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Oliveira D.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Antunez L.,University of the Republic of Uruguay | Gimenez A.,University of the Republic of Uruguay | Castura J.C.,Compusense Inc | And 2 more authors.
Food Research International | Year: 2015

Reducing the sugar content of processed products has been claimed to be one of the most efficient strategies for decreasing sugar intake. The present work aimed at studying the influence of sugar reduction on the dynamic sensory profile and consumers' liking of probiotic chocolate-flavored milks using a novel temporal methodology, and to evaluate two alternatives (vanilla flavor and thaumatin) to attenuate the sensory changes caused by sugar reduction. Probiotic chocolate-flavored milks were formulated with different reductions in added sugar (0, 20, 40 and 60%). Vanilla flavor and thaumatin were added to the sugar-reduced samples at two concentrations. Samples were evaluated by trained assessors using Temporal check-all-that-apply (TCATA). Additionally, consumers evaluated the dynamic sensory profile of a subset of the samples using TCATA and indicated their overall liking using a 9-point hedonic scale. Results from the present work showed that the main effect of sugar reduction on the dynamic sensory profile of the probiotic chocolate-flavored milks was related to changes in sweetness, bitterness and thickness. A reduction in added sugar of 20% led to changes in sweetness intensity, which were perceived by both trained assessors and consumers. However, consumers' liking was not significantly affected by sugar reduction up to 40%. The addition of vanilla flavor at suprathreshold concentrations was not efficient in increasing sweetness perception in chocolate-flavored milks with the lowest sugar reduction percentage, suggesting that it may not be a feasible alternative for reducing sugar in this product category. These results suggest that in many situations sugar content of food products could be decreased without a relevant impact on consumers' sensory and hedonic perception. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Meyners M.,Procter and Gamble | Castura J.C.,Compusense Inc | Worch T.,Qi Statistics Ltd
Food Quality and Preference | Year: 2016

Methodologies for evaluating panel repeatability in Check-All-That-Apply (CATA) questions are reviewed and developed. First, the limitations with using McNemar's test as suggested elsewhere for the evaluation of repeatability are demonstrated through simple examples. Alternative approaches are then suggested and discussed. These include the binomial test, Gwet's AC1 statistic, and Pearson's χ2 goodness-of-fit test. These methodologies are applied to previously published orange juice data. The advantages of using the binomial test or the Pearson's χ2-goodness-of-fit test are related to their accessibility in most statistical software packages. The advantages of using the Gwet's AC1 statistic or the Pearson's χ2 goodness-of-fit test are related to the fact that tests are easily generalized to more than 2 replications. Pearson's χ2 goodness-of-fit test is widely available in statistical software and generalizable to more than 2 replications, but this test is sensitive to very low expected frequencies. For this reason we suggest using Gwet's AC1 statistic, which does not share this limitation. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Castura J.C.,Compusense Inc | Antunez L.,University of the Republic of Uruguay | Gimenez A.,University of the Republic of Uruguay | Ares G.,University of the Republic of Uruguay
Food Quality and Preference | Year: 2015

Temporal Check-All-That-Apply (TCATA) is introduced as a new dynamic method for describing multidimensional sensory properties of products as they evolve over time. TCATA extends the Check-All-That-Apply (CATA) method. Selection and deselection of attributes are tracked continuously over time, permitting assessors to characterize the evolution of sensory changes in products. TCATA is presented using results from trained panel evaluations of yogurt products. Data are also used to illustrate approaches for exploratory data analysis. Raw data from each assessor are represented using indicator charts. Panel data are aggregated into TCATA product plots. Reference lines are added to provide additional guidance. Product pairwise comparisons are made in TCATA difference plots, emphasizing differences that are less likely to have arisen from chance. Correspondence analysis (CA) is used to visualize product trajectories over time in a sensory space, providing a summary multivariate understanding of the dynamic sensory properties. CA conducted on the TCATA yogurt data highlight the importance of the dynamic profile, and suggest that understanding the complexity of products requires investigation of temporal changes. Results indicate that the TCATA method has potential for evaluating temporal aspects of sensory perception but further research is required to identify methodological issues and to refine the methodology. © 2015 The Authors.

Castura J.C.,Compusense Inc | Li M.,University of Guelph
Food Quality and Preference | Year: 2015

Temporal Dominance of Sensations (TDS) involves selection and continuous update of a dominant attribute, and provides sequence data to characterize products. As a novel development in this manuscript, TDS data are represented in dominance sequences (TDS monads, TDS dyads, TDS triads, and TDS tetrads). Then, two main lines of research are followed. The first line of investigation focuses on the flavoured fresh cheeses, with objectives related mainly to product characterization, hypothesis generation in relation to aspects of the consumption experience, and connection of TDS dyads to temporal liking (TL) data collected from the same consumers in a different session. Associations between TDS dyads and average, positive, and negative liking changes are investigated. The attributes Fresh Herbs and Garlic emerge as positive hedonic drivers, and Cooked Herbs as a negative hedonic driver. The second line of investigation focuses on methodological aspects of TDS, made possible by a novel data treatment. The TDS task requires that attributes be selected sequentially. Symmetric dyad frequency matrices and alternating dominance sequences (ABA and ABAB patterns) suggest concurrent perception. Additional points are also raised, especially related to dominance gaps in TDS data that arise from methodology that is intended to maintain assessors' engagement. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Franczak B.C.,McMaster University | Browne R.P.,McMaster University | McNicholas P.D.,McMaster University | Findlay C.J.,Compusense Inc
Food Quality and Preference | Year: 2015

Liking studies are designed to ascertain consumers likes and dislikes on a variety of products. However, it can be undesirable to construct liking studies where each panelist evaluates every target product. In such cases, an incomplete-block design, where each panelist evaluates only a subset of the target products, can be used. These incomplete blocks are often balanced, so that all pairs occur the same number of times. While desirable in many situations, balanced incomplete blocks have the disadvantage that, by their nature, they cannot favor placing dissimilar products next to one another. A novel incomplete-block design is introduced that utilizes the target product's sensory profile to allocate products to each panelist so that they are, in general, as dissimilar as possible while also ensuring position balance. The resulting design is called a sensory informed design (SID). Herein, details on the formulation of SIDs are given. Data arising from these SIDs are analyzed using a simultaneous clustering and imputation approach, and the results are discussed. © 2015 The Authors.

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