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Hutson T.E.,Baylor Sammons Cancer Center | Hutson T.E.,Us Oncology Research | Al-Shukri S.,Saint Petersburg State University | Stus V.P.,Municipal Institution Dnipropetrovsk Regional Clinical Hospital Na Ii Mechnikov | And 7 more authors.
The Lancet Oncology | Year: 2013

Background: In previous clinical trials of patients with metastatic renal-cell carcinoma, patients treated with axitinib as second-line therapy had longer median progression-free survival than those treated with sorafenib. We therefore undertook a phase 3 trial comparing axitinib with sorafenib in patients with treatment-naive metastatic renal-cell carcinoma. Methods: In this randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial, patients with treatment-naive, measurable, clear-cell metastatic renal-cell carcinoma from 13 countries were stratified by Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status, and then randomly assigned (2:1) by a centralised registration system to receive axitinib 5 mg twice daily, or sorafenib 400 mg twice daily. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival, assessed by masked independent review committee in the intention-to-treat population. This ongoing trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00920816. Findings: Between June 14, 2010, and April 21, 2011, we randomly assigned 192 patients to receive axitinib, and 96 patients to receive sorafenib. The cutoff date for this analysis was July 27, 2012, when 171 (59%) of 288 patients died or had disease progression, as assessed by the independent review committee. There was no significant difference in median progression-free survival between patients treated with axitinib or sorafenib (10·1 months [95% CI 7·2-12·1] vs 6·5 months [4·7-8·3], respectively; stratified hazard ratio 0·77, 95% CI 0·56-1·05). Any-grade adverse events that were more common (≥10% difference) with axitinib than with sorafenib were diarrhoea (94 [50%] of 189 patients vs 38 [40%] of 96 patients), hypertension (92 [49%] vs 28 [29%]), weight decrease (69 [37%] vs 23 [24%]), decreased appetite (54 [29%] vs 18 [19%]), dysphonia (44 [23%] vs ten [10%]), hypothyroidism (39 [21%] vs seven [7%]), and upper abdominal pain (31 [16%] vs six [6%]); those more common with sorafenib than with axitinib included palmar-plantar erythrodysaesthesia (PPE; 37 [39%] of 96 patients vs 50 [26%] of 189), rash (19 [20%] vs 18 [10%]), alopecia (18 [19%] vs eight [4%]), and erythema (18 [19%] vs five [3%]). The most common grade 3 or 4 adverse events in patients treated with axitinib included hypertension (26 [14%] of 189 patients), diarrhoea (17 [9%]), asthenia (16 [8%]), weight decrease (16 [8%]), and PPE (14 [7%]); common grade 3 or 4 adverse events in patients treated with sorafenib included PPE (15 [16%] of 96 patients), diarrhoea (five [5%]), and asthenia (five [5%]). Serious adverse events were reported in 64 (34%) of 189 patients receiving axitinib, and 24 (25%) of 96 patients receiving sorafenib. Interpretation: Axitinib did not significantly increase progression-free survival in patients with treatment-naive metastatic renal-cell carcinoma compared with those treated with sorafenib, but did demonstrate clinical activity and an acceptable safety profile. Funding: Pfizer Inc. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Powles T.,Queen Mary, University of London | Eder J.P.,Yale Cancer Center | Fine G.D.,Genentech | Braiteh F.S.,Comprehensive Cancer Centers of Nevada | And 11 more authors.
Nature | Year: 2014

There have been no major advances for the treatment of metastatic urothelial bladder cancer (UBC) in the last 30 years. Chemotherapy is still the standard of care. Patient outcomes, especially for those in whom chemotherapy is not effective or is poorly tolerated, remain poor1,2.OnehallmarkofUBCis the presence of high rates ofsomatic mutations3-5. These alterations may enhance the ability of the host immune system to recognize tumour cells as foreign owing to an increasednumber of antigens6.However, these cancersmay also elude immune surveillance and eradication through the expression of programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1; also calledCD274 or B7-H1) in the tumour microenvironment7,8. Therefore, we examined the anti-PDL1 antibody MPDL3280A, a systemic cancer immunotherapy, for the treatment ofmetastaticUBC.MPDL3280Ais a high-affinity engineered human anti-PD-L1monoclonal immunoglobulin-G1 antibody that inhibits the interaction ofPD-L1 with PD-1 (PDCD1) and B7.1 (CD80)9. BecausePD-L1is expressed onactivatedTcells,MPDL3280A was engineered with amodification in the Fc domain that eliminates antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity at clinically relevant doses to prevent the depletion of T cells expressing PD-L1. Here we show that MPDL3280A has noteworthy activity in metastatic UBC. Responses were often rapid, with many occurring at the time of the first response assessment (6weeks) and nearly allwere ongoing at the data cutoff. This phase I expansion study, with an adaptive design that allowed for biomarker-positive enriched cohorts, demonstrated that tumours expressing PD-L1-positive tumour-infiltrating immunecells had particularly high response rates. Moreover, owing to the favourable toxicity profile, including a lack of renal toxicity, patients with UBC,who areoftenolder and have ahigher incidence of renalimpairment, may be better able to tolerateMPDL3280A versus chemotherapy. These results suggest thatMPDL3280A may have an important role in treating UBC - the drug received breakthrough designation status by theUSFood and DrugAdministration (FDA) in June 2014. ©2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Source


