COMSAT Institute of Information Technology

Sahiwal, Pakistan

COMSAT Institute of Information Technology

Sahiwal, Pakistan
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Ahmad M.,Islamia University of Bahawalpur | Iqbal M.,The University of Faisalabad | Murtaza G.,COMSAT Institute of Information Technology
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences | Year: 2012

The present study was undertaken to compare the bioavailability and pharmacokinetic parameters of diclofenac sodium and diclofenac potassium in normal and experimentally induced diabetic state in 24 rabbits using a validated reversed phase HPLC method with a washout period of one week. Biochemical and physiological parameters were measured in normal and diabetic rabbits. Primary kinetic parameters i.e. AUC 0-∞, C max, t max and other disposition kinetics were determined with non-compartmental procedure. A paired t-test for normal and alloxan treated rabbits revealed a significant decrease in packed cell volume and a significant increase in glucose, total lipids, total proteins, albumin and globulin were observed in diabetic (metabolically altered) rabbits. Plasma concentration of diclofenac (sodium) and diclofenac (potassium) decreased in diabetic condition. Significantly high concentration of diclofenac (potassium) was observed in normal and diabetic conditions as compared to diclofenac (sodium). The variation in bioavailability and disposition of diclofenac sodium and diclofenac potassium in diabetic state will require adjustment of the dosage regimen prescribed for diabetics in clinical setting.


Idrees A.,Islamia University of Bahawalpur | Ur Rahman N.,COMSAT Institute of Information Technology | Javaid Z.,University Of Kashmir | Kashif M.,Islamia University of Bahawalpur | And 3 more authors.
Acta Poloniae Pharmaceutica - Drug Research | Year: 2014

This study was aimed to determine effects of penetration enhancers and plasticizers on drug release from rationally designed formulations of flurbiprofen based transdermal drug delivery system. Matrix type transdermal patches were formulated with ethyl cellulose (EC) as a polymer by using plate casting method. The plasticizers such as propylene glycol (PG) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP), and enhancers such as Span 20, Tween 20, sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), isopropyl myristate (IPM) and ethanol (EtOH) were formulated in different concentrations in the patches. Such different combinations of polymer with various enhancers and plasticizers in patches were evaluated for their effect on the physicochemical properties and drug release behavior of flurbiprofen. The drug release study was carried out by the paddle-over-disk method and permeation of drug was performed by Franz diffusion cell using rabbit skin. Patches having ethanol with ethyl cellulose showed more uniformity in the physical properties while the smoothness and clarity of patches containing sodium lauryl sulfate were not satisfactory. The drug release from patches followed Higuchi and Korsmeyer-Pappas model while maximum drug release was obtained by isopropyl myristate (903 μg). It was concluded that the patches having ethyl cellulose with isopropyl myristate and propylene glycol are more useful for transdermal patches of flurbiprofen.


Razaq M.,Bahauddin Zakariya University | Mehmood A.,Bahauddin Zakariya University | Aslam M.,COMSAT Institute of Information Technology | Ismail M.,Bahauddin Zakariya University | And 2 more authors.
Pakistan Journal of Botany | Year: 2011

Cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae L., and turnip aphid, Lipahis eyrsimi Kalt., are the regular insect pests of Brassica crops in Southern Punjab, Pakistan. Population development of and losses to yield and yield components due to these two aphid species were examined on late sown crops of Brassica napus L., Brassica juncea L., and Brassica carinata A. Braun under sprayed and unsprayed conditions during 2007-08 at Mulatn. Populations of both the species of aphids were statistically similar on three species of Brassica in unsprayed plots. Losses to yield, plant height, numbers of pods per plant, pod length, numbers of seeds per pod and pod weight were statistically similar across all the three species in untreated plots, those of thousand seeds weight was different. B. napus, B. juncea and B. carinata suffered 75.06, 77.25 and 81.86% losses from aphids in yield where insecticides were not applied. Pod weight, pods per plant and yield per ha., was significantly increased by application of insecticides for all the three species. Due to heavy losses in yield and yield components we recommend insecticide application for reducing losses due to aphids.


