Madrid, Spain

The Complutense University of Madrid is a public research university located in Madrid, and one of the oldest universities in the world. The university enrolls over 86,000 students, and consistently ranks as the top university in Spain. It is located on a sprawling campus that occupies the entirety of the Ciudad Universitaria district of Madrid, with annexes in the district of Somosaguas in the neighboring city of Pozuelo de Alarcón.In the course of over seven centuries, the University of Madrid has provided invaluable contributions in the science, fine arts, and political leadership. Alumni include renowned philosophers , writers , scientists , historians , military leaders , foreign leaders , and Prime Minister of Spain for Queen Isabella II Luis González Bravo. In the year 1785, the University of Madrid became one of the first Universities in the world to grant a Doctorate degree to a female student. By Royal Decree of 1857, the University of Madrid was the only institution in Spain authorized to grant doctorates throughout the Spanish Empire.In recent years, the roster of alumni comprises winners of the Nobel Prize , Prince of Asturias Awards , Miguel de Cervantes Prize , as well as European Commissioners, Presidents of the EU Parliament, European Council Secretary General, ECB Executive Board members, NATO Secretary General, UNESCO Director General, IMF Managing Director, and Heads of State. According to the Spanish newspaper El Mundo, the university is widely regarded as the most prestigious academic institution in Spain. Wikipedia.


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Patent
Complutense University of Madrid | Date: 2015-04-13

The composite material comprises nitrate and chloride anion inorganic salts which may also comprise sulphates, carbonates and/or nitrites and organic and inorganic nanoparticles, such as graphene, and cations of the alkaline, earth-alkaline, earth, carbon and/or amphigenic chemical groups. Said formulations have chemical and physical characteristics, such as the heat capacity, thermal stability and thermal conductivity thereof which make them optimum for being used as an alternative to the commercially available binary mixture in concentrating solar power plants.


Arevalo M.-A.,Instituto Cajal | Azcoitia I.,Complutense University of Madrid | Garcia-Segura L.M.,Instituto Cajal
Nature Reviews Neuroscience | Year: 2015

Hormones regulate homeostasis by communicating through the bloodstream to the body's organs, including the brain. As homeostatic regulators of brain function, some hormones exert neuroprotective actions. This is the case for the ovarian hormone 17β-oestradiol, which signals through oestrogen receptors (ERs) that are widely distributed in the male and female brain. Recent discoveries have shown that oestradiol is not only a reproductive hormone but also a brain-derived neuroprotective factor in males and females and that ERs coordinate multiple signalling mechanisms that protect the brain from neurodegenerative diseases, affective disorders and cognitive decline. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.


Martinon-Torres M.,National Research Center on Human Evolution | Bermudez De Castro J.M.,National Research Center on Human Evolution | Gomez-Robles A.,National Research Center on Human Evolution | Prado-Simon L.,National Research Center on Human Evolution | Arsuaga J.L.,Complutense University of Madrid
Journal of Human Evolution | Year: 2012

The systematic excavation of the Sima de los Huesos (SH) site in Sierra de Atapuerca (Burgos, Spain) has yielded the largest hominin collection worldwide for the Middle Pleistocene. The dental sample now consists of more than 500 teeth that provide exceptional opportunities to define the dental morphological pattern of a Middle Pleistocene population as well as develop hypotheses about the origins of the Neanderthals. The dental collection has now increased to over 533 specimens (525 permanent and 8 deciduous teeth), necessitating new morphological assessments. Thus, we present a detailed morphological description of the SH permanent dentition recovered up to 2007, accomplishing comparisons with European Middle Pleistocene hominins, Neanderthals, and early and contemporary Homo sapiens. We find that SH dentitions present all the morphological traits that, either in their degree of expression, frequency, or particular combination, are usually considered as typical of Homo neanderthalensis. This study ratifies the deep roots of the Neanderthal lineage in the Middle Pleistocene of Europe. In addition, SH teeth are morphologically " more Neanderthal" than other penecontemporaneous Middle Pleistocene samples such as Mauer or Arago, and even more derived than some classic Neanderthal samples. Thus, our study would not sustain the linearity of the accretion process hypothesized for the origins of the Neanderthals, and we suggest that other evolutionary models and scenarios should be explored for the Middle and Upper Pleistocene of Europe. We propose that more than one hominin lineage may have coexisted during the Middle Pleistocene in Europe. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Vargas J.,CSIC - National Center for Biotechnology | Antonio Quiroga J.,Complutense University of Madrid | Sorzano C.O.S.,CSIC - National Center for Biotechnology | Carazo J.M.,CSIC - National Center for Biotechnology
Optics Letters | Year: 2012

This Letter presents an efficient, fast, and straightforward two-step demodulating method based on a Gram-Schmidt (GS) orthonormalization approach. The phase-shift value has not to be known and can take any value inside the range (0.2π), excluding the singular case, where it corresponds to π. The proposed method is based on determining an orthonormalized interferogram basis from the two supplied interferograms using the GS method. We have applied the proposed method to simulated and experimental interferograms, obtaining satisfactory results. A complete MATLAB software package is provided at http://goo.gl/IZKF3. © 2012 Optical Society of America.