Sweeney C.J.,Dana-Farber Cancer Institute | Sweeney C.J.,Harvard University | Carducci M.,Johns Hopkins University | Liu G.,University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee | And 13 more authors.
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2015

BACKGROUND Androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) has been the backbone of treatment for metastatic prostate cancer since the 1940s. We assessed whether concomitant treatment with ADT plus docetaxel would result in longer overall survival than that with ADT alone. METHODS We assigned men with metastatic, hormone-sensitive prostate cancer to receive either ADT plus docetaxel (at a dose of 75 mg per square meter of body-surface area every 3 weeks for six cycles) or ADT alone. The primary objective was to test the hypothesis that the median overall survival would be 33.3% longer among patients receiving docetaxel added to ADT early during therapy than among patients receiving ADT alone. RESULTS A total of 790 patients (median age, 63 years) underwent randomization. After a median follow-up of 28.9 months, the median overall survival was 13.6 months longer with ADT plus docetaxel (combination therapy) than with ADT alone (57.6 months vs. 44.0 months; hazard ratio for death in the combination group, 0.61; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.47 to 0.80; P<0.001). The median time to biochemical, symptomatic, or radiographic progression was 20.2 months in the combination group, as compared with 11.7 months in the ADT-alone group (hazard ratio, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.51 to 0.72; P<0.001). The rate of a prostate-specific antigen level of less than 0.2 ng per milliliter at 12 months was 27.7% in the combination group versus 16.8% in the ADT-alone group (P<0.001). In the combination group, the rate of grade 3 or 4 febrile neutropenia was 6.2%, the rate of grade 3 or 4 infection with neutropenia was 2.3%, and the rate of grade 3 sensory neuropathy and of grade 3 motor neuropathy was 0.5%. CONCLUSIONS Six cycles of docetaxel at the beginning of ADT for metastatic prostate cancer resulted in significantly longer overall survival than that with ADT alone. Copyright © 2015 Massachusetts Medical Society. Source


Sonpavde G.,Baylor College of Medicine | Sternberg C.N.,San Camillo Forlanini Hospital | Rosenberg J.E.,Dana-Farber Cancer Institute | Hahn N.M.,Indiana University | And 2 more authors.
The Lancet Oncology | Year: 2010

Front-line platinum-based combination chemotherapy leads to high response rates but suboptimum overall survival for patients with advanced transitional-cell carcinoma of the urothelium. Bevacizumab is being assessed in combination with platinum-based first-line chemotherapy in a large phase 3 trial. Current second-line systemic therapies, including taxanes, yield disappointing outcomes. Vinflunine, a novel vinca alkaloid, showed some activity and was recently approved in Europe based on results of the first completed phase 3 trial in the second-line setting. Better understanding of molecular biology and the emergence of novel biological agents now offer the possibility of improved outcomes. Neoadjuvant therapy before cystectomy and consolidation therapy with biological agents after first-line therapy provide a framework for the development of new drugs. We propose that trials to approve new drugs target two separate populations; multicentre non-randomised phase 2 trials should include patients with chemotherapy-resistant disease progressing within 6 months of first-line therapy, and randomised trials might be appropriate for chemotherapy-sensitive disease progressing more than 6 months after first-line therapy. A multidisciplinary approach is necessary to make therapeutic advances. This review discusses current second-line therapy and emerging drugs for advanced transitional-cell carcinoma. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Chao O.S.,Health Discovery | Goodman O.B.,Health Discovery | Goodman O.B.,Comprehensive Cancer Centers of Nevada
Molecular Cancer Research | Year: 2014

Tumors with BRCA germline mutations are defective in repairing DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) through homologous recombination (HR) pathways, making them sensitive to PARP inhibitors (PARPi). However, BRCA germline mutations are rare in prostate cancer limiting the ability to therapeutically target these pathways. This study investigates whether histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors (HDACi), reported to modulate DSB repair pathways in sporadic cancers, can downregulate DSB repair pathways and sensitize prostate cancer cells to PARPi. Prostate cancer cells cotreated with theHDAC inhibitor, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) and the PARPi, olaparib, demonstrated a synergistic decrease in cell viability compared with single-agent treatment (combination index < 0.9), whereas normal prostatic cells did not. Similarly, clonogenicity was significantly decreased after cotreatment. Flow cytometric cell-cycle analysis and Annexin-V staining revealed signi ficant apoptosis upon treatment with SAHA+olaparib. This coincided with increased DNA damage observed by immunofluorescence microscopy analysis of γ H2AX foci, a marker of DSBs. In addition, immunoblot analysis showed a significant and persistent increase in nuclear γH2AX levels. Both SAHA and olaparib downregulated the expression of HR-related proteins, BRCA1 and RAD51, whereas SAHA + olaparib had an additive effect on RAD51. Silencing RAD51 sensitized prostate cancer cells to SAHA and olaparib alone. Collectively, cotreatment with HDACi and PARPi downregulated HR-related protein expression and concomitantly increased DNA damage, resulting in prostate cancer cell death. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research. Source

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