Athens, WV, United States
Athens, WV, United States

Concord University is a comprehensive, public, liberal arts institution located in Athens, West Virginia, United States, founded on February 28, 1872, when the West Virginia Legislature passed "an Act to locate a Branch State Normal School, in Concord Church, in the County of Mercer".Founded by veterans of both the Union and the Confederacy, Concord is named for the ideal of "harmony and sweet fellowship".It is known for its picturesque campus which has been dubbed "The Campus Beautiful". The University also operates a center and conducts classes in Beckley, Raleigh County, West Virginia. Wikipedia.


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Zaton M.,University of Silesia | Peck R.L.,Concord University
Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae | Year: 2013

A new species of a non-marine microconchid (Tentaculita) tubeworm, Microconchus hintonensis, from the Lower Carboniferous (Upper Mississippian, Chesterian) of West Virginia, USA, is described. Non-marine microconchids occur abundantly in the deposits of the Bluefield, lower Hinton, Princeton and Bluestone Formations of the Mauch Chunk Group, where they are either associated with land plant remains and bivalve shells, or are preserved loose in the host sediment. The specimens attached to plant remains and bivalve shells, are poorly preserved, but those occurring loose in the deposits are well-preserved in three dimensions. The interpretation presented here, is that the loose specimens of Microconchus hintonensis sp. nov. also originally encrusted plants (land plants, algae) and bivalve shells, but became detached after substrate degradation and dissolution. The association of land plant remains, charophyte gyrogonites, bivalves, ostracodes, conchostracans, and fish teeth and scales, and the concomitant lack of strictly marine fossils indicate that the microconchid-bearing deposits of the lower Hinton, Princeton and Bluestone Formations were deposited in fresh-water environments. Microconchus hintonensis sp. nov. is regarded as a highly fecund, opportunistic species that in large numbers colonized every available substrate in its habitat. Its abundance in the deposits investigated indicates that the species was welladapted to the environments it occupied, even during episodes of higher sedimentation rates and/or competition with other soft-bodied encrusters. During such episodes, microconchids were able to grow vertically by uncoiling and elevating their tubes, in order to escape potential burial and/or overgrowth by other encrusters.


Datta A.,Asian Institute of Technology | Knezevic S.Z.,Concord University
Advances in Agronomy | Year: 2013

The interest for organic crop production is in the increase due to a strong demand for organic food from consumers and an attractive income potential for farmers. Weeds pose one of the major problems in crop production and are responsible for significant crop yield reduction. The problem of controlling weeds without synthetic herbicides under the rules of organic agriculture is challenging. The increase in the number of herbicide-resistant. weeds, the increase in herbicide cost, and the movement of herbicides into surface and ground water have sparked public awareness and restrictions on herbicide use. For these reasons, weed scientists are considering alternative and integrated weed management practices to reduce herbicide inputs and impacts. The use of propane for flame weeding can be adopted as one of the alternatives to chemical weed control, as it eliminates concerns over direct residual effects on soil, water, and food quality and can lessen the reliance on herbicides, hand weeding, and/or mechanical cultivation. Flame weeding is an acceptable weed control option in both organic and conventional production systems. A greater knowledge on the development of dose-response curves for determining the appropriate propane dose for effective weed control in major agronomic crops is needed to improve flame-weeding strategies. The dose-response curves for weeds and crops are important so that the lowest effective dose of propane can be applied for weed control in agronomic crops, which saves energy and reduces production costs. Depending on the desired level of weed control or tolerable crop injury level, a propane dose could be selected to either control the weed, or reduce its competitive ability against the crop. In this chapter, we will provide an overview of the findings from the flaming research that has been conducted for the last six years at the University of Nebraska, USA, or reported in pertinent newest literature. This chapter will improve our existing knowledge about flame weeding and will present better general guidelines for both organic and conventional crop producers interested in flaming techniques for weed control. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.