Macdowell L.G.,Complutense University of Madrid | Benet J.,Complutense University of Madrid | Katcho N.A.,CEA Grenoble
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2013

Our understanding of both structure and dynamics of adsorbed liquids heavily relies on the capillary wave Hamiltonian, but a thorough test of this model is still lacking. Here we study the capillary wave fluctuations of a liquid film with short-range forces adsorbed on a solid exhibiting van der Waals interactions. We show for the first time that the measured capillary wave spectrum right above the first order wetting transition provides an interface potential consistent with independent calculations from thermodynamic integration. However, the surface tension exhibits an oscillatory film thick dependence which reveals a hitherto unnoticed capillary wave broadening mechanism beyond mere interfacial displacements. © 2013 American Physical Society.


Pavon-Carrasco F.J.,Complutense University of Madrid | Osete M.L.,Complutense University of Madrid | Torta J.M.,Ramon Llull University
Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems | Year: 2010

We have developed a first low-degree regional geomagnetic model for the European continent valid for the period 6000-1000 B.C. from a selected compilation of sedimentary and archeomagnetic data (the SCHA.DIF.8K model). This model provides information about both direction (declination and inclination) and intensity of the Earth's magnetic field. By connecting it with our previous model, SCHA.DIF.3K, valid from 1000 B.C. to 1900 A.D., and the IGRF, we furnish continuous geomagnetic field information for the last 8000 years in Europe. It has been developed using the Revised Spherical Cap Harmonic Analysis in 2 Dimensions technique (R-SCHA2D) and using the norm of the Earth's magnetic field to constrain the inversion problem. The size of the cap is 22°, and the maximum degree of the expansion is 2. The linearization problem was solved by using the truncated Taylor's series applied to the expressions representing the relationship between the declination, inclination, and intensity data and the Cartesian components of the geomagnetic field. We used the geocentric axial dipole (GAD) field as our initial or reference field. For time, we used the classical sliding overlapping window method. The size of the window was set to 100 years shifted by 50 years. We compared the model's prediction with the input data, with the global CALS7K.2 model, and with new independent data. The regional model shows a better fit to the input and to the independent data than the global model, especially in terms of intensity, and agrees with the virtual axial dipole moment given by other studies. For the last 8000 years, the European geomagnetic field has recorded rapid changes or archeomagnetic jerks. The average field for the last 8000 years in Europe is indistinguishable from the GAD field. Copyright 2010 by the American Geophysical Union.


Quiroga J.A.,Complutense University of Madrid
Optics Express | Year: 2010

In Phase Stepping Interferometry (PSI) an interferogram sequence having a known, and constant phase shift between the interferograms is required. Here we take the case where this constant phase shift is unknown and the only assumption is that the interferograms do have a temporal carrier. To recover the modulating phase from the interferograms, we propose a self-tuning phase-shifting algorithm. Our algorithm estimates the temporal frequency first, and then this knowledge is used to estimate the interesting modulating phase. There are several well known iterative schemes published before, but our approach has the unique advantage of being very fast. Our new temporal carrier, and phase estimator is capable of obtaining a very good approximation of their temporal carrier in a single iteration. Numerical experiments are given to show the performance of this simple yet powerful self-tuning phase shifting algorithm. © 2009 Optical Society of America.


Levermann A.,Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research | Levermann A.,University of Potsdam | Clark P.U.,Oregon State University | Marzeion B.,University of Innsbruck | And 4 more authors.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | Year: 2013

Global mean sea level has been steadily rising over the last century, is projected to increase by the end of this century, and will continue to rise beyond the year 2100 unless the current global mean temperature trend is reversed. Inertia in the climate and global carbon system, however, causes the global mean temperature to decline slowly even after greenhouse gas emissions have ceased, raising the question of how much sea-level commitment is expected for different levels of global mean temperature increase above preindustrial levels. Although sealevel rise over the last century has been dominated by ocean warming and loss of glaciers, the sensitivity suggested from records of past sea levels indicates important contributions should also be expected from the Greenland and Antarctic Ice Sheets. Uncertainties in the paleo-reconstructions, however, necessitate additional strategies to better constrain the sea-level commitment. Here we combine paleo-evidence with simulations from physical models to estimate the future sea-level commitment on a multimillennial time scale and compute associated regional sea-level patterns. Oceanic thermal expansion and the Antarctic Ice Sheet contribute quasi-linearly, with 0.4 m °C -1 and 1.2 m °C-1 of warming, respectively. The saturation of the contribution from glaciers is overcompensated by the nonlinear response of the Greenland Ice Sheet. As a consequence we are committed to a sea-level rise of approximately 2.3 m °C-1 within the next 2,000 y. Considering the lifetime of anthropogenic greenhouse gases, this imposes the need for fundamental adaptation strategies on multicentennial time scales.


