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Orlando, FL, United States

Greiner H.M.,Medical Center | Tillema J.-M.,Mayo Medical School | Hallinan B.E.,Medical Center | Holland K.,Medical Center | And 2 more authors.
Seizure | Year: 2012

Medically refractory status epilepticus (RSE) causes high morbidity and mortality in children. There are no evidence-based guidelines for treatment. Epilepsy surgery is a treatment option for RSE. We describe a 9-year-old boy treated successfully for RSE with complete corpus callosotomy (CC). Epilepsy surgery should be considered for prolonged RSE. In the absence of evidence of focal epileptogenesis, complete corpus callosotomy may be effective in select cases. © 2012 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Korostenskaja M.,Center for Pediatric Research and Outcomes and Comprehensive Pediatric Epilepsy Center | Wilson A.J.,University of Cincinnati | Rose D.F.,Cincinnati Childrens Hospital Medical Center | Brunner P.,New York State Department of Health | And 9 more authors.
Clinical EEG and Neuroscience | Year: 2014

SIGFRIED (SIGnal modeling For Real-time Identification and Event Detection) software provides real-time functional mapping (RTFM) of eloquent cortex for epilepsy patients preparing to undergo resective surgery. This study presents the first application of paradigms used in functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) and electrical cortical stimulation mapping (ESM) studies for shared functional cortical mapping in the context of RTFM. Results from the 3 modalities are compared. A left-handed 13-year-old male with intractable epilepsy participated in functional mapping for localization of eloquent language cortex with fMRI, ESM, and RTFM. For RTFM, data were acquired over the frontal and temporal cortex. Several paradigms were sequentially presented: passive (listening to stories) and active (picture naming and verb generation). For verb generation and story processing, fMRI showed atypical right lateralizing language activation within temporal lobe regions of interest and bilateral frontal activation with slight right lateralization. Left hemisphere ESM demonstrated no eloquent language areas. RTFM procedures using story processing and picture naming elicited activity in the right lateral and basal temporal regions. Verb generation elicited strong right lateral temporal lobe activation, as well as left frontal lobe activation. RTFM results confirmed atypical language lateralization evident from fMRI and ESM. We demonstrated the feasibility and usefulness of a new RTFM stimulation paradigm during presurgical evaluation. Block design paradigms used in fMRI may be optimal for this purpose. Further development is needed to create age-appropriate RTFM test batteries. © EEG and Clinical Neuroscience.

Miles L.,Divisions of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine | Greiner H.M.,Divisions of Pediatric Neurology | Miles M.V.,Divisions of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine | Mangano F.T.,Cincinnati Childrens Hospitalmedical Center | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology | Year: 2013

To identify pathologic characteristics that are associated with outcome, we performed a retrospective analysis of the clinical, radiologic, and pathologic features of 44 children with isolated focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) after epilepsy surgery. Based on the International League Against Epilepsy Classification, 16 patients had FCD Type I and 28 subjects had FCD Type II. A significantly higher percentage of subjects with FCD Type IIb versus Types I and IIa were seizure-free after surgery. Akt (also known as protein kinase B) is the main downstream target of phosphatidylinositol 3′-kinase and has been implicated in epilepsy pathogenesis. Semiquantitative analysis of cortical gliosis and quantitation of Akt1-immunoreactive neurons indicated that individuals with FCD Type II were more likely to have diffuse astrogliosis and higher counts of Akt1-positive neurons versus those with FCD Type I. A logistic regression model, including Akt1-positive neurons, age at surgery, and the interaction of these factors, was significantly associated with seizure-free outcome. This study provides evidence that astrogliosis and overexpression of neuronal Akt1 protein may be important factors in the pathogenesis of FCD and suggests that the pathogenesis of FCD Type I may differ from that of FCD Type II in children. © 2013 by the American Association of Neuropathologists, Inc.

Korostenskaja M.,Comprehensive Pediatric Epilepsy Center | Korostenskaja M.,Cincinnati Childrens Hospital Medical Center | Harris E.,Cincinnati Childrens Hospital Medical Center | Giovanetti C.,Cincinnati Childrens Hospital Medical Center | And 6 more authors.
Psychiatry Research - Neuroimaging | Year: 2013

Patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) often report sensory intolerances which may lead to significant functional impairment. This study used auditory evoked fields (AEFs) to address the question of whether neural correlates of sensory auditory information processing differ in youth with OCD compared with healthy comparison subjects (HCS). AEFs, recorded with a whole head 275-channel magnetoencephalography system, were elicited in response to binaural auditory stimuli from 10 pediatric subjects with OCD (ages 8-13, mean 11 years, 6 males) and 10 age- and gender-matched HCS. Three major neuromagnetic responses were studied: M70 (60-80 ms), M100 (90-120 ms), and M150 (130-190. ms). When compared with HCS, subjects with OCD demonstrated delayed latency of the M100 response. In subjects with OCD the amplitude of the M100 and M150 responses was significantly greater in the right hemisphere compared with the left hemisphere. Current results suggest that when compared with HCS, subjects with OCD have altered auditory information processing, evident from the delayed latency of the M100 response, which is thought to be associated with the encoding of physical stimulus characteristics. Interhemispheric asymmetry with increased M100 and M150 amplitudes over the right hemisphere compared with the left hemisphere was found in young OCD subjects. These results should be interpreted with caution due to the high variability rate of responses in both HCS and OCD subjects, as well as the possible effect of medication in OCD subjects. © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Xiang J.,University of Cincinnati | Korostenskaja M.,Comprehensive Pediatric Epilepsy Center | O'Brien H.L.,University of Cincinnati | Kabbouche M.A.,University of Cincinnati | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Pain | Year: 2013

To quantitatively assess cortical dysfunction in pediatric migraine, 31 adolescents with acute migraine and age- and gender-matched controls were studied using a magnetoencephalography (MEG) system at a sampling rate of 6,000 Hz. Neuromagnetic brain activation was elicited by a finger-tapping task. The spectral and spatial signatures of magnetoencephalography data in 5 to 2,884 Hz were analyzed using Morlet wavelet and beamformers. Compared with controls, 31 migraine subjects during their headache attack phases (ictal) showed significantly prolonged latencies of neuromagnetic activation in 5 to 30 Hz, increased spectral power in 100 to 200 Hz, and a higher likelihood of neuromagnetic activation in the supplementary motor area, the occipital and ipsilateral sensorimotor cortices, in 2,200 to 2,800 Hz. Of the 31 migraine subjects, 16 migraine subjects during their headache-free phases (interictal) showed that there were no significant differences between interictal and control MEG data except that interictal spectral power in 100 to 200 Hz was significantly decreased. The results demonstrated that migraine subjects had significantly aberrant ictal brain activation, which can normalize interictally. The spread of abnormal ictal brain activation in both low- and high-frequency ranges triggered by movements may play a key role in the cascade of migraine attacks. Perspective: This is the first study focusing on the spectral and spatial signatures of cortical dysfunction in adolescents with migraine using MEG signals in a frequency range of 5 to 2,884 Hz. This methodology analyzing aberrant brain activation may be important for developing new therapeutic interventions for migraine in the future. © 2013 by the American Pain Society.

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