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Brefort T.,Max Planck Institute for Terrestrial Microbiology | Brefort T.,Comprehensive Biomarker Center GmbH | Tanaka S.,Max Planck Institute for Terrestrial Microbiology | Neidig N.,Max Planck Institute for Terrestrial Microbiology | And 3 more authors.
PLoS Pathogens | Year: 2014

In the genome of the biotrophic plant pathogen Ustilago maydis, many of the genes coding for secreted protein effectors modulating virulence are arranged in gene clusters. The vast majority of these genes encode novel proteins whose expression is coupled to plant colonization. The largest of these gene clusters, cluster 19A, encodes 24 secreted effectors. Deletion of the entire cluster results in severe attenuation of virulence. Here we present the functional analysis of this genomic region. We show that a 19A deletion mutant behaves like an endophyte, i.e. is still able to colonize plants and complete the infection cycle. However, tumors, the most conspicuous symptoms of maize smut disease, are only rarely formed and fungal biomass in infected tissue is significantly reduced. The generation and analysis of strains carrying sub-deletions identified several genes significantly contributing to tumor formation after seedling infection. Another of the effectors could be linked specifically to anthocyanin induction in the infected tissue. As the individual contributions of these genes to tumor formation were small, we studied the response of maize plants to the whole cluster mutant as well as to several individual mutants by array analysis. This revealed distinct plant responses, demonstrating that the respective effectors have discrete plant targets. We propose that the analysis of plant responses to effector mutant strains that lack a strong virulence phenotype may be a general way to visualize differences in effector function. © 2014 Brefort et al. Source


Patent
Comprehensive Biomarker Center GmbH | Date: 2012-06-08

The present invention relates to non-invasive methods, kits and means for diagnosing and/or prognosing of dilated cardiomyopathy in a body fluid sample from a subject. Further, the present invention relates to set of polynucleotides or sets of primer pairs for detecting sets of miRNAs for diagnosing and/or prognosing of dilated cardiomyopathy in a body fluid sample from a subject. In addition, the present invention relates to sets of miRNAs for diagnosing and/or prognosing of dilated cardiomyopathy in a body fluid sample from a subject.


Patent
Comprehensive Biomarker Center GmbH | Date: 2013-03-07

The present invention relates to methods of determining whether a patient responds to a therapeutic treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS), of monitoring the course of multiple sclerosis (MS) in a patient, of determining the risk for a relapse of multiple sclerosis (MS) in a patient, and of adjusting the dose of a therapeutic drug applied for therapeutic treatment of multiple sclerosis in a patient. Said methods are based on the determination of the level of at least one miRNA in a test sample isolated from the patient. The present invention also relates to a method of identifying a compound suitable for the treatment of multiple sclerosis in a patient. Further, the present invention relates to the use of a polynucleotide or a polynucleotide set for detecting a miRNA to determine whether a patient responds to a therapeutic treatment of multiple sclerosis, to monitor the course of multiple sclerosis in a patient, to determine the risk of a relapse of multiple sclerosis in a patient, to adjust the dose of a therapeutic drug applied for therapeutic treatment of multiple sclerosis in a patient, and to identify a compound suitable for the treatment of multiple sclerosis in a patient. Furthermore, the present invention relates to a kit for determining whether a patient responds to a therapeutic treatment of multiple sclerosis, for monitoring the course of multiple sclerosis in a patient, for determining the risk of a relapse of multiple sclerosis in a patient, for adjusting the dose of a therapeutic drug applied for therapeutic treatment of multiple sclerosis in a patient, or for identifying a compound suitable for the treatment of multiple sclerosis in a patient comprising means for determining the level of at least one miRNA in a test sample isolated from a patient.


Patent
Comprehensive Biomarker Center GmbH | Date: 2012-08-03

The present invention relates to non-invasive methods, kits and means for diagnosing and/or prognosing of kidney cancer in a body fluid sample from a subject. Further, the present invention relates to set of polynucleotides or sets of primer pairs for detecting sets of miRNAs for diagnosing and/or prognosing of kidney cancer in a body fluid sample from a subject. In addition, the present invention relates to sets of miRNAs for diagnosing and/or prognosing of kidney cancer in a body fluid sample from a subject.


Patent
Comprehensive Biomarker Center GmbH | Date: 2014-06-23

MicroRNAs (miRNA) are a recently discovered class of small non-coding RNAs (17-14 nucleotides). Due to their function as regulators of gene expression they play a critical role both in physiological and in pathological processes, such as cancer. The present invention provides novel methods for diagnosing a state of health based on the determination of specific miRNAs that have altered expression levels in different conditions, e.g. disease states compared to healthy controls.

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