Garcia-Bellido D.C.,Complutense University of Madrid | Garcia-Bellido D.C.,University of Adelaide | Paterson J.R.,University of New England of Australia | Edgecombe G.D.,Natural History Museum in London
Gondwana Research | Year: 2013

The discovery of new palaeoscolecid material (Cycloneuralia) from the Emu Bay Shale Konservat-Lagerstätte of Kangaroo Island, South Australia (Cambrian Series 2, Stage 4) and from the Murero biota of NE Spain (Cambrian Series 3, Stage 5-Drumian) has prompted a reappraisal of Palaeoscolex Whittard, 1953, the genus to which species from these, and other Cambrian localities, have most recently been assigned. Available data from scanning electron microscopy show the presence of Hadimopanella-type sclerites covering the surface of these taxa, permitting taxonomic schemes based on microfossils and whole-body compression fossils to be reconciled. The sclerite pattern, size and shape indicate that several of the Cambrian species assigned to Palaeoscolex need to be reassigned to Wronascolex Ivantsov and Zhuravlev, 2005, a genus originally described from Siberia. The studied material includes Wronascolex antiquus (. Glaessner, 1979) and Wronascolex iacoborum sp. nov. from Kangaroo Island (Australia) and two new specimens of Wronascolex? from the Iberian Ranges (Spain). SEM examination of the types of Palaeoscolex ratcliffei Robison, 1969, a Cambrian species from Utah to which Murero material has been compared, suggests that this species should possibly be assigned to Wronascolex. These taxa are also considered in a Cambrian palaeobiogeographic context, together with the presence of isolated Hadimopanella sclerites, showing a distribution of Wronascolex largely confined to palaeotropical environments. © 2012 International Association for Gondwana Research.


de la Fuente M.,Complutense University of Madrid
Current Aging Science | Year: 2011

The aging process is a universal, intrinsic, progressive accumulation of deleterious changes in cells and tissues that increases morbidity and leads to death. The heterogeneity of the age-related physiological changes is shown by the "biological age", which determines the rate of ageing experienced by each individual and therefore his life expectancy. According to the recent theory of oxidation-inflammation to explain the aging process, the immune system seems to be involved in the chronic oxidative and inflammatory stress conditions of aging. It has been proposed that several agerelated changes in immune cell functions, which depend on the redox state of these cells, could be good markers of health, biological age and longevity. In order to identify parameters of the functional and redox situation of immune cells as markers of biological age and predictors of longevity, we have studied those parameters in human healthy centenarians, in extreme long-living mice, as models of successful aging, and in immune cells from murine models of premature immunosenescence. The aim of the present work is to review the results in humans and rodents on those parameters and their relationship with biological age and longevity, as well as to propose several strategies of lifestyle useful to improve the immune function and thus to increase the mean life span. © 2011 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd.


Meucci A.,University of Pavia | Barbaro M.B.,University of Turin | Caballero J.A.,University of Seville | Giusti C.,University of Pavia | Udias J.M.,Complutense University of Madrid
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2011

The results of two relativistic models with different descriptions of the final-state interactions are compared with the MiniBooNE data of charged-current quasielastic cross sections. The relativistic mean field model uses the same potential for the bound and ejected nucleon wave functions. In the relativistic Green's function model, the final-state interactions are described in the inclusive scattering consistently with the exclusive scattering using the same complex optical potential. The relativistic Green's function results describe the experimental data for total cross sections without the need to modify the nucleon axial mass. © 2011 American Physical Society.


Gaul C.,Complutense University of Madrid | Muller C.A.,National University of Singapore
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2011

We describe repulsively interacting Bose-Einstein condensates in spatially correlated disorder potentials of arbitrary dimension. The first effect of disorder is to deform the mean-field condensate. The second is that the quantum excitation spectrum and condensate population are affected. By a saddle-point expansion of the many-body Hamiltonian around the deformed mean-field ground state, we derive the fundamental quadratic Hamiltonian of quantum fluctuations. Importantly, a basis is used such that excitations are orthogonal to the deformed condensate. Via Bogoliubov-Nambu perturbation theory, we compute the effective excitation dispersion, including mean free paths and localization lengths. Corrections to the speed of sound and average density of states are calculated, due to correlated disorder in arbitrary dimensions, extending to the case of weak lattice potentials. © 2011 American Physical Society.


