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Awais Q.,University of Central Punjab | Malik M.H.,University Azteca Of Chalco | Hussain S.,COMSAT Institute of Information Technology
Proceedings - 2015 IEEE International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Communication Technology, CICT 2015 | Year: 2015

In the Modern Era of computing, The Wireless communication has gained popularity with the passage of time due to unique features, e.g. Flexibility, cost effective and easy to configure as compare to traditional wired networks. Since 1990swireless networks become the backbone of every network and there are lots of concerns in wireless communication, which are needed to address to achieve effectiveness and productivity. Allot of organization switches from a wired network to wireless network due to its simple and cost effective solution. IEEE defines wireless standards and continues improvements are done with the passage of time to overcome deficiencies. In this paper, we perform an analysis of TCP and UDP traffic in WLANs, we proposed a hybrid WLAN Markov chain to increase the efficiency of the back off windows scheme. The results are validated using OPNET Modeler, which shows that the proposed back off windows scheme perform better as compare to default backoff windows scheme. © 2015 IEEE. Source

Iftikhar S.,National University of Sciences and Technology | Kamran M.,COMSAT Institute of Information Technology | Anwar Z.,National University of Sciences and Technology
Security and Communication Networks | Year: 2015

Over the past few years, reversible watermarking techniques for relational databases have been proposed to provide protection of ownership rights, data tempering, and data integrity. Mainly, these techniques ensure original data recovery from watermarked data, whereas irreversible watermarking schemes only protect ownership rights. This characteristic of reversible watermarking has emerged as a candidate solution for the protection of ownership rights of data, intolerable to modifications such as medical data, genetic data, credit card, and bank account data. The main objective of this paper is to make an extensive survey of the state-of-the-art in reversible watermarking techniques for relational databases to reflect recent research progress and to point out the key issues for future research. In order to analyze these techniques, a classification has been performed on the basis of (i) the extent of modifications introduced by the watermarking scheme in the underlying data and (ii) the robustness of the embedded watermark against malicious attacks. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source

Khan A.,COMSAT Institute of Information Technology | Sarmin N.H.,University of Technology Malaysia | Davvaz B.,University of Yazd | Khan F.M.,University of Technology Malaysia
Neural Computing and Applications | Year: 2012

In Jun et al. (Bull Malays Math Sci Soc (2) 32(3):391-408, 2009), (α, β)-fuzzy bi-ideals are introduced and some characterizations are given. In this paper, we generalize the concept of (α, β)-fuzzy bi-ideals and define (∈, ∈ ∨q k)-fuzzy bi-ideals in ordered semigroups, which is a generalization of the concept of an (α, β)-fuzzy bi-ideal in an ordered semigroup. Using this concept, some characterization theorems of regular, left (resp. right) regular and completely regular ordered semigroups are provided. In the last section, we give the concept of upper/lower parts of an (∈, ∈ ∨q k)-fuzzy bi-ideal and investigate some interesting results of regular and intra-regular ordered semigroups. © 2012 Springer-Verlag London Limited. Source

Begum B.N.,University of Karachi | Hasan S.,COMSAT Institute of Information Technology
Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association | Year: 2014

Objective: To explore the difference between anxiety and depression among infertile and fertile women.Methods: The study was conducted in 2009 and comprised fertile and infertile women. The sample of infertile women was drawn from the Liaquat National Hospital, Patel Hospital, Infertility Concept and Zainub Hospital, located in urban areas of Karachi, while fertile women were drawn from the general population in urban Karachi. All the subjects had at least 10 years of education and were in the age range of 20-35 years. They two groups were further divided into two sub-groups of working and non-working women. Institute for Personality and Ability Testing Depression and Anxiety scales were used to assess depression and anxiety. SPSS 14.0 was used to analyse the data.Result: Of the 120 subjects, the two groups had 60(50%) each. The mean age of fertile women was 27.48±160.75 and that in the infertile group was 27.36±160.75. Depression among fertile women was 21.85±10.98 compared to 32.01±12.49 among the infertile women. Corresponding values for anxiety was 24.45±9.63 and 36.20±12.51.The difference was significant.Conclusion: Women with infertility experience a greater psychological impact. © 2014, J Pak Med Assoc. All rights reserved. Source

Nisar L.,Quaid-i-Azam University | Qadir M.I.,The University of Faisalabad | Tehzeeb-Ul-Nisa,The University of Faisalabad | Malik S.A.,Quaid-i-Azam University | Tabassum N.,COMSAT Institute of Information Technology
Journal of the Chemical Society of Pakistan | Year: 2011

Objective of the present study was to characterize the immunodominant sequences of gp41 in HIV strain in Pakistani population so that vaccine may be prepared based upon these regions. A total of 25 specimens were collected from HIV patients of different areas of Pakistan. The viral RNA was isolated using QIAamp MinElute® Spin Kit manufactured by Quiagen, California, USA. RT-PCR was done for amplification of the required region and confirmed by gel electrophoresis. The nucleotides of the required regions were sequenced using Big Dye terminator. Less than 20% of the specimens had mutations in immunodominant regions, so it may be concluded that immunodominant regions of gp41 in HIV strain in Pakistani population are conservatives and vaccine based upon these regions may prove active immunization against the disease. Source

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