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Meyners M.,Procter and Gamble | Castura J.C.,Compusense Inc. | Worch T.,Qi Statistics Ltd
Food Quality and Preference | Year: 2016

Methodologies for evaluating panel repeatability in Check-All-That-Apply (CATA) questions are reviewed and developed. First, the limitations with using McNemar's test as suggested elsewhere for the evaluation of repeatability are demonstrated through simple examples. Alternative approaches are then suggested and discussed. These include the binomial test, Gwet's AC1 statistic, and Pearson's χ2 goodness-of-fit test. These methodologies are applied to previously published orange juice data. The advantages of using the binomial test or the Pearson's χ2-goodness-of-fit test are related to their accessibility in most statistical software packages. The advantages of using the Gwet's AC1 statistic or the Pearson's χ2 goodness-of-fit test are related to the fact that tests are easily generalized to more than 2 replications. Pearson's χ2 goodness-of-fit test is widely available in statistical software and generalizable to more than 2 replications, but this test is sensitive to very low expected frequencies. For this reason we suggest using Gwet's AC1 statistic, which does not share this limitation. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Castura J.C.,Compusense Inc. | Baker A.K.,Washington State University | Ross C.F.,Washington State University
Food Quality and Preference | Year: 2016

Approaches for analyzing temporal check-all-that-apply (TCATA) data are further developed and illustrated using data arising from a Syrah wine finish evaluation. Raw and smoothed trajectories are obtained using principal component analysis. Virtual panels are obtained from a partial bootstrap, and the attribute citation proportions are then projected into the solution space to form contrails. Trajectories are overlaid on the contrails, allowing smoothing to be evaluated. Separation between two contrails provides evidence that the trajectories differ. At individual time slices, data concentration ellipses are overlaid on bootstrap scores. Separation of ellipses provides evidence of differences among treatments. Difference trajectories and difference ellipses can also be plotted; if the difference ellipse excludes the origin it indicates a difference between the treatments. Animated sequences summarize changes in product characterization over time in a manner that facilitates review. A glossary of terms introduced in the paper is provided in an appendix. © 2016 The Authors


PubMed | Washington State University and Compusense Inc
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of food science | Year: 2016

Temporal Check-All-That-Apply (TCATA) is a new dynamic sensory method for which analysis techniques are still being developed and optimized. In this study, TCATA methodology was applied for the evaluation of wine finish by trained panelists (n = 13) on Syrah wines with different ethanol concentrations (10.5% v/v and 15.5% v/v). Raw data were time standardized to create a percentage of finish duration, subsequently segmented into thirds (beginning, middle, and end) to capture panel perception. Results indicated the finish of the high ethanol treatments lasted longer (approximately 12 s longer) than the low ethanol treatment (P 0.05). Within each finish segment, Cochrans Q was conducted on each attribute and differences were detected amongst treatments (P 0.05). Pairwise tests showed the high ethanol treatments were more described by astringency, heat/ethanol burn, bitterness, dark fruit, and spices, whereas the low ethanol treatment was more characterized by sourness, red fruit, and green flavors (P 0.05). This study demonstrated techniques for dealing with the data generated by TCATA. Furthermore, this study further characterized the influence of ethanol on wine finish, and by extension wine quality, with implications to winemakers responsible for wine processing decisions involving alcohol management.


Boinbaser L.,University of the Republic of Uruguay | Parente M.E.,University of the Republic of Uruguay | Castura J.C.,Compusense Inc. | Ares G.,University of the Republic of Uruguay
Food Quality and Preference | Year: 2015

The evolution of sensory characteristics during the application of cosmetic creams has been long recognized as important. However, standard methodologies do not evaluate how sensory characteristics of products change during application, and do not determine the onset of specific sensations. In this manuscript, a new temporal methodology, Temporal Check-All-That-Apply (TCATA), is used to enable characterization of the dynamic sensory properties of cosmetic creams during application. Six cosmetic emulsions were evaluated by 22 semi-trained assessors in duplicate using TCATA. Nine sensory attributes were considered: sticky, difficult to spread, easy to spread, white residue, fresh, smooth, waxy, greasy, and oily. Data were analyzed using line plots, difference curves, and correspondence analysis. The temporal profiles of the products during application were determined and fitted expectations due to changes in their rheological properties, water evaporation, and absorption into the stratum corneum of the skin, which cause changes in the structure of the film of product left on the skin. Differences in the temporal profiles of the samples were identified and explained by differences in their formulations, which indicates the validity of the data collected using TCATA with semi-trained assessors. These results show the potential of TCATA for characterizing the dynamic sensory profile of cosmetic creams during application, which opens new possibilities to sensory characterization of other cosmetic products. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Franczak B.C.,McMaster University | Browne R.P.,McMaster University | McNicholas P.D.,McMaster University | Findlay C.J.,Compusense Inc.
Food Quality and Preference | Year: 2015

Liking studies are designed to ascertain consumers likes and dislikes on a variety of products. However, it can be undesirable to construct liking studies where each panelist evaluates every target product. In such cases, an incomplete-block design, where each panelist evaluates only a subset of the target products, can be used. These incomplete blocks are often balanced, so that all pairs occur the same number of times. While desirable in many situations, balanced incomplete blocks have the disadvantage that, by their nature, they cannot favor placing dissimilar products next to one another. A novel incomplete-block design is introduced that utilizes the target product's sensory profile to allocate products to each panelist so that they are, in general, as dissimilar as possible while also ensuring position balance. The resulting design is called a sensory informed design (SID). Herein, details on the formulation of SIDs are given. Data arising from these SIDs are analyzed using a simultaneous clustering and imputation approach, and the results are discussed. © 2015 The Authors.