Allen J.L.,Concord University | Shaw C.A.,Montana State University
Geological Society Special Publication | Year: 2011

Field and microstructural observations from the Proterozoic Grizzly Creek Shear Zone suggest that crustal-scale fabric anisotropy exerted a significant control on earthquake rupture propagation during deformation at mid-crustal depths. The shear zone developed in amphibolite-facies supracrustal gneisses and granitoids, and consists of a 0.4-0.7 km-wide zone of high-strain rocks with foliation transposed to 256°/51°NW and top-to-the-south kinematics. The shear zone is overprinted by hundreds of veins of pseudotachylyte, mylonitic pseudotachylyte and ultramylonite. Field observations and whole-rock geochemical data suggest that pseudotachylyte fault veins formed as a result of first-generation rupture through intact rock. Pseudotachylytes are preferentially localized in as many as nine decametre-scale rupture zones dispersed across the width of the shear zone, concordant to foliation. We present a conceptual model for the asymmetric development of anisotropic fabric in a thrust-related fault zone in crystalline metamorphic rocks. Progressive tectonic exhumation of hanging wall rocks during thrusting results in the development of a crustal-scale anisotropic fabric that provides a preferentially weakened zone that could accommodate the propagation of earthquake ruptures from the seismogenic zone into the middle crust. © The Geological Society of London 2011.


Ulloa S.M.,Concord University | Datta A.,Concord University | Knezevic S.Z.,Concord University
Weed Technology | Year: 2010

Propane flaming could be an effective alternative tool for weed control in organic cropping systems. However, response of major weeds to broadcast flaming must be determined to optimize its proper use. Therefore, field experiments were conducted at the Haskell Agricultural Laboratory, Concord, NE in 2007 and 2008 using six propane doses and four weed species, including green foxtail, yellow foxtail, redroot pigweed, and common waterhemp. Our objective was to describe doseresponse curves for weed control with propane. Propane flaming response was evaluated at three different growth stages for each weed species. The propane doses were 0, 12, 31, 50, 68, and 87 kg ha-1. Flaming treatments were applied utilizing a custom-built flamer mounted on a four-wheeler (all-terrain vehicle) moving at a constant speed of 6.4 km h-1. The response of the weed species to propane flaming was evaluated in terms of visual ratings of weed control and dry matter recorded at 14 d after treatment. Weed species response to propane doses were described by log-logistic models relating propane dose to visual ratings or plant dry matter. Overall, response of the weed species to propane flaming varied among species, growth stages, and propane dose. In general, foxtail species were more tolerant than pigweed species. For example, about 85 and 86 kg ha-1 were the calculated doses needed for 90 dry matter reduction in five-leaf green foxtail and four-leaf yellow foxtail compared with significantly lower doses of 68 and 46 kg ha-1 of propane for five-leaf redroot pigweed and common waterhemp, respectively. About 90% dry matter reduction in pigweed species was achieved with propane dose ranging from 40 to 80 kg ha-1, depending on the growth stage when flaming was conducted. A similar dose of 40 to 60 kg ha-1 provided 80% reduction in dry matter for both foxtail species when flaming was done at their vegetative growth stage. However, none of the doses we tested could provide 90% dry matter reduction in foxtail species at flowering stage. It is important to note that foxtail species started regrowing 2 to 3 wk after flaming. Broadcast flaming has potential for control or suppression of weeds in organic farming. Nomenclature: Redroot pigweed, Amaranthus retroflexus L.; common waterhemp, Amaranthus rudis Sauer; green foxtail, Setaria viridis (L.) Beauv.; yellow foxtail, Setaria pumila (Poir.) Roemer and J. A. Schultes. © 2010 Weed Science Society of America.


Bethard J.D.,Concord University | Seet B.L.,Concord University
Journal of Forensic Sciences | Year: 2012

Numerous methods for establishing a biological profile exist; however, many of these methods rely on the recovery of several specific bones or on fragile skeletal elements that are sometimes irrecoverable. It is for this reason new methods utilizing other previously under-documented bones should be established and tested by the forensic anthropological community. This study tests the accuracy of Wescott's (J Forensic Sci 2000;45(2)) method for determining sex from the second cervical vertebra. Specimens were drawn from the donated skeletal collection curated at the Hamilton County Forensic Center (n=57) and the William M. Bass Donated Skeletal Collection (n=243). Both intra- and inter-observer error rates were low and accurate classifications ranged from 78% (females-Function 1) to 90.6% (males-Function 5). Of the five functions, Function 4 achieved the highest overall accuracy, with 260 individuals (86.7%) falling into the correct category. Overall, this method is an effective classificatory tool for sex estimation. © 2012 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.


