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Eqani S.A.M.A.S.,COMSAT Institute of Information and Technology | Cincinelli A.,University of Florence | Cincinelli A.,CNR Institute for the Dynamics of Environmental Processes | Mehmood A.,CAS Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry | And 2 more authors.
Environmental Pollution | Year: 2015

This study aimed to assess the occurrence, distribution and dietary risks of seven dl-PCBs (dioxin-like PCBs) in eleven collected fish species from Chenab river, Pakistan. ∑7dl-PCBs (ng g-1, wet weight) burden was species-specific and the maximum average concentrations were found in Mastacembelus armatus (5.43), and Rita rita (5.1). Correlation of each dl-PCBs with δ15N%, indicated a food chain accumulation process of these chemicals into Chenab river, Pakistan. Species-specific toxicity of each dl-PCBs (WHO-PCBs TEQ) was calculated and higher values were found in three carnivore fish species i.e., M. armatus (2.5 pg TEQ g-1), R. rita (2.47 pg TEQ g-1), Securicola gora (2.98 pg TEQ g-1) and herbivore fish species i.e., Cirrhinus mrigala (2.44 pg TEQ g-1). The EDI (Estimated Daily Intake) values in most cases exceeded the WHO benchmark (4 pg WHO-TEQ kg-1 bw d-1) evidencing a potential health risk for consumers via fish consumption from Chenab river. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Ali N.,King Abdulaziz University | Rajeh N.,King College | Wang W.,New York State Department of Health | Abualnaja K.O.,King Abdulaziz University | And 4 more authors.
Environmental Pollution | Year: 2016

Most of the organohalogenated contaminants (OHCs) have high environmental stability and are lipophilic in nature, thus bioaccumulate through the various routes e.g., inhalation, dermal contact and food intake. Human exposure to these OHCs can induce adverse health effects. Studies on the occurrence of OHCs in human samples from Saudi Arabia are scarce. Therefore, this study aimed at providing preliminary insight on the occurrence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polybrominated biphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in diabetic and non-diabetic donors from KSA. Serum samples were collected from type 2 diabetic patients (n = 40) and control donors (n = 20) to study the impact of OHCs on their health. For the first time we studied the difference of ΣOHCs in type 2 diabetic and control participants. The order of obtained results was ΣOCPs (35-650 ng/g lw)> ΣPCBs (15-90 ng/g lw)> ΣPBDEs (1.5-68 ng/g lw). The major contributors were p,p′-DDE (median 44 ng/g lw), PCB 153 (2.3 ng/g lw), PCB 138 (2.1 ng/g lw), BDE 153 (1.2 ng/g lw) and BDE 47 (0.85 ng/g lw). Exposure to different OHCs between male and female donors was not significantly different (p > 0.05). However, ΣPCBs and ΣOHCs were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in diabetic donors than those of control group. We computed significantly positive correlations (p < 0.05) among different OHCs and between OHCs and age factor. The current study highlights the presence of different OHCs in humans from Jeddah, KSA. This is a preliminary study based on small sample size but our results suggested that detailed studies are required to understand the sources of these pollutants and their impact on human health. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Subhani M.,University of Sargodha | Mustafa I.,University of Sargodha | Alamdar A.,Chinese Institute of Urban Environment | Katsoyiannis I.A.,Aristotle University of Thessaloniki | And 5 more authors.
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety | Year: 2015

The present study aims at assessing arsenic (As) levels in outdoor dust and human exposure risks at different land use setting (i.e., rural, industrial, urban) from Punjab, Pakistan. The results showed higher As concentrations (mg/kg) in all the sample types (i.e., dust, hair and nail) collected from industrial sites (9.78, 2.36, 2.5) followed by urban (7.59, 0.38, 0.88) and rural sites (6.95, 0.52, 1.12), respectively. In the current study, we also carried out human risk assessment via contaminated dust exposure, which suggested that dust ingestion is the major route of As contamination for the associated population, followed by the inhalation and dermal contact, at all studied land use settings. Hazard Index (HI) calculated for non-carcinogenic health risks for adults showed higher values at industrial (0.65) and urban (0.53) sites, which reflected that dust exposure is the major contributing source of human arsenic burden and may pose several adverse health effects. Carcinogenic risk values showed that at industrial areas the risk of carcinogenesis to the associated population is mainly due to As contaminated dust exposure. Hair (60%) and nail samples (70%) collected from industrial land use were found above the WHO threshold limit of 1. mg/kg, suggested high risks for human health in the studied area. The results of the present study would be useful for assessing the human health risks due to arsenic contamination via dust exposure in different parts of country. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. Source

