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Fu X.,Tianjin University | Zhang G.,Tianjin University | Liu R.,Tianjin University | Wei J.,Tianjin University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling | Year: 2016

The glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) belongs to the major facilitator superfamily (MFS) and is responsible for the constant uptake of glucose. However, the molecular mechanism of sugar transport remains obscure. In this study, homology modeling and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in lipid bilayers were performed to investigate the combination of the alternate and multisite transport mechanism of glucose with GLUT1 in atomic detail. To explore the substrate recognition mechanism, the outward-open state human GLUT1 homology model was generated based on the template of xylose transporter XylE (PDB ID: 4GBZ), which shares up to 29% sequence identity and 49% similarity with GLUT1. Through the MD simulation study of glucose across lipid bilayer with both the outward-open GLUT1 and the GLUT1 inward-open crystal structure, we investigated six different conformational states and identified four key binding sites in both exofacial and endofacial loops that are essential for glucose recognition and transport. The study further revealed that four flexible gates consisting of W65/Y292/Y293-M420/TM10b-W388 might play important roles in the transport cycle. The study showed that some side chains close to the central ligand binding site underwent larger position changes. These conformational interchanges formed gated networks within an S-shaped central channel that permitted staged ligand diffusion across the transporter. This study provides new inroads for the understanding of GLUT1 ligand recognition paradigm and configurational features which are important for molecular, structural, and physiological research of the MFS members, especially for GLUT1-targeted drug design and discovery. © 2016 American Chemical Society.


PubMed | National Park Service, Tianjin University and Concordia International School
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of chemical information and modeling | Year: 2016

The glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) belongs to the major facilitator superfamily (MFS) and is responsible for the constant uptake of glucose. However, the molecular mechanism of sugar transport remains obscure. In this study, homology modeling and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in lipid bilayers were performed to investigate the combination of the alternate and multisite transport mechanism of glucose with GLUT1 in atomic detail. To explore the substrate recognition mechanism, the outward-open state human GLUT1 homology model was generated based on the template of xylose transporter XylE (PDB ID: 4GBZ), which shares up to 29% sequence identity and 49% similarity with GLUT1. Through the MD simulation study of glucose across lipid bilayer with both the outward-open GLUT1 and the GLUT1 inward-open crystal structure, we investigated six different conformational states and identified four key binding sites in both exofacial and endofacial loops that are essential for glucose recognition and transport. The study further revealed that four flexible gates consisting of W65/Y292/Y293-M420/TM10b-W388 might play important roles in the transport cycle. The study showed that some side chains close to the central ligand binding site underwent larger position changes. These conformational interchanges formed gated networks within an S-shaped central channel that permitted staged ligand diffusion across the transporter. This study provides new inroads for the understanding of GLUT1 ligand recognition paradigm and configurational features which are important for molecular, structural, and physiological research of the MFS members, especially for GLUT1-targeted drug design and discovery.


Chavanich S.,Chulalongkorn University | Viyakarn V.,Chulalongkorn University | Adams P.,Concordia International School | Klammer J.,Concordia International School | Cook N.,Eco Koh Tao
Phuket Marine Biological Center Research Bulletin | Year: 2012

In April-June 2010, a thermal anomaly developed in the Andaman Sea and in the Gulf of Thailand. Subsequently, mass coral bleaching occurred. To monitor the health of the reefs and changes in reef communities, permanent line transects that have been established since 2007, using a Reef Check method, were used to survey composition of substrates, abundances of indicator fishes, and invertebrates. Two study sites, Racha Yai Island located in the Andaman Sea and Koh Tao located the Gulf of Thailand were selected. The results showed that following the bleaching event, coral mortalities at Racha Yai and Koh Tao were 42.33% and 72.17%, respectively. Unlike Racha Yai Island, at Koh Tao, small and medium size classes of Tridacna spp. (>30 cm) were not found in the 2011 survey, while the abundance of parrotfish appeared to decrease with no sightings in 2011.


