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Razaq M.,Bahauddin Zakariya University | Mehmood A.,Bahauddin Zakariya University | Aslam M.,COMSAT Institute of Information Technology | Ismail M.,Bahauddin Zakariya University | And 2 more authors.
Pakistan Journal of Botany | Year: 2011

Cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae L., and turnip aphid, Lipahis eyrsimi Kalt., are the regular insect pests of Brassica crops in Southern Punjab, Pakistan. Population development of and losses to yield and yield components due to these two aphid species were examined on late sown crops of Brassica napus L., Brassica juncea L., and Brassica carinata A. Braun under sprayed and unsprayed conditions during 2007-08 at Mulatn. Populations of both the species of aphids were statistically similar on three species of Brassica in unsprayed plots. Losses to yield, plant height, numbers of pods per plant, pod length, numbers of seeds per pod and pod weight were statistically similar across all the three species in untreated plots, those of thousand seeds weight was different. B. napus, B. juncea and B. carinata suffered 75.06, 77.25 and 81.86% losses from aphids in yield where insecticides were not applied. Pod weight, pods per plant and yield per ha., was significantly increased by application of insecticides for all the three species. Due to heavy losses in yield and yield components we recommend insecticide application for reducing losses due to aphids.

Ali I.,Bahauddin Zakariya University | Shakoor A.,Bahauddin Zakariya University | Islam M.U.,Bahauddin Zakariya University | Saeed M.,Bahauddin Zakariya University | And 2 more authors.
Current Applied Physics | Year: 2013

Y-type hexagonal ferrite Co2Sr2Fe12O 22 was prepared by microemulsion route. A conducting polymer, polypyrrole was chemically synthesized and doped with dodecylbenzenesulphonic acid (PPy·DBSA). FTIR and magnetic properties of Co2Sr 2Fe12O22 were investigated and compared with composite made by mixing the Co2Sr2Fe12O 22 with this conducting polymer PPy-DBSA by 1:1 molar ratio. Phase analysis was performed by using X-ray diffraction (XRD). The microstructure was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showing heterogonous distribution of grains. The field dependent magnetic properties of the prepared samples were investigated at room temperature by using vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). It has been observed that mixing of polymer in ferrite plays a crucial role in enhancing the coercivity, while saturation magnetization (Ms) and remanance were observed to decrease. Due to fine grain size, the density of grain boundaries increases where the domain wall pinning can take place, hence the coercivity of the composite samples increases. Appreciable improved value of coercivity guaranteed the use of these synthesized materials in the recording media, which is =1896(Oe) in the present samples. The suitable signal-to-noise ratio in the high density recording media can be achieved due to small particles size of this synthesized composite, which is expected in the present ferrite-polymer composite sample. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Ali I.,Bahauddin Zakariya University | Islam M.U.,Bahauddin Zakariya University | Ashiq M.N.,Bahauddin Zakariya University | Asif Iqbal M.,National University of Sciences and Technology | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Alloys and Compounds | Year: 2014

A series of (Tb-Mn) doped Sr2Co(2- x)MnxTbyFe(12 -y)O22 (x = 0.0-1, Y = 0.0-0.1) Y-type hexaferrite were synthesized by the microemulsion method. The effect of doping of manganese at the tetrahedral site, and terbium at octahedral site, has been studied. It was observed that changes in magnetic properties such as saturation magnetization, coercivity, remanence and magnetic moment due to the cationic stoichiometry and their occupancy in the specific sites. The energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis was used to confirm the concentration of the elements. Scanning electron micrograph of the samples showed that grains are of plate like shape which is quite encouraging for their use in microwave devices and in perpendicular recording media (PRM) due to their high value of coercivity, 3200 Oe comparable to M-type and W-type hexaferrites hard magnetic materials. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

PubMed | Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, King Abdulaziz University, New York State Department of Health and COMSAT Institute of Information & Technology
Type: | Journal: The Science of the total environment | Year: 2016