Ali I.,Bahauddin Zakariya University | Shakoor A.,Bahauddin Zakariya University | Islam M.U.,Bahauddin Zakariya University | Saeed M.,Bahauddin Zakariya University | And 2 more authors.
Current Applied Physics | Year: 2013

Y-type hexagonal ferrite Co2Sr2Fe12O 22 was prepared by microemulsion route. A conducting polymer, polypyrrole was chemically synthesized and doped with dodecylbenzenesulphonic acid (PPy·DBSA). FTIR and magnetic properties of Co2Sr 2Fe12O22 were investigated and compared with composite made by mixing the Co2Sr2Fe12O 22 with this conducting polymer PPy-DBSA by 1:1 molar ratio. Phase analysis was performed by using X-ray diffraction (XRD). The microstructure was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showing heterogonous distribution of grains. The field dependent magnetic properties of the prepared samples were investigated at room temperature by using vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). It has been observed that mixing of polymer in ferrite plays a crucial role in enhancing the coercivity, while saturation magnetization (Ms) and remanance were observed to decrease. Due to fine grain size, the density of grain boundaries increases where the domain wall pinning can take place, hence the coercivity of the composite samples increases. Appreciable improved value of coercivity guaranteed the use of these synthesized materials in the recording media, which is =1896(Oe) in the present samples. The suitable signal-to-noise ratio in the high density recording media can be achieved due to small particles size of this synthesized composite, which is expected in the present ferrite-polymer composite sample. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Ali I.,Bahauddin Zakariya University | Islam M.U.,Bahauddin Zakariya University | Ashiq M.N.,Bahauddin Zakariya University | Asif Iqbal M.,National University of Sciences and Technology | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Alloys and Compounds | Year: 2014

A series of (Tb-Mn) doped Sr2Co(2- x)MnxTbyFe(12 -y)O22 (x = 0.0-1, Y = 0.0-0.1) Y-type hexaferrite were synthesized by the microemulsion method. The effect of doping of manganese at the tetrahedral site, and terbium at octahedral site, has been studied. It was observed that changes in magnetic properties such as saturation magnetization, coercivity, remanence and magnetic moment due to the cationic stoichiometry and their occupancy in the specific sites. The energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis was used to confirm the concentration of the elements. Scanning electron micrograph of the samples showed that grains are of plate like shape which is quite encouraging for their use in microwave devices and in perpendicular recording media (PRM) due to their high value of coercivity, 3200 Oe comparable to M-type and W-type hexaferrites hard magnetic materials. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Iqbal K.,COMSAT Institute of Information Technology | Ahmed J.,COMSAT Institute of Information Technology | Rafique A.,Government of Pakistan
Proceedings - 14th International Conference on Frontiers of Information Technology, FIT 2016 | Year: 2017

In this era of telecommunications multi-carrier is the leading technology of choice. Multicarrier Spread Spectrum (MCSS) is a promising communication technique. It was introduced with three fundamental types, multi-carrier code-division-multiple-access (MC-CDMA), multi-carrier direct-sequence CDMA (MC-DS-CDMA) and Multi-tone CDMA (MT-CDMA). Though MCSS is robust to multipath fading and immune to inter symbol interference, it shows sensitivity towards Carrier Frequency Offset (CFO) and synchronization errors. CFO gives rise to Inter Carrier Interference (ICI) and Multiple Access Interference (MAI). ICI and MAI deteriorate the spectral efficiency along with noise and self-interference. We analyze the impact of different distributions of CFO among the interferers on the spectral efficiency in Rayleigh fading environment for all three categories of MCSS. We also analyzed the role of variance of CFO on the spectral efficiency. Simulation results unveil the effect that efficiency of the system gradually increases with increase in the variance of CFO. We have also done comparison for Gaussian distribution of Δk with uniform Δk by plotting spectral efficiency against variance, SINR and interferers. © 2016 IEEE.