Azcoitia I.,Complutense University of Madrid | Arevalo M.-A.,Instituto Cajal | De Nicola A.F.,CONICET | Garcia-Segura L.M.,Complutense University of Madrid
Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2011

Results from animal experiments showing that estradiol is neuroprotective were challenged 10 years ago by findings indicating an increased risk of dementia and stroke in women over 65 years of age taking conjugated equine estrogens. Our understanding of the complex signaling of estradiol in neural cells has recently clarified the causes of this discrepancy. New data indicate that estradiol may lose its neuroprotective activity or even increase neural damage, a situation that depends on the duration of ovarian hormone deprivation and on age-associated modifications in the levels of other molecules that modulate estradiol action. These studies highlight the complex neuroprotective mechanisms of estradiol and suggest a window of opportunity during which effective hormonal therapy could promote brain function and cognition. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Yanez-Mo M.,Hospital Of La Princesa | Gutierrez-Lopez M.D.,Complutense University of Madrid | Cabanas C.,Complutense University of Madrid
Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences | Year: 2011

Several recent publications have described examples of physical and functional interations between tetraspanins and specific membrane proteases belonging to the TM-MMP and α-(ADAMs) and γ-secretases families. Collectively, these examples constitute an emerging body of evidence supporting the notion that tetraspanin-enriched microdomains (TEMs) represent functional platforms for the regulation of key cellular processes including the release of surface protein ectodomains ("shedding"), regulated intramembrane proteolysis ("RIPing") and matrix degradation and assembly. These cellular processes in turn play a crucial role in an array of physiological and pathological phenomena. Thus, TEMs may represent new therapeutical targets that may simultaneously affect the proteolytic activity of different enzymes and their substrates. Agonistic or antagonistic antibodies and blocking soluble peptides corresponding to tetraspanin functional regions may offer new opportunities in the treatment of pathologies such as chronic inflammation, cancer, or Alzheimer's disease. In this review article, we will discuss all these aspects of functional regulation of protease activities by tetraspanins. © 2011 Springer Basel AG.


Rodriguez-Gonzalez J.,Complutense University of Madrid | Billen M.I.,University of California at Davis | Negredo A.M.,Complutense University of Madrid
Earth and Planetary Science Letters | Year: 2014

The direction of plate tectonic motion and the direction of mantle flow, as inferred from observations of seismic anisotropy measurements, show a good global correlation far from subduction zones. However, this correlation is poor near subduction zones, where below the slab seismic anisotropy is aligned parallel to the trench and above the slab has a complex pattern, which has not been fully explained. Here we present time-dependent three-dimensional (3D) fully-dynamic simulations of subduction to study the effect of overriding plate structure on the evolution of slab geometry and induced mantle flow. We find that along-strike variation in thermal thickness of the overriding plate causes increased hydrodynamic suction and shallower slab dip beneath the colder portion of the overriding plate; the variation in slab geometry drives strong trench-parallel flow beneath the slab and a complex flow pattern above the slab. This new mechanism for driving trench-parallel flow provides a good explanation for seismic anisotropy observations from the Middle and South America subduction zones, where both slab dip and overriding plate thermal state are strongly variable and correlated, and thus may be an important mechanism in other subduction zones. The location and strength of trench-parallel flow vary with the time-dependent evolution of the slab, suggesting that the global variability in seismic anisotropy observations in subduction zones is in part due to the non-steady-state behavior of these systems. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Arriero E.,University of Montana | Arriero E.,Complutense University of Madrid | Majewska A.,University of Montana | Martin T.E.,U.S. Geological Survey
Functional Ecology | Year: 2013

Variation in ontogeny and strength of immune defence mechanisms can be integrally related to variation in life-history strategies and determined by trade-offs during development. However, little is known about the ontogeny of immune function in wild birds, especially in altricial birds and in a comparative context across altricial species with diverse life-history strategies. In this study, we examined the ontogeny of constitutive immunity in a group of 22 passerine species sampled in tropical Venezuela and north temperate Arizona. Our results show activity of constitutive components of the immune defence at 1-3 days posthatching and an increase in immune activity with age. Interspecific variation in immune activity at hatching was mainly explained by extrinsic factors mediated by the mother (egg size and egg temperature), suggesting an important role of maternal effects on offspring immunity at hatching. In contrast, the increase in agglutination activity with age suggests that immune function in older nestlings reflects intrinsic development. The increase in immune activity was greater in species that hatched with lower initial levels, and was somewhat negatively related to growth rate across species. Our results suggest slower intrinsic development of immune function may be compensated by larger maternal contributions. Slower intrinsic development of immune function, in turn, may reflect a trade-off with faster somatic growth. Our study highlights the importance of both maternal (extrinsic) and endogenous (intrinsic) contributions to variation in immune function across altricial species that may reflect an important axis of developmental strategies. © 2013 British Ecological Society.


Viedma C.,Complutense University of Madrid | McBride J.M.,Yale University | Kahr B.,New York University
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2013

Let's get together: Racemic samples of d- and l-enantiomorphous NaBrO 3 (or NaClO3) crystals aggregate with nearly complete enantioselection. Centimeter-sized enantiopure megacrystals are often produced, and these can be sorted easily. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Gaul C.,Complutense University of Madrid | Muller C.A.,National University of Singapore
European Physical Journal: Special Topics | Year: 2013

Quantum fluctuations of Bose-Einstein condensates trapped in disordered lattices are studied by inhomogeneous Bogoliubov theory. Weak-disorder perturbation theory is applied to compute the elastic scattering rate as well as the renormalized speed of sound in lattices of arbitrary dimensionality. Furthermore, analytical results for the condensate depletion are presented, which are in good agreement with numerical data. © 2013 EDP Sciences and Springer.