Pilch P.F.,Concord University | Pilch P.F.,Boston University | Liu L.,Concord University | Liu L.,Joslin Diabetes Center
Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2011

Caveolae are subdomains of the eukaryotic cell surface, so named because they resemble little caves, being small omega-shaped invaginations of the plasma membrane into the cytosol. They are present in many cell types, and are especially abundant in adipocytes, in which they have been implicated as playing a role in lipid metabolism. Thus, mice and humans lacking caveolae have small adipocytes and exhibit lipodystrophies along with other physiological abnormalities. In this review, we examine the evidence supporting the role of caveolae in adipocyte lipid metabolism in the context of the protein and lipid composition of these structures. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Lewton K.L.,Concord University
American Journal of Physical Anthropology | Year: 2015

Identification of positional behavior adaptation in the pelvis of primates is complicated by possible confounding effects of body size and phylogeny. Previous work on primate pelvic allometry has focused primarily on sexual dimorphism and its relationship to obstetric constraints in species with large fetal size relative to maternal size. This study investigates patterns of pelvic scaling with a specific aim to understand how pelvic scaling relates to locomotor function. Patterns of scaling of nine pelvic dimensions were examined in a broad comparative sample of 40 species of primates, covering both haplorhines and strepsirrhines, while accounting for phylogenetic nonindependence. Phylogenetic reduced major axis regressions on pelvic scaling patterns suggest that primate-wide patterns are reflected in haplorhine- and strepsirrhine-specific analyses. Many measures scale isometrically with pelvis size, but notably, features of the ilium tend to scale allometrically. As predicted, ilium width and lower ilium cross-sectional area scale with positive allometry, while lower iliac height scales with negative allometry. Further regression analyses by locomotor group suggest that these ilium measures, as well as pubic symphysis and ischium lengths, differ in their scaling patterns according to locomotor mode. These results suggest that scaling differences within primates, when present, are related to functional differences in locomotor behavior and mechanics. This study supports recent work that identifies adaptations to locomotor loading in the ilium and highlights the need for a better understanding of the relationship between pelvic structural mechanics and the mechanical requirements of primate locomotion. Am J Phys Anthropol 156:511-530, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Kuehn S.C.,Concord University | Froese D.G.,University of Alberta | Shane P.A.R.,University of Auckland
Quaternary International | Year: 2011

The INternational focus group on Tephrochronology And Volcanism (INTAV) of the International Union for Quaternary Research (INQUA) has conducted an intercomparison of tephrochronology laboratories with electron-beam microanalytical data on volcanic glasses submitted from 27 instruments at 24 institutions in 9 countries. This assessment includes most active tephrochronology laboratories and represents the largest intercomparison exercise yet conducted by the tephrochronology community. The intercomparison was motivated by the desire to assess the quality of data currently being produced and to stimulate improvements in analytical protocols and data reporting that will increase the efficacy of tephra fingerprinting and correlation. Participating laboratories were each supplied with a mount containing three samples for analysis: (1) rhyolitic Lipari obsidian ID3506, (2) phonolitic Sheep Track tephra from Mt. Edziza, British Columbia, Canada, and (3) basaltic Laki 1783 A.D. tephra. A fourth sample, rhyolitic Old Crow tephra, was also distributed.Most laboratories submitted extensive details of their analytical procedures in addition to their analytical results. Most used some combination of defocused or rastered beam and modest beam current to reduce alkali element migration. Approximately two-thirds reported that they routinely analyze one or more secondary standards to evaluate data quality and instrument performance. Despite substantial variety in procedures and calibration standards, most mean concentrations compare favorably between laboratories and with other data. Typically, four or fewer data contributions had means for a given element on a given sample that differed by more than ±2 standard deviations from the overall means. Obtaining accurate Na2O concentrations for the phonolitic tephra proved to be a challenge for many laboratories. Only one-half of the data sets had means within ±1 standard deviation of the ∼8.2 wt% Na2O value obtained by other methods. One mean is higher and 14 are lower. Three of the data set means fall below 7 wt% Na2O. Most submissions had relative precision better than 1-5% for the major elements. For low-abundance elements, the precision varied substantially with relative standard deviations as small as 10% and as large as 110%. Because of the strong response to this project, the tephrochronology community now has a large comparative data set derived from common reference materials that will facilitate improvements in accuracy and precision and which can enable improved use of published data produced by the participating laboratories. Finally, recommendations are provided for improving accuracy, precision, and reporting of electron-beam microanalytical data from glasses. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA.