PubMed | King Abdulaziz University, King College, New York State Department of Health and COMSAT Institute of Information & Technology
Type: | Journal: Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987) | Year: 2016

Most of the organohalogenated contaminants (OHCs) have high environmental stability and are lipophilic in nature, thus bioaccumulate through the various routes e.g., inhalation, dermal contact and food intake. Human exposure to these OHCs can induce adverse health effects. Studies on the occurrence of OHCs in human samples from Saudi Arabia are scarce. Therefore, this study aimed at providing preliminary insight on the occurrence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polybrominated biphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in diabetic and non-diabetic donors from KSA. Serum samples were collected from type 2 diabetic patients (n=40) and control donors (n=20) to study the impact of OHCs on their health. For the first time we studied the difference of OHCs in type 2 diabetic and control participants. The order of obtained results was OCPs (35-650ng/glw)> PCBs (15-90ng/glw)> PBDEs (1.5-68ng/glw). The major contributors were p,p-DDE (median 44ng/glw), PCB 153 (2.3ng/glw), PCB 138 (2.1ng/glw), BDE 153 (1.2ng/glw) and BDE 47 (0.85ng/glw). Exposure to different OHCs between male and female donors was not significantly different (p>0.05). However, PCBs and OHCs were significantly higher (p<0.05) in diabetic donors than those of control group. We computed significantly positive correlations (p<0.05) among different OHCs and between OHCs and age factor. The current study highlights the presence of different OHCs in humans from Jeddah, KSA. This is a preliminary study based on small sample size but our results suggested that detailed studies are required to understand the sources of these pollutants and their impact on human health.


Begum B.N.,University of Karachi | Hasan S.,COMSAT Institute of Information Technology
Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association | Year: 2014

Objective: To explore the difference between anxiety and depression among infertile and fertile women.Methods: The study was conducted in 2009 and comprised fertile and infertile women. The sample of infertile women was drawn from the Liaquat National Hospital, Patel Hospital, Infertility Concept and Zainub Hospital, located in urban areas of Karachi, while fertile women were drawn from the general population in urban Karachi. All the subjects had at least 10 years of education and were in the age range of 20-35 years. They two groups were further divided into two sub-groups of working and non-working women. Institute for Personality and Ability Testing Depression and Anxiety scales were used to assess depression and anxiety. SPSS 14.0 was used to analyse the data.Result: Of the 120 subjects, the two groups had 60(50%) each. The mean age of fertile women was 27.48±160.75 and that in the infertile group was 27.36±160.75. Depression among fertile women was 21.85±10.98 compared to 32.01±12.49 among the infertile women. Corresponding values for anxiety was 24.45±9.63 and 36.20±12.51.The difference was significant.Conclusion: Women with infertility experience a greater psychological impact. © 2014, J Pak Med Assoc. All rights reserved.


Suleman M.,Zhejiang University | Suleman M.,Comsat Institute of Information Technology | Wu Q.,Zhejiang University
Advances in Mathematical Physics | Year: 2015

We use modified homotopy perturbation method to find out the solution of nonlinear cubic quintic equation. Besides this method solution of the problem with the following methods is discussed, Energy Balance Method and He's Frequency Formulation method and then compare the results with each other and Global Error Method. The results show that these three methods are effective as global error method for nonlinear cubic quintic oscillator equation with multiple nonlinear terms and have different effects on the solution. In particular, the homotopy perturbation solution is quite surprising. A cubic quintic nonlinear oscillator is used as an example to compare the results. © 2015 Muhammad Suleman and Qingbiao Wu.


PubMed | University of Punjab, National University of Sciences and Technology, University of Management and Technology, Hail University and Comsat Institute of Information Technology
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Annals of agricultural and environmental medicine : AAEM | Year: 2016

Viral gastroenteritis and other water-borne diseases are the most neglected areas of research in Pakistan. To determine the quality of water, 4 enteric viruses were studied from different localities of Peshawar, Pakistan. The study validates the viral detection method for Rotavirus (RV), Human adenovirus (HAdV), Enterovirus (EV) and Hepatitis A virus (HAV), directly from water sources of rural areas of Peshawar, KPK, Pakistan. Overall, 95 five water samples were tested; among them, 9.47% were positive for RV, 38.94% for HAdV, 48.42% for EV and 12.63% for HAV. The presence of these viruses in water was directly correlated with meteorological data. High prevalence of EV and HAdV was detected frequently in the wet season from May - September, which can be the potential cause of spreading of gastroenteritis in the population. Environmental surveillance is an additional tool to evaluate the epidemiology of enteric viruses circulating in a given community.

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