Pavon-Carrasco F.J.,Italian National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology | Osete M.L.,Complutense University of Madrid | Torta J.M.,Ramon Llull University | De Santis A.,Italian National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology | De Santis A.,University of Chieti Pescara
Earth and Planetary Science Letters | Year: 2014

We propose a new geomagnetic field model for the Holocene period based on archaeomagnetic and lava flow data, avoiding the use of lake sediment data. The source of data comes from the GEOMAGIA50v2 database which has been updated with the new archaeomagnetic and volcanic studies published during the last 3 yr. The model, called SHA.DIF.14k, allows us to analyse the behaviour of the geomagnetic field for the last 14000 yr: from 12000 BC to 1900 AD. For the model construction we use the spherical harmonic analysis in space and the penalized cubic B-splines in time. Both spatial and temporal regularization norms are used to constrain the inversion problem and applied at the core-mantle boundary (CMB) to assure the convergence of the model. For the last 3 ka, the model predictions agree with those given by the global model ARCH3k.1 and the European model SCHA.DIF.3k. For older epochs, the new model presents a clear improvement in field resolution with respect to other current models of the geomagnetic field for the Holocene. For the last 9 ka, the time evolution of the dipolar moment obtained from the dipole field shows a clear minimum between 5500 BC and 3000 BC, and the well-known continuous decreasing trend of the geomagnetic field strength for the last millennium and a half. A general view of the time-average evolution of the geomagnetic field flux lobes at the CMB for the northern hemisphere suggests a marked lobe of positive magnetic flux when the dipole moment was maximum. This lobe vanishes when the dipolar field is decreasing. The north polar wander paths of both north magnetic dip and geomagnetic poles were obtained showing an average rate of motion of 5.1 km/yr and 3.7 km/yr respectively. The model shows that the geomagnetic field can be averaged as axial dipolar in ~2000yr within an error of 5°, the typical uncertainty of the palaeomagnetic studies. Finally, and following the recent definition of archaeomagnetic jerks, we found 8 critical events in the time evolution of the geomagnetic field for the last 8 ka characterized by a maximum in the hemispheric asymmetry of the proposed model. The model is available in the Earth Ref Digital Archive at http://earthref.org/ERDA/1897/. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Souto J.C.,Hospital Of La Santa Creu I Sant Pau | Vila L.,Institute Of Research Of The Hospital Of La Santa Creu I Sant Pau | Bru A.,Complutense University of Madrid
Medicinal Research Reviews | Year: 2011

Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) are the most abundant circulating immune cells and represent the first line of immune defense against infection. This review of the biomedical literature of the last 40 years shows that they also have a powerful antitumoral effect under certain circumstances. Typically, the microenvironment surrounding a solid tumor possesses many of the characteristics of chronic inflammation, a condition considered very favorable for tumor growth and spread. However, there are many circumstances that shift the chronic inflammatory state toward an acute inflammatory response around a tumor. This shift seems to convert PMN into very efficient anticancer effector cells. Clinical reports of unexpected antitumoral effects linked to the prolonged use of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, which stimulates an intense and sustained neutrophilia, suggest that an easy way to fight solid tumors would be to encourage the development of intense peritumoral PMN infiltrates. Specifically designed clinical trials are urgently needed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of such drug-induced neutrophilia in patients with solid tumors. This antitumoral role of neutrophils may provide new avenues for the clinical treatment of cancer. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Viedma C.,Complutense University of Madrid
Chemical Communications | Year: 2011

A single-chirality solid phase can be obtained in boiling solutions containing a racemic mixture of left- and right-handed enantiomorphous crystals due to dissolution-crystallization cycles induced by a temperature gradient. This phenomenon provides further insights into asymmetric amplification mechanisms under presumably prebiotic conditions. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Macdowell L.G.,Complutense University of Madrid | Benet J.,Complutense University of Madrid | Katcho N.A.,CEA Grenoble | Palanco J.M.G.,Technical University of Madrid
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science | Year: 2014

In this paper we review simulation and experimental studies of thermal capillary wave fluctuations as an ideal means for probing the underlying disjoining pressure and surface tensions, and more generally, fine details of the Interfacial Hamiltonian Model. We discuss recent simulation results that reveal a film-height-dependent surface tension not accounted for in the classical Interfacial Hamiltonian Model. We show how this observation may be explained bottom-up from sound principles of statistical thermodynamics and discuss some of its implications. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Fernandez I.,Complutense University of Madrid | Frenking G.,University of Marburg | Uggerud E.,University of Oslo
Journal of Organic Chemistry | Year: 2010