Wu M.,Tianjin University | Li H.,Tianjin University | Liu R.,Tianjin University | Gao X.,Tianjin University | And 6 more authors.
European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2016

Malignant neoplasms exhibit a higher rate of glycolysis than normal cells; this is known as the Warburg effect. To target it, a galactose-conjugated (trans-R,R-cyclohexane-1,2-diamine)-2-chloromalonato-platinum(II) complex (Gal-Pt) was designed, synthesized, and evaluated in five human cancer cell lines and against two different xenograft tumour models. Gal-Pt exhibits much higher aqueous solubility (over 25 times) and improved cytotoxicity than oxaliplatin, especially in human colon (HT29) and lung (H460) cancer cell lines. The safety profile of Gal-Pt was investigated in vivo by exploring the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and animal mortality rate. The ratios of the animal lethal dosage values to the cytotoxicity in HT29 (LD50/IC50) showed that Gal-Pt was associated with an increased therapeutic index by over 30-fold compared to cisplatin and oxaliplatin. We evaluated in vivo antitumor activity by single agent intravenous treatment comparison studies of Gal-Pt (50 mg/kg as 65% MTD) and cisplatin (3 mg/kg, as 80% MTD) in a H460 lung cancer xenograft model, and with oxaliplatin (7 mg/kg, as 90% MTD) in a HT29 colon cancer xenograft model. The results show that Gal-Pt was more efficacious against H460 than cisplatin, and had superior potency in HT29 cells compared to oxaliplatin under nontoxic dosage conditions. The dependency between cytotoxicity of Gal-Pt and glucose transporters (GLUTs) was investigated by using quercetin as an inhibitor of GLUTs in HT29 cells. The cytotoxic potency of Gal-Pt was highly reduced by the inhibitor, suggesting that the uptake of Gal-Pt was regulated by glucose transporters. The GLUT mediated transportability and cellular uptake of Gal-Pt was also demonstrated using a fluorescent glucose bioprobe in HT29 competition assay. © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS.


PubMed | Gudui BioPharma Technology Inc., Tianjin University, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin University of Science and Technology and Concordia International School
Type: | Journal: European journal of medicinal chemistry | Year: 2016

Malignant neoplasms exhibit a higher rate of glycolysis than normal cells; this is known as the Warburg effect. To target it, a galactose-conjugated (trans-R,R-cyclohexane-1,2-diamine)-2-chloromalonato-platinum(II) complex (Gal-Pt) was designed, synthesized, and evaluated in five human cancer cell lines and against two different xenograft tumour models. Gal-Pt exhibits much higher aqueous solubility (over 25 times) and improved cytotoxicity than oxaliplatin, especially in human colon (HT29) and lung (H460) cancer cell lines. The safety profile of Gal-Pt was investigated invivo by exploring the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and animal mortality rate. The ratios of the animal lethal dosage values to the cytotoxicity in HT29 (LD50/IC50) showed that Gal-Pt was associated with an increased therapeutic index by over 30-fold compared to cisplatin and oxaliplatin. We evaluated invivo antitumor activity by single agent intravenous treatment comparison studies of Gal-Pt (50mg/kg as 65% MTD) and cisplatin (3mg/kg, as 80% MTD) in a H460 lung cancer xenograft model, and with oxaliplatin (7mg/kg, as 90% MTD) in a HT29 colon cancer xenograft model. The results show that Gal-Pt was more efficacious against H460 than cisplatin, and had superior potency in HT29cells compared to oxaliplatin under nontoxic dosage conditions. The dependency between cytotoxicity of Gal-Pt and glucose transporters (GLUTs) was investigated by using quercetin as an inhibitor of GLUTs in HT29cells. The cytotoxic potency of Gal-Pt was highly reduced by the inhibitor, suggesting that the uptake of Gal-Pt was regulated by glucose transporters. The GLUT mediated transportability and cellular uptake of Gal-Pt was also demonstrated using a fluorescent glucose bioprobe in HT29 competition assay.