Mader T.L.,Concord University | Johnson L.J.,Concord University | Gaughan J.B.,University of Queensland
Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2010

Numerous models and indices exist that attempt to characterize the effect of environmental factors on the comfort of animals and humans. Heat and cold indices have been utilized to adjust ambient temperature (Ta) for the effects of relative humidity (RH) or wind speed (WS) or both for the purposes of obtaining a "feels-like" or apparent temperature. However, no model has been found that incorporates adjustments for RH, WS, and radiation (RAD) over conditions that encompass hot and cold environmental conditions. The objective of this study was to develop a comprehensive climate index (CCI) that has application under a wide range of environmental conditions and provides an adjustment to Ta for RH, WS, and RAD. Environmental data were compiled from 9 separate summer periods in which heat stress events occurred and from 6 different winter periods to develop and validate the CCI. The RH adjustment is derived from an exponential relationship between Ta and RH with temperature being adjusted up or down from an RH value of 30%. At 45°C, the temperature adjustment for increasing RH from 30 to 100% equals approximately 16°C, whereas at -30°C temperature adjustments due to increasing RH from 30 to 100% equal approximately -3.0°C, with greater RH values contributing to a reduced apparent temperature under cold conditions. The relationship between WS and temperature adjustments was also determined to be exponential with a logarithmic adjustment to define appropriate declines in apparent temperature as WS increases. With this index, slower WS results in the greatest change in apparent temperature per unit of WS regardless of whether hot or cold conditions exist. As WS increases, the change in apparent temperature per unit of WS becomes less. Based on existing wind-chill and heat indices, the effect of WS on apparent temperature is sufficiently similar to allow one equation to be utilized under hot and cold conditions. The RAD component was separated into direct solar radiation and ground surface radiation. Both of these were found to have a linear relationship with Ta. This index will be useful for further development of biological response functions, which are associated with energy exchange, and improving decisionmaking processes, which are weatherdependent. In addition, the defined thresholds can serve as management and environmental mitigation guidelines to protect and ensure animal comfort. © 2010 American Society of Animal Science.


Grant
Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: | Award Amount: 176.01K | Year: 2015

This project will examine how an authentic, multi-year research experience embedded within a 5-course sequence impacts the progressive professional preparation of undergraduate geoscience students. Multiple evidence-based studies published in the STEM education literature continue to affirm that participation in undergraduate research results in numerous cognitive, personal, and professional gains among STEM students. Recently emerging results suggest that longer-term experiences increase these benefits and are needed for more sophisticated skills to mature. It is challenging, however, to offer long-term experiences to large numbers of students via commonly used approaches. For example, curriculum-embedded research is typically short term, and longer-term independent study projects are often too resource intensive to reach beyond a select number of students. The investigators will test a more scalable model that provides a long-term unified experience while simultaneously reaching a broader cross section of students. The project team will immerse all geoscience majors in a thematic multi-year research project embedded within the core curriculum, including a summer geology field course. The investigators will examine the development of (1) research skills such as data acquisition and analysis, (2) personal gains such as student confidence and the ability to think like a scientist, and (3) communication skills to both scientists and the general public. The latter addresses both oral and written communication as well as the emerging use of social media for science communication. By carefully following student progress over 2 years, the team expects to capture when and how these skills develop and mature and what aspects of the experience are key to this development.

The authentic research experience focuses on (1) the rupture dynamics of earthquakes in and the longer-term rheological evolution of an exhumed Proterozoic age shear zone in the Colorado Rockies, and (2) the petrology of the rocks which host the shear zone. The field area is studied during an existing summer field course. Students will begin a project in their first sophomore-level geoscience course and continue with the same research project for 5 consecutive courses culminating at the summer field course. The student projects will advance the understanding of physical and chemical processes associated with earthquake rupture at the multi-kilometer scale near the base of the seismogenic zone where large earthquakes nucleate. This project will be based at a primarily undergraduate institution with an unusually large percentage of first-generation and low-income students in rural Appalachia. This will allow the study of outcomes achieved by an underserved population of students and compare them to national studies with different student demographics. Since the curriculum incorporates the development of communication skills, additional impacts include preparing the next generation of scientists to effectively convey science to the general public through face-to-face outreach and the use of social media.

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