Quantum chemical calculations (OPBE/6-311++G(d,p)) have been performed to uncover the electronic factors that govern reactivity in the prototypical S NAr reaction. It was found that intrinsic nucleophilicity-expressed as the critical energy (the energy required for forming the Meisenheimer structure Ph(X)2 -) in the identity substitution reaction X- + PhX → X- + PhX (Ph = phenyl)-shows the following approximate trend: NH2 - ≈ OH- ≈ F --PH2 - ≈ SH- ≈ Cl- > AsH2 - ≈ SeH- ≈ Br-. The periodic trends are discussed in terms of molecular properties (proton affinity of X- expressing Lewis basicity of the nucleophile and C(1s) orbital energy expressing Lewis acidity of the substrate) based on a dative bonding model. Furthermore, the stepwise progress of the reactions and the critical structures are analyzed applying energy decomposition analysis. Increased stability, and thereby increased intrinsic nucleophilicity, correlates with decreasing aromatic character of the Meisenheimer structure. This apparent contradiction is explained in consistency with the other observations using the same model. © 2010 American Chemical Society.


Rodriguez-Gonzalez J.,Complutense University of Madrid | Negredo A.M.,Complutense University of Madrid | Billen M.I.,University of California at Davis
Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems | Year: 2012

Slab dip varies significantly, both between different, and along single subduction zones. Provided that old subducting plates are colder and denser than young plates, variations in the slab dip should correlate with slab age. However, recent statistical analyses do not show this expected correlation. We present the results of non-Newtonian numerical dynamic models where subduction is driven by means of a kinematic boundary condition. We systematically vary the age of both the overriding and subducting plates in order to test these effects on the slab dip at different depth ranges. We find that colder overriding plates result in shallower slab dips and episodes of flat slab subduction, as a result of the increased suction force in the mantle wedge. The influence of the thermal state of the overriding plate on slab dip is shown here to be more important than that of the age of subducting lithosphere. Modeling results are qualitatively compared to the large dip variability of the Cocos slab including a flat-slab segment. We suggest that this variability is likely related to the change of the thermal state of the overriding plates, with flat subduction occurring under cold lithosphere in southwestern Mexico and steep subduction under the warmer lithosphere of the northwestern Caribbean plate. Copyright 2012 by the American Geophysical Union.


Castellacci F.,Norwegian Institute of International Affairs NUPI | Natera J.M.,Complutense University of Madrid
Research Policy | Year: 2013

This paper investigates the idea that the dynamics of national innovation systems is driven by the coevolution of two main dimensions: innovative capability and absorptive capacity. The empirical analysis employs a broad set of indicators measuring national innovative capabilities and absorptive capacity for a panel of 87 countries in the period 1980-2007, and makes use of panel cointegration analysis to investigate long-run relationships and coevolution patterns among these variables. The results indicate that the dynamics of national systems of innovation is driven by the coevolution of three innovative capability variables (innovative input, scientific output and technological output), on the one hand, and three absorptive capacity factors (infrastructures, international trade and human capital), on the other. This general result does however differ and take specific patterns in national systems characterized by different levels of development. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Ahmadlou M.,Netherlands Institute for Neuroscience | Adeli A.,Ohio State University | Bajo R.,Complutense University of Madrid | Adeli H.,Ohio State University
Clinical Neurophysiology | Year: 2014

Objectives: The objective is to study the changes of brain activity in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Using magneto-encephalogram (MEG) signals, the authors investigate differences of complexity of functional connectivity network between MCI and normal elderly subjects during a working memory task. Methods: MEGs are obtained from 18 right handed patients with MCI and 19 age-matched elderly participants without cognitive impairment used as the control group. The brain networks' complexities are measured by Graph Index Complexity (Cr) and Efficiency Complexity (Ce). Results: The results obtained by both measurements show complexity of functional networks involved in the working memory function in MCI subjects is reduced at alpha and theta bands compared with subjects with control subjects, and at the theta band this reduction is more pronounced in the whole brain and intra left hemisphere. Conclusions: Ce would be a better measurement for showing the global differences between normal and MCI brains compared with Cr. Significance: The high accuracy of the classification shows Ce at theta band can be used as an index for assessing deficits associated with working memory, a good biomarker for diagnosis of MCI. © 2013 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA | Phase: ICT-2007.3.5 | Award Amount: 825.02K | Year: 2008