This study reports levels and profiles of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in dust samples collected from three different microenvironments (cars, air conditioner (AC) filters and household floor dust) of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia (KSA) and Kuwait. To the best of our knowledge, this is first study reporting PAHs in indoor microenvironments of KSA, which makes these findings important. Benzo(b)fluoranthene (BbF), benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), phenanthrene (Phe), and pyrene (Pyr) were found to be the major chemicals in dust samples from all selected microenvironments. PAHs occurred at median concentrations (ng/g) of 3450, 2200, and 2650 in Saudi AC filter, car and household floor dust, respectively. The median levels (ng/g) of PAHs in Kuwaiti car (950) and household floor (1675) dust samples were lower than Saudi dust. The PAHs profile in Saudi dust was dominated by high molecular weight (HMW) (4-5 ring) PAHs while in Kuwaiti dust 3 ring PAHs have marked contribution. BaP equivalent, a marker for carcinogenic PAHs, was high in Saudi household floor and AC filter dust with median levels (ng/g) of 370 and 455, respectively. Different exposure scenarios, using 5th percentile, median, mean, and 95th percentile levels, were estimated for adults and toddlers. For Saudi and Kuwaiti toddlers worst exposure scenario of PAHs was calculated at 175 and 85ng/kg body weight/day (ng/kgbw/d), respectively. For Saudi toddlers, the calculated worst exposure scenarios for carcinogenic BaP (27.7) and BbF (29.3ng/kgbw/d) was 2-4 times higher than Kuwaiti toddlers. This study is based on small number of samples which necessitate more detailed studies for better understanding of dynamics of PAHs in the indoor environments of this region. Nevertheless, our finding supports the ongoing exposure of organic pollutants to population that accumulates indoor.

PubMed | King Abdulaziz University, Chinese Institute of Urban Environment, University of Pavia, Jammu University and 3 more.
Type: | Journal: Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987) | Year: 2016

This study aims to assess the spatial patterns of selected dust-borne trace elements alongside the river Indus Pakistan, their relation with anthropogenic and natural sources, and the potential risk posed to human health. The studied elements were found in descending concentrations: Mn, Zn, Pb, Cu, Ni, Cr, Co, and Cd. The Index of Geo-accumulation indicated that pollution of trace metals were higher in lower Indus plains than on mountain areas. In general, the toxic elements Cr, Mn, Co and Ni exhibited altitudinal trends (P<0.05). The few exceptions to this trend were the higher values for all studied elements from the northern wet mountainous zone (low lying Himalaya). Spatial PCA/FA highlighted that the sources of different trace elements were zone specific, thus pointing to both geological influences and anthropogenic activities. The Hazard Index for Co and for Mn in children exceeded the value of 1 only in the riverine delta zone and in the southern low lying zone, whereas the Hazard Index for Pb was above the bench mark for both children and adults (with few exceptions) in all regions, thus indicating potential non-carcinogenic health risks. These results will contribute towards the environmental management of trace metal(s) with potential risk for human health throughout Pakistan.

PubMed | King Abdulaziz University, King College, New York State Department of Health and COMSAT Institute of Information & Technology
Type: | Journal: Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987) | Year: 2016

Most of the organohalogenated contaminants (OHCs) have high environmental stability and are lipophilic in nature, thus bioaccumulate through the various routes e.g., inhalation, dermal contact and food intake. Human exposure to these OHCs can induce adverse health effects. Studies on the occurrence of OHCs in human samples from Saudi Arabia are scarce. Therefore, this study aimed at providing preliminary insight on the occurrence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polybrominated biphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in diabetic and non-diabetic donors from KSA. Serum samples were collected from type 2 diabetic patients (n=40) and control donors (n=20) to study the impact of OHCs on their health. For the first time we studied the difference of OHCs in type 2 diabetic and control participants. The order of obtained results was OCPs (35-650ng/glw)> PCBs (15-90ng/glw)> PBDEs (1.5-68ng/glw). The major contributors were p,p-DDE (median 44ng/glw), PCB 153 (2.3ng/glw), PCB 138 (2.1ng/glw), BDE 153 (1.2ng/glw) and BDE 47 (0.85ng/glw). Exposure to different OHCs between male and female donors was not significantly different (p>0.05). However, PCBs and OHCs were significantly higher (p<0.05) in diabetic donors than those of control group. We computed significantly positive correlations (p<0.05) among different OHCs and between OHCs and age factor. The current study highlights the presence of different OHCs in humans from Jeddah, KSA. This is a preliminary study based on small sample size but our results suggested that detailed studies are required to understand the sources of these pollutants and their impact on human health.

