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Madrid, Spain

The Complutense University of Madrid is a public research university located in Madrid, and one of the oldest universities in the world. The university enrolls over 86,000 students, and consistently ranks as the top university in Spain. It is located on a sprawling campus that occupies the entirety of the Ciudad Universitaria district of Madrid, with annexes in the district of Somosaguas in the neighboring city of Pozuelo de Alarcón.In the course of over seven centuries, the University of Madrid has provided invaluable contributions in the science, fine arts, and political leadership. Alumni include renowned philosophers , writers , scientists , historians , military leaders , foreign leaders , and Prime Minister of Spain for Queen Isabella II Luis González Bravo. In the year 1785, the University of Madrid became one of the first Universities in the world to grant a Doctorate degree to a female student. By Royal Decree of 1857, the University of Madrid was the only institution in Spain authorized to grant doctorates throughout the Spanish Empire.In recent years, the roster of alumni comprises winners of the Nobel Prize , Prince of Asturias Awards , Miguel de Cervantes Prize , as well as European Commissioners, Presidents of the EU Parliament, European Council Secretary General, ECB Executive Board members, NATO Secretary General, UNESCO Director General, IMF Managing Director, and Heads of State. According to the Spanish newspaper El Mundo, the university is widely regarded as the most prestigious academic institution in Spain. Wikipedia.

Soriano E.,Institute Quimica Organica General IQOG | Fernandez I.,Complutense University of Madrid
Chemical Society Reviews

The present review is focused on the application of computational/ theoretical methods to the wide and rich chemistry of allenes. Special emphasis is made on the interplay and synergy between experimental and computational methodologies, rather than on recent developments in methods and algorithms. Therefore, this review covers the state-of-the-art applications of computational chemistry to understand and rationalize the bonding situation and vast reactivity of allenes. Thus, the contents of this review span from the most fundamental studies on the equilibrium structure and chirality of allenes to recent advances in the study of complex reaction mechanisms involving allene derivatives in organic and organometallic chemistry. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014. Source

Gonzalez-Vera J.A.,Complutense University of Madrid
Chemical Society Reviews

Protein phosphorylation is the most frequent post-translational modification used to regulate protein activity. Protein kinases, the enzymes that catalyze the phosphoryl transfer, are implicated in practically every aspect of normal as well as abnormal cell functions. Consequently, sensitive, selective, high-throughput and widely applicable methods for monitoring protein kinase activity will provide valuable tools to screen inhibitor candidates for therapeutics and chemical biology, and to unravel the diverse signaling cascades in which these enzymes are pivotal. Peptide-based chemosensors that rely on fluorescence changes upon phosphorylation are highly desirable, because these systems allow a continuous readout offering an excellent spatial and temporal resolution to observe in real time the kinase activity. This tutorial review briefly summarizes the different fluorescent continuous peptide-based strategies that are being commonly employed to sense protein phosphorylation, introduces a few novel and attractive emerging assays, discusses their advantages and limitations, and highlights possible future directions. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Source

Barja G.,Complutense University of Madrid
Antioxidants and Redox Signaling

An updated version of the mitochondrial free radical theory of aging (MFRTA) and longevity is reviewed. Key aspects of the theory are emphasized. Another main focus concerns common misconceptions that can mislead investigators from other specialties, even to wrongly discard the theory. Those different issues include (i) the main reactive oxygen species (ROS)-generating site in the respiratory chain in relation to aging and longevity: complex I; (ii) the close vicinity or even contact between that site and the mitochondrial DNA, in relation to the lack of local efficacy of antioxidants and to sub-cellular compartmentation; (iii) the relationship between mitochondrial ROS production and oxygen consumption; (iv) recent criticisms on the MFRTA; (v) the widespread assumption that ROS are simple "by-products" of the mitochondrial respiratory chain; (vi) the unnecessary postulation of "vicious cycle" hypotheses of mitochondrial ROS generation which are not central to the free radical theory of aging; and (vii) the role of DNA repair concerning endogenous versus exogenous damage. After considering the large body of data already available, two general characteristics responsible for the high maintenance degree of long-lived animals emerge: (i) a low generation rate of endogenous damage: and (ii) the possession of tissue macromolecules that are highly resistant to oxidative modification. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 19, 1420-1445. © 2013, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Source

MacIa E.,Complutense University of Madrid
Reports on Progress in Physics

In this work we consider the role of aperiodic order - order without periodicity - in the design of different optical devices in one, two and three dimensions. To this end, we will first study devices based on aperiodic multilayered structures. In many instances the recourse to Fibonacci, Thue-Morse or fractal arrangements of layers results in improved optical properties compared with their periodic counterparts. On this basis, the possibility of constructing optical devices based on a modular design of the multilayered structure, where periodic and quasiperiodic subunits are properly mixed, is analyzed, illustrating how this additional degree of freedom enhances the optical performance in some specific applications. This line of thought can be naturally extended to aperiodic arrangements of optical elements, such as nanospheres or dielectric rods in the plane, as well as to three-dimensional photonic quasicrystals based on polymer materials. In this way, plentiful possibilities for new tailored materials naturally appear, generally following suitable optimization algorithms. Then, we present a detailed discussion on the physical properties supporting the preferential use of aperiodic devices in a number of optical applications, opening new avenues for technological innovation. Finally we suggest some related emerging topics that deserve some attention in the years to come. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd. Source

Khayet M.,Complutense University of Madrid
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science

Membrane distillation (MD) is one of the non-isothermal membrane separation processes used in various applications such desalination, environmental/waste cleanup, food, etc. It is known since 1963 and is still being developed at laboratory stage for different purposes and not fully implemented in industry. An abrupt increase in the number of papers on MD membrane engineering (i.e. design, fabrication and testing in MD) is seen since only 6 years ago. The present paper offers a comprehensive MD state-of-the-art review covering a wide range of commercial membranes, MD membrane engineering, their MD performance, transport mechanisms, experimental and theoretical modeling of different MD configurations as well as recent developments in MD. Improved MD membranes with specific morphology, micro- and nano-structures are highly demanded. Membranes with different pore sizes, porosities, thicknesses and materials as well as novel structures are required in order to carry out systematic MD studies for better understanding mass transport in different MD configurations, thereby improving the MD performance and looking for MD industrialization. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

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