COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, also known by its acronym CIIT, is a public research university in Pakistan. It is a multi-campus institute with its headquarters located in the urban area of Islamabad. It is ranked among the top 5 universities of Pakistan as of the latest ranking released by the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan. From its day of creation to this day, the university has managed to create 7 ISO 9001:2008 certified campuses throughout the nation. Additional plans are underway to create an overseas campus in the Gulf. Wikipedia.
Ali M.I.,COMSATS Institute of Information Technology
Applied Soft Computing Journal | Year: 2012
The basic aim of this paper is to discuss the idea of reduction of parameters in case of soft sets. It is studied that there is an approximation space of Pawlak associated with a soft set. A very simple technique is developed here to materialize the notion reduction of parameters. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source
Al-Rashida M.,COMSATS Institute of Information Technology |
Iqbal J.,Forman Christian College
Medicinal Research Reviews | Year: 2014
The modulatory role of extracellular nucleotides and adenosine in relevance to purinergic cell signaling mechanisms has long been known and is an object of much research worldwide. These extracellular nucleotides are released by a variety of cell types either innately or as a response to patho-physiological stress or injury. A variety of surface-located ecto-nucleotidases (of four major types; nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolases or NTPDases, nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterases or NPPs, alkaline phosphatases APs or ALPs, and ecto-5′-nucleotidase or e5NT) are responsible for meticulously controlling the availability of these important signaling molecules (at their respective receptors) in extracellular environment and are therefore crucial for maintaining the integrity of normal cell functioning. Overexpression of many of these ubiquitous ecto-enzymes has been implicated in a variety of disorders including cell adhesion, activation, proliferation, apoptosis, and degenerative neurological and immunological responses. Selective inhibition of these ecto-enzymes is an area that is currently being explored with great interest and hopes remain high that development of selective ecto-nucleotidase inhibitors will prove to have many beneficial therapeutic implications. The aim of this review is to emphasize and focus on recent developments made in the field of inhibitors of ecto-nucleotidases and to highlight their structure activity relationships wherever possible. Most recent and significant advances in field of NTPDase, NPP, AP, and e5NT inhibitors is being discussed in detail in anticipation of providing prolific leads and relevant background for research groups interested in synthesis of selective ecto-nucleotidase inhibitors. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source
Iqbal J.,COMSATS Institute of Information Technology
Analytical Biochemistry | Year: 2011
A simple and fast dynamically coated capillary electrophoretic method was developed for the characterization and inhibition studies of alkaline phosphatases (EC 188.8.131.52). An inside capillary enzymatic reaction was performed, and hydrolysis of the substrate 4-nitrophenylphosphate to 4-nitrophenol was measured. Fused-silica capillary surface was dynamically modified with polycationic polybrene coating. By reversal of the electroosmotic flow (EOF), analysis time was reduced up to 3 min as the anionic analytes were migrated in the same direction as the EOF. Furthermore, the sensitivity of the method was increased using electroinjection through high-field amplified injection. The baseline separation of 4-nitrophenylphosphate and 4-nitrophenol was achieved by employing 50 mM sodium phosphate as the running buffer (pH 8.5), 0.0025% polybrene, and a constant voltage of -15 kV, and the products were detected at 322 nm. Under the optimized conditions, a good separation with high efficiency was achieved. The new method was applied to study enzyme kinetics and inhibitor screening. Km and Ki values obtained with the new CE method were compared well with the standard spectrophotometric method. Dynamic coating of fused-silica capillary gave fast and reproducible separation of substrate and product. The method can be easily optimized for inhibition studies of other isozymes. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source
Raja M.A.Z.,COMSATS Institute of Information Technology
Applied Soft Computing Journal | Year: 2014
In this study, stochastic computational techniques are developed for the solution of boundary value problems (BVPs) of second order Pantograph functional differential equation (PFDE) using artificial neural networks(ANNs), simulated annealing (SA), pattern search (PS), genetic algorithms (GAs), active-set algorithm (ASA) and their hybrid combinations. The strength of ANNs is exploited to construct a model for PFDE by defining as unsupervised error to approximate the solution. The accuracy of the model is subjected to find the appropriate design parameters of the networks. These optimal weights of the networks are trained using SA, PS and GAs, used as a tool for viable global search, hybridized with ASA for rapid local convergence. The designed schemes are evaluated by solving a numbers of BVPs for the PFDE and comparing with standard results. The reliability and effectiveness of the proposed solvers are investigated through Monte-Carlo simulations and their statistical analysis. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source
COMSATS Institute of Information Technology | Date: 2015-09-03
A laser system including a laser cavity, a gain medium disposed in the laser cavity, a pump configured to excite an atom of the gain medium to an excited state, an optical device configured to couple a ground state of the atom of the gain medium to the excited state by applying an optical field to the gain medium, and a microwave device configured to couple the ground state of the atom of the gain medium to a different ground state by applying a microwave field to the gain medium.