Kim H.G.,Kyung Hee University | Park G.,Kyung Hee University | Piao Y.,Kyung Hee University | Kang M.S.,Concordia International School | And 3 more authors.
Food and Chemical Toxicology | Year: 2014

Parkinson's disease (PD) is generally characterized by the progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons projecting from the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) to the striatum that results in movement dysfunction, but also entails mitochondrial dysfunction. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the protective effects of Moutan Cortex Radicis (MCE, Moutan peony) on 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced PD-like symptoms and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of action, with a focus on mitochondrial function. In a rat primary mesencephalic culture system, MCE significantly protected dopaminergic neurons from the neurotoxic effects of 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+), an active form of MPTP. Additionally, in a subacute mouse model of MPTP-induced PD, MCE resulted in enhanced recovery from PD-like motor symptoms, including increased locomotor activity and reduced bradykinesia. MCE increased dopamine availability and protected against MPTP-induced dopaminergic neuronal damage. Moreover, MCE inhibited MPTP-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and resulted in increased expression of phosphorylated Akt, ND9, mitochondrial transcription factor A, and H2AX in the SNpc. Mitochondria-mediated apoptosis was also inhibited, via the regulation of B-cell lymphoma family proteins and the inhibition of cytochrome C release and caspase-3 activation. These results indicate that MCE has neuroprotective effects in PD models and may be useful for preventing or treating PD. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Moon M.,Kyung Hee University | Moon M.,Harvard University | Kim H.G.,Kyung Hee University | Choi J.G.,Kyung Hee University | And 7 more authors.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications | Year: 2014

Recently, increased attention has been directed towards medicinal extracts as potential new drug candidates for dementia. Ginger has long been used as an important ingredient in cooking and traditional herbal medicine. In particular, ginger has been known to have disease-modifying effects in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, there is no evidence of which constituents of ginger exhibit therapeutic effects against AD. A growing number of experimental studies suggest that 6-shogaol, a bioactive component of ginger, may play an important role as a memory-enhancing and anti-oxidant agent against neurological diseases. 6-Shogaol has also recently been shown to have anti-neuroinflammatory effects in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated astrocytes and animal models of Parkinson's disease, LPS-induced inflammation and transient global ischemia. However, it is still unknown whether 6-shogaol has anti-inflammatory effects against oligomeric forms of the Aβ (AβO) in animal brains. Furthermore, the effects of 6-shogaol against memory impairment in dementia models are also yet to be investigated. In this study, we found that administration of 6-shogaol significantly reduced microgliosis and astrogliosis in intrahippocampal AβO-injected mice, ameliorated AβO and scopolamine-induced memory impairment, and elevated NGF levels and pre- and post-synaptic marker in the hippocampus. All these results suggest that 6-shogaol may play a role in inhibiting glial cell activation and reducing memory impairment in animal models of dementia. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


PubMed | Concordia International School and Kyung Hee University
Type: | Journal: Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association | Year: 2014

Parkinsons disease (PD) is generally characterized by the progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons projecting from the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) to the striatum that results in movement dysfunction, but also entails mitochondrial dysfunction. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the protective effects of Moutan Cortex Radicis (MCE, Moutan peony) on 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced PD-like symptoms and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of action, with a focus on mitochondrial function. In a rat primary mesencephalic culture system, MCE significantly protected dopaminergic neurons from the neurotoxic effects of 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)), an active form of MPTP. Additionally, in a subacute mouse model of MPTP-induced PD, MCE resulted in enhanced recovery from PD-like motor symptoms, including increased locomotor activity and reduced bradykinesia. MCE increased dopamine availability and protected against MPTP-induced dopaminergic neuronal damage. Moreover, MCE inhibited MPTP-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and resulted in increased expression of phosphorylated Akt, ND9, mitochondrial transcription factor A, and H2AX in the SNpc. Mitochondria-mediated apoptosis was also inhibited, via the regulation of B-cell lymphoma family proteins and the inhibition of cytochrome C release and caspase-3 activation. These results indicate that MCE has neuroprotective effects in PD models and may be useful for preventing or treating PD.

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