Alamdar A.,Chinese Institute of Urban Environment | Ali Musstjab Akber Shah Eqani S.,Chinese Institute of Urban Environment | Ali Musstjab Akber Shah Eqani S.,COMSAT Institute of Information and Technology | Waqar Ali S.,COMSAT Institute of Information and Technology | And 8 more authors.
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety | Year: 2016

The present study aims to assess the arsenic (As) levels into dust samples and its implications for human health, of four ecological zones of Pakistan, which included northern frozen mountains (FMZ), lower Himalyian wet mountains (WMZ), alluvial riverine plains (ARZ), and low lying agricultural areas (LLZ). Human nail samples (N=180) of general population were also collected from the similar areas and all the samples were analysed by using ICP-MS. In general the higher levels (p<0.05) in paired dust and human nail samples were observed from ARZ and LLZ than those of other mountainous areas (i.e., WMZ and FMZ), respectively. Current results suggested that elevated As concentrations were associated to both natural, (e.g. geogenic influences) and anthropogenic sources. Linear regression model values indicated that As levels into dust samples were associated with altitude (r2=0.23), soil carbonate carbon density (SCC; r2=0.33), and population density (PD; r2=0.25). The relationship of paired dust and nail samples was also investigated and associations were found for As-nail and soil organic carbon density (SOC; r2=0.49) and SCC (r2=0.19) in each studied zone, evidencing the dust exposure as an important source of arsenic contamination in Pakistan. Risk estimation reflected higher hazard index (HI) values of non-carcinogenic risk (HI>1) for children populations in all areas (except FMZ), and for adults in LLZ (0.74) and ARZ (0.55), suggesting that caution should be paid about the dust exposure. Similarly, carcinogenic risk assessment also highlighted potential threats to the residents of LLZ and ARZ, as in few cases (5-10%) the values exceeded the range of US-EPA threshold limits (10-6-10-4). © 2016 Elsevier Inc. Source

Zafar A.,COMSAT Institute of Information and Technology | Eqani S.A.M.A.S.,COMSAT Institute of Information and Technology | Bostan N.,COMSAT Institute of Information and Technology | Cincinelli A.,University of Florence | And 7 more authors.
Environmental Geochemistry and Health | Year: 2015

Aims of this study were to provide firsthand data on the incidence of trace metals in human seminal plasma and find possible correlations between levels of toxic metals and semen quality of Pakistani population. Human semen samples were collected from male partners of couples undergoing infertility assessment at the National Institute of Health Islamabad (Pakistan). We investigated seventy-five seminal plasma samples, which were further categorized into three groups (normozoospermia, oligozoospermia and azoospermia) according to WHO guidelines. The concentration of 17 different toxic metals in human seminal plasma was determined simultaneously by using Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Out of 17 trace metals, Cd and Ni showed significant difference (p < 0.05) among three monitored groups. Ni and Cd concentrations in the seminal plasma were negatively correlated with sperm concentration (r = −0.26, −0.29) and motility (r = −0.33, −0.37), respectively. This study suggested that exposure of Ni and Cd is mainly related with the consumption of contaminated dietary items, including ghee (cooking oil), flour and other agri-products. In some semen samples, the concentrations of Sn, V, Cu, Pb, Cr and Hg exhibited high levels suggesting a recent human exposure to surrounding sources. In Pakistani human semen samples, the levels of trace metals were lower and/or comparable to that found in populations of other countries. The results show the first evidence of the effect of toxic metals on semen quality and male infertility in Pakistan. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source

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