PubMed | Chinese Institute of Urban Environment, Jammu University, University of Florence, University of Koblenz-Landau and 2 more.
Type: | Journal: Ecotoxicology and environmental safety | Year: 2016

The present study aims to assess the arsenic (As) levels into dust samples and its implications for human health, of four ecological zones of Pakistan, which included northern frozen mountains (FMZ), lower Himalyian wet mountains (WMZ), alluvial riverine plains (ARZ), and low lying agricultural areas (LLZ). Human nail samples (N=180) of general population were also collected from the similar areas and all the samples were analysed by using ICP-MS. In general the higher levels (p<0.05) in paired dust and human nail samples were observed from ARZ and LLZ than those of other mountainous areas (i.e., WMZ and FMZ), respectively. Current results suggested that elevated As concentrations were associated to both natural, (e.g. geogenic influences) and anthropogenic sources. Linear regression model values indicated that As levels into dust samples were associated with altitude (r(2)=0.23), soil carbonate carbon density (SCC; r(2)=0.33), and population density (PD; r(2)=0.25). The relationship of paired dust and nail samples was also investigated and associations were found for As-nail and soil organic carbon density (SOC; r(2)=0.49) and SCC (r(2)=0.19) in each studied zone, evidencing the dust exposure as an important source of arsenic contamination in Pakistan. Risk estimation reflected higher hazard index (HI) values of non-carcinogenic risk (HI>1) for children populations in all areas (except FMZ), and for adults in LLZ (0.74) and ARZ (0.55), suggesting that caution should be paid about the dust exposure. Similarly, carcinogenic risk assessment also highlighted potential threats to the residents of LLZ and ARZ, as in few cases (5-10%) the values exceeded the range of US-EPA threshold limits (10(-6)-10(-4)).

Begum B.N.,University of Karachi | Hasan S.,COMSAT Institute of Information Technology
Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association | Year: 2014

Objective: To explore the difference between anxiety and depression among infertile and fertile women.Methods: The study was conducted in 2009 and comprised fertile and infertile women. The sample of infertile women was drawn from the Liaquat National Hospital, Patel Hospital, Infertility Concept and Zainub Hospital, located in urban areas of Karachi, while fertile women were drawn from the general population in urban Karachi. All the subjects had at least 10 years of education and were in the age range of 20-35 years. They two groups were further divided into two sub-groups of working and non-working women. Institute for Personality and Ability Testing Depression and Anxiety scales were used to assess depression and anxiety. SPSS 14.0 was used to analyse the data.Result: Of the 120 subjects, the two groups had 60(50%) each. The mean age of fertile women was 27.48±160.75 and that in the infertile group was 27.36±160.75. Depression among fertile women was 21.85±10.98 compared to 32.01±12.49 among the infertile women. Corresponding values for anxiety was 24.45±9.63 and 36.20±12.51.The difference was significant.Conclusion: Women with infertility experience a greater psychological impact. © 2014, J Pak Med Assoc. All rights reserved.

Suleman M.,Zhejiang University | Suleman M.,Comsat Institute of Information Technology | Wu Q.,Zhejiang University
Advances in Mathematical Physics | Year: 2015

We use modified homotopy perturbation method to find out the solution of nonlinear cubic quintic equation. Besides this method solution of the problem with the following methods is discussed, Energy Balance Method and He's Frequency Formulation method and then compare the results with each other and Global Error Method. The results show that these three methods are effective as global error method for nonlinear cubic quintic oscillator equation with multiple nonlinear terms and have different effects on the solution. In particular, the homotopy perturbation solution is quite surprising. A cubic quintic nonlinear oscillator is used as an example to compare the results. © 2015 Muhammad Suleman and Qingbiao Wu.

PubMed | University of Punjab, National University of Sciences and Technology, University of Management and Technology, Hail University and Comsat Institute of Information Technology
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Annals of agricultural and environmental medicine : AAEM | Year: 2016

Viral gastroenteritis and other water-borne diseases are the most neglected areas of research in Pakistan. To determine the quality of water, 4 enteric viruses were studied from different localities of Peshawar, Pakistan. The study validates the viral detection method for Rotavirus (RV), Human adenovirus (HAdV), Enterovirus (EV) and Hepatitis A virus (HAV), directly from water sources of rural areas of Peshawar, KPK, Pakistan. Overall, 95 five water samples were tested; among them, 9.47% were positive for RV, 38.94% for HAdV, 48.42% for EV and 12.63% for HAV. The presence of these viruses in water was directly correlated with meteorological data. High prevalence of EV and HAdV was detected frequently in the wet season from May - September, which can be the potential cause of spreading of gastroenteritis in the population. Environmental surveillance is an additional tool to evaluate the epidemiology of enteric viruses circulating in a given community.

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