Castura J.C.,Compusense Inc. | Antunez L.,University of the Republic of Uruguay | Gimenez A.,University of the Republic of Uruguay | Ares G.,University of the Republic of Uruguay
Food Quality and Preference | Year: 2015

Temporal Check-All-That-Apply (TCATA) is introduced as a new dynamic method for describing multidimensional sensory properties of products as they evolve over time. TCATA extends the Check-All-That-Apply (CATA) method. Selection and deselection of attributes are tracked continuously over time, permitting assessors to characterize the evolution of sensory changes in products. TCATA is presented using results from trained panel evaluations of yogurt products. Data are also used to illustrate approaches for exploratory data analysis. Raw data from each assessor are represented using indicator charts. Panel data are aggregated into TCATA product plots. Reference lines are added to provide additional guidance. Product pairwise comparisons are made in TCATA difference plots, emphasizing differences that are less likely to have arisen from chance. Correspondence analysis (CA) is used to visualize product trajectories over time in a sensory space, providing a summary multivariate understanding of the dynamic sensory properties. CA conducted on the TCATA yogurt data highlight the importance of the dynamic profile, and suggest that understanding the complexity of products requires investigation of temporal changes. Results indicate that the TCATA method has potential for evaluating temporal aspects of sensory perception but further research is required to identify methodological issues and to refine the methodology. © 2015 The Authors.


Castura J.C.,Compusense Inc. | Li M.,University of Guelph
Food Quality and Preference | Year: 2015

Temporal Dominance of Sensations (TDS) involves selection and continuous update of a dominant attribute, and provides sequence data to characterize products. As a novel development in this manuscript, TDS data are represented in dominance sequences (TDS monads, TDS dyads, TDS triads, and TDS tetrads). Then, two main lines of research are followed. The first line of investigation focuses on the flavoured fresh cheeses, with objectives related mainly to product characterization, hypothesis generation in relation to aspects of the consumption experience, and connection of TDS dyads to temporal liking (TL) data collected from the same consumers in a different session. Associations between TDS dyads and average, positive, and negative liking changes are investigated. The attributes Fresh Herbs and Garlic emerge as positive hedonic drivers, and Cooked Herbs as a negative hedonic driver. The second line of investigation focuses on methodological aspects of TDS, made possible by a novel data treatment. The TDS task requires that attributes be selected sequentially. Symmetric dyad frequency matrices and alternating dominance sequences (ABA and ABAB patterns) suggest concurrent perception. Additional points are also raised, especially related to dominance gaps in TDS data that arise from methodology that is intended to maintain assessors' engagement. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Fisher C.M.,Compusense Inc. | King S.K.,Compusense Inc. | Castura J.C.,Compusense Inc. | Findlay C.J.,Compusense Inc.
Journal of Sensory Studies | Year: 2016

The objective of this study was to determine if data capture device type had a significant influence on sensory descriptive analysis results. 12 trained assessors evaluated 4 snack bar products in triplicate on each of three devices (iPod, iPad, external monitor). Four-way univariate analysis of variance detected no significant product by device interaction in 19 of 20 attributes. Products were ranked in a similar manner with regards to attribute intensity on all devices. Both Principal Component Analysis and Generalized Procrustes Analysis multivariate configurations showed very similar arrangements for all products and devices. The input device is identified as a potential factor in the trend toward lower absolute scale values with increasing screen sizes. Practical Applications: The computerized devices that are available for sensory data collection have changed over the years. Research facilities often compare historical data to newly obtained data sets; however, the question remains: can data be compared when different data collection devices were used? This study determined that descriptive analysis test results are comparable if data are collected on an iPod, an iPad and a laptop with a monitor display. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Meyners M.,Procter and Gamble | Castura J.C.,Compusense Inc.
Food Quality and Preference | Year: 2016

For the check-all-that-apply (CATA) question format, it is good practice to vary the attribute list order between evaluations to account for possible (and likely) position bias in the data. If attribute lists are to be randomized, the question is how to allocate these attribute lists orders. Some authors recommend a "to samples" allocation order, randomizing the attribute list order for each sample presented. Other authors recommend a "to assessors" allocation, randomizing the attribute list order for each assessor, such that the list order is stable across samples for each assessor (if replication is used, assessors are given a new attribute list order per replication). In this study, consumers (n= 93) performed CATA evaluations on 6 breads twice. The evaluation was done once using the "to assessors" CATA list order allocation scheme, and once using the "to samples" CATA list order allocation scheme, with the order of allocation schemes balanced by experimental design. Results suggest higher operational power when using the "to assessor" CATA attribute list order. This conclusion is supported by theoretical considerations. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Meyners M.,Procter and Gamble | Castura J.C.,Compusense Inc. | Carr B.T.,Carr Consulting
Food Quality and Preference | Year: 2013

Check-all-that-apply (CATA) questionnaires have seen a widespread use recently. In this paper, we briefly review some of the existing approaches to analyze data obtained from such a study. Proposed extensions to these methods include a generalization of Cochran's Q to test for product differences across all attributes, and a more informative penalty analysis. Multidimensional alignment (MDA) is suggested as a useful tool to investigate the association between products and the attributes. Comparisons of real products with an ideal are useful in identifying specific improvements for individual products. Penalty and penalty-lift analyses are used to identify (positive and negative) drivers of liking. The methods are illustrated by means of CATA study on whole grain breads. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

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