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Stockholm, Sweden

The principles of electro-hydrodynamic (EHD) flow have been known for more than a century and have been adopted for various industrial applications, for example, fluid mixing and demixing. Analytical solutions of such EHD flow only exist in a limited number of scenarios, for example, predicting a small deformation of a single droplet in a uniform electric field. Numerical modeling of such phenomena can provide significant insights about EHDs multiphase flows. During the last decade, many numerical results have been reported to provide novel and useful tools of studying the multiphase EHD flow. Based on a conservative level set method, the proposed model is able to simulate large deformations of a droplet by a steady electric field, which is beyond the region of theoretic prediction. The model is validated for both leaky dielectrics and perfect dielectrics, and is found to be in excellent agreement with existing analytical solutions and numerical studies in the literature. Furthermore, simulations of the deformation of a water droplet in decyl alcohol in a steady electric field match better with published experimental data than the theoretical prediction for large deformations. Therefore the proposed model can serve as a practical and accurate tool for simulating two-phase EHD flow. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source


Disclosed are techniques for representing and modeling systems in which each system corresponds to an application mode. This may be done for one or more geometries using local and/or non-local couplings. For each application mode, physical quantities are modeled and may be defined using a graphical user interface. Physical properties may be used to model the physical quantities of each system. The physical properties may be defined in terms of numerical values or constants, and mathematical expressions that may include numerical values, space coordinates, time coordinates, and actual physical quantities. Physical quantities and any associated variables may apply to some or all of a geometric domain, and may also be disabled in other parts of a geometrical domain. Partial differential equations describe the physical quantities. One or more application modes may be combined using an automated technique into a combined system of partial differential equations as a multiphysics model.


An apparatus for generating an application data structure includes a physical computing system comprising processor(s), input device(s), display(s), and memor(ies). The memory includes executable instructions that cause a processor to perform the acts of embedding a multiphysics model data structure for a physical system in an application data structure. Application features are determined to add to the application data structure. First data is added representing a form feature for the application features for the model of the physical system. Second data is added representing at an action feature for the application features. The second data is associated with at least one modeling operation to define a sequence of operations for modeling the physical system. The application data structure is updated including the added first and second data and the associating defining the sequence of operations. The updated application data structure is stored on the memory device(s).


An apparatus for generating an application data structure includes a physical computing system comprising processor(s), input device(s), display(s), and memor(ies). The memory includes executable instructions that cause a processor to perform the acts of embedding a multiphysics model data structure for a physical system in an application data structure. Application features are determined to add to the application data structure. First data is added representing a form feature for the application features for the model of the physical system. Second data is added representing at an action feature for the application features. The second data is associated with at least one modeling operation to define a sequence of operations for modeling the physical system. The application data structure is updated including the added first and second data and the associating defining the sequence of operations. The updated application data structure is stored on the memory device(s).


Disclosed are techniques for representing and modeling one or more systems in which each system corresponds to an application mode. This may be done for one or more geometries using local and/or non-local couplings. For each application mode, physical quantities are modeled and may be defined using a graphical user interface. Physical properties may be used to model the physical quantities of each system. The physical properties may be defined in terms of numerical values or constants, and mathematical expressions that may include numerical values, space coordinates, time coordinates, and actual physical quantities. Physical quantities and any associated variables may apply to some or all of a geometric domain, and may also be disabled in other parts of a geometrical domain. Partial differential equations describe the physical quantities. One or more application modes may be combined using an automated technique into a combined system of partial differential equations as a multiphysics model. A portion of the physical quantities and variables associated with the combined system may be selectively solved for. Also described are methods for computing the stiffness matrix, residual vector, constraint matrix, and constraint residual vector for the finite element discretization of a system of partial differential equations in weak form that includes local and non-local variables coupling multiple geometries.

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