chronologies for freshwater mussel species in the Pacific Northwest, United States and integrate them with tree-ring data to evaluate how terrestrial and aquatic indicators respond to hydroclimatic variability, including river discharge and precipitation. Annual discharge averaged across water years (October 1-September 30) was highly synchronous among river systems and imparted a coherent pattern among mussel chronologies. The leading principal component of the five longest mussel chronologies (1982-2003; PC1mussel) accounted for 47% of the dataset variability and negatively correlated with the leading principal component of river discharge (PC1discharge; r = -0.88; P < 0.0001). PC1mussel and PC1discharge were closely linked to regional wintertime precipitation patterns across the Pacific Northwest, the season in which the vast majority of annual precipitation arrives. Mussel growth was also indirectly related to tree radial growth, though the nature of the relationships varied across the landscape. Negative correlations occurred in forests where tree growth tends to be limited by drought while positive correlations occurred in forests where tree growth tends to be limited by deep or lingering snowpack. Overall, this diverse assemblage of chronologies illustrates the importance of winter precipitation to terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems and suggests that a complexity of climate responses must be considered when estimating the biological impacts of climate variability and change. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Ward D.L.,HDR | Clemens B.J.,Oregon State University | Clugston D.,U.S. Army | Jackson A.D.,Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation | And 3 more authors.
Fisheries | Year: 2012

The Pacific lamprey (Entosphenus tridentatus) is in decline in the Columbia River Basin, and translocating adult lamprey to bypass difficult migration corridors has been implemented since 2000. We describe and report results from two current translocation programs, provide context for use of translocation, and discuss potential benefits, risks, and uncertainties. Both translocation programs appear to have increased the number of spawning adults and the presence of larvae and juveniles; however, any subsequent increase in naturally spawning adults will require at least one, and likely more, generations to be realized. It was seen that the number of adults entering the Umatilla River increased beginning four years after the first translocations. Potential benefits of translocation programs are increased pheromone production by ammocoetes to attract adults, increased lamprey distribution and abundance in target areas, increased marine-derived nutrients, and promotion of tribal culture. Potential risks include disruption of population structure and associated genetic adaptations, disease transmission, and depletion of donor stocks.

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