In the next ten years scientific developments in the field of nanophotonics as a key driving force in photonics will influence many different industrial branches e.g. automotive and avionics, industrial automation ICT, health and well-being, environment or safety and security. In these industrial sectors many SMEs are involved as traditional suppliers, start-ups or producers of high tech products. In order to remain competitive on these markets, the companies have to integrate these new results and developments in their commercial vision for future products.\n\nThe project PhotonicRoadSME will develop technology roadmaps roadmaps to identify future RTD strategies for Europe in three domains [related nanophotonic materials / novel photonic devices and components / related key fabrication technologies] comprising the latest high level scientific results. Their functions will be\na.\tto identify trends in research and development and\nb.\tto associate them to product and application visions.\nThey will outline, which of them are technically and economically promising or possess high potentials for problem-solving and where potential risks and relevant investigation requirements are assumed or social discussion requirement could prevail. Therefore, four different industrial branches will be analyzed (ICT, health and well-being, environment and safety and security).\nThe validation of the roadmap results will be done by a consensus building process by integrating industrial and scientific experts from Europe and third countries.\n\nIn a second step these roadmaps will be adapted to the SME industrial culture in order to facilitate the integration of the European photonic RTD results in the different industrial branches.\n\nThe project involves well-known European research organisations and networks, which are leaders in the domain of photonics, European experts in the development of technology roadmaps and organisations from 5 European countries.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: KBBE-2008-1-3-03 | Award Amount: 4.43M | Year: 2009

Although classical swine fever (CSF) has been eradicated in wide areas within the EU the disease is endemic in some new member states particularly in back yard pigs. In order to improve the eradication strategies the project aims are a) the final development and testing of a live marker vaccine candidate for the prevention and improved control of CSF, both orally and intramuscularly applicable; b) the development and optimisation of accompanying discriminatory diagnostic tests; c) the production of an effective, oral delivery system for the marker vaccine for use in wild boar and back yard pigs; d) the easy selection of diseased animals. The improved knowledge on immunological reactions and pathogenesis will support a more efficient vaccine application and provide data for the epidemiological models. Epidemiological studies of CSF in domestic and back yard pigs and in wild boar including molecular epidemiology intend to increase the insight of CSF transmission and persistence. Epidemiological models will be developed to support risk assessment as well for conventional eradication strategies as for new strategies using the new vaccines and diagnostic tools including the role of CSF reservoirs. The results concerning anti-viral treatment will be evaluated and compared with the traditional eradication strategies.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA | Phase: INFRA-2007-1.2.3;INFRA-2007-1.2-03 | Award Amount: 5.11M | Year: 2008

EELA-2 aims to build, on the current EELA e-Infrastructure, a high capacity, production-quality, scalable Grid Facility providing round-the-clock, worldwide access to distributed computing, storage and network resources for a wide spectrum of applications from European and Latin American scientific communities. The project will provide an empowered Grid Facility with versatile services fulfilling application requirements and ensure the long-term sustainability of the e-Infrastructure beyond the term of the project. The specific EELA-2 objectives are: - Build a Grid Facility by: Expanding the current EELA e-Infrastructure to consist of more production sites mobilising more computing nodes and more storage space, at start of the project and to further grow storage over the duration of the project; Providing, in collaboration with related projects (e.g. EGEE), the full set of Grid Services needed by all types of scientific applications; Supporting applications various types (from classical off-line data processing up to control and data acquisition of scientific instruments), selected against well defined criteria (including grid added value, suitability for Grid deployment, outreach/potential impact); - Ensure the Grid Facility sustainability: Through the already established and new contacts with policy/decision makers, collaborating with RedCLARA and NRENs and supporting the ongoing creation of e-Science Initiatives and/or National Grid initiatives (NGI). Building the support of the e-Infrastructure to provide a complete set of Global Services from a Central Operation Centre and to pave the way for the creation of Regional Operation Centres in Latin America: Attracting new applications; Making available knowledge of EELA-2 Grid Facility to all potential users, developers, and decision makers through an extensive Training and Dissemination program; Creating knowledge repositories federated with the EGEE ones.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2009.1.6 | Award Amount: 9.91M | Year: 2010

BonFIRE will design, build and operate a multi-site Cloud prototype FIRE facility to support research across applications, services and systems at all stages of the R&D lifecycle, targeting the services research community on Future Internet.\nThe BonFIRE vision is to give researchers in these areas access to a facility that supports large scale multi-disciplinary experimentation of their systems and applications addressing all aspects of research across all layers. We will develop and support a framework which allows service-based computing practitioners to experiment with their latest ideas in service orientation and distributed computing. We have elaborated 3 usage scenarios. Our overall goal is to encourage new communities of experimenters to take advantage of the opportunities offered by the FIRE infrastructure to guide the development of the Future Internet from a service-based applications standpoint.\nThe facility will be demand-driven, open, standards-based and dynamic. It will provide additional functionality to that currently available. It will adopt the principle of open coordinated federation of testbeds and will provide innovative usage scenarios.\nWe will stimulate research through 2 open calls to establish a methodology of experimentally driven research. The facility shall be open not only to the researchers selected and funded by BonFIRE through the open calls but also to a wider researcher community in order to encourage the usage and involvement of a significant number of end users.\nWe have set the ambitious target of having an initial framework in operation by month 9. This will be followed by periodic updates which will enhance the functionality of BonFIRE in response to user requirements. We aim to make the testbed sustainable after the end of the project by studying possible associated business models and by balancing the short- and long-term interests of all interested parties (users, owners, policy makers etc) in business decision-making.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: PEOPLE-2007-1-1-ITN | Award Amount: 6.21M | Year: 2009

Understanding and controlling of interfacial phenomena in multiphase fluid dynamics remains one of the main challenges at the crossroad of Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry and Engineering. Examples include film flows, spreading and dewetting of (complex) liquids including suspensions, polymer solutions, liquid crystals, colloids and biofluids. Such systems are central for technological advances in the chemical, pharmaceutical, environmental and food industries and are crucial for the development of Microfluidics and Nanostructuring. The level of detail required by multi-scale flows with interfacial phenomena renders full-scale analyses practically impossible. In fact, such approaches often fail to describe even the results of simple experiments. MULTIFLOW will develop low-dimensional models capable of describing complex interfacial flows coupling different time and length scales. Based on the nature of the dominant mechanism, the scientific program will examine three generic classes: from nano- to macroscale, these are dominated by surface forces, reaction-diffusion, and advection. They are also affected by phase transitions, capillarity, chemical reactions, complex rheology and self-structuring. The strength of the network is its integration of all scientific disciplines, technical skills and expertise necessary to support the multi-scale nature of the envisaged research topics. By fostering the mobility and interdisciplinarity of a strong group of early-stage researchers through a set of well-defined objectives and effective networking between different institutions, disciplines and industries, the ultimate goals of this network are: (i) to create a multi-disciplinary, highly innovative and intersectorial training pool in the field of multi-scale interfacial fluid dynamics; (ii) to generate new tools and techniques for the theoretical-numerical-experimental investigation of such flows, which will be made available to the wider European Community.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: ICT-21-2014 | Award Amount: 9.00M | Year: 2015

The EU based industry for non-leisure games (applied games) is an emerging business. As such, its still fragmented and needs critical mass to compete globally. Nevertheless its growth potential is widely recognised and even suggested to exceed the growth potential of the leisure games market. RAGE will help to seize these opportunities by making available 1) an interoperable set of advanced technology assets tuned to applied gaming 2) proven practices of using asset-based applied games in various real-world contexts, 3) centralised access to a wide range of applied gaming software modules, services and resources, 4) an online social space (the RAGE Ecosystem) that arranges and facilitates collaboration that underlie progress and innovation, 5) workshops and online training opportunities for both developers and educators, 6) assets-based business cases that support the games industry at seizing new business opportunities, and 7) a business model and launch plan for exploiting the RAGE Ecosystem beyond the projects duration. Intermediary organisations and education providers anticipate a wider exploitation of RAGE results among their end-users, which add up to over 1 million, and through disseminating RAGE in their partner networks. The game companies in RAGE anticipate adding RAGE-based products to their portfolio, in order to improve their competitive advantage by opening a new product line for applied games and developing new revenue streams. Actual deployment of RAGE results will generate direct impact on the competitive positioning of the few thousand of European SMEs in the Applied Games market. Impacts from RAGE will be visible in terms of fulfilling new client needs by quicker and more challenging methods of skills acquisition, enabling new business models based on the usage of the assets repository and the Ecosystem, and in the strengthening collaboration across the entire Applied Games value chain.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2013-ITN | Award Amount: 3.59M | Year: 2013

ImResFun shall provide state-of-the-art training in infectious disease research and medical immunology targeting the most common human fungal pathogens, the opportunistic Candida species. The key objectives of ImResFun are: (i) to understand how immune cells and infected organs respond to invasion by Candida spp, (ii) to decipher host-defense mechanisms mediating pathogen elimination, and (iii) to identify genetic networks driving the dynamics of host-pathogen interplay. ImResFun will exploit cutting-edge technologies to unravel the basic mechanisms of fungal pathogenesis and host immunity, and to improve diagnosis and identify novel biomarkers of infection. Importantly, ImResFun will translate research into clinical practice and identify potential targets for antifungal drug discovery. ImResFun has seven WPs. In addition to coordination (WP7), research will cover molecular mechanisms of host-pathogen interactions using dual-system infection biology in vitro and in vivo (WP1), clinical patient setting and age-related infections (WP2), chemical biology and antifungal drug development (WP3), and bioinformatics and genome-wide data analysis (WP4). A compulsory and tailor-made practical course (WP5) and complementary skills (WP6) program will boost hypothesis-driven projects. Meaningful exposure to the private sector is ensured by extensive secondments of all ESRs/ERs. The resulting reciprocal technology transfer will be beneficial for both SMEs and ESR/ER hosts and sustain collaborations among partners. ImResFun will use personalized career development plans for each ESR/ER to train entrepreneurial scientists capable of translating frontier research into clinical practice, biotechnology and drug discovery. Taken together, ImResFun offers a best-practice example for interdisciplinary, intersectorial and supradisciplinary training in understanding the immunology of microbial infectious diseases, since most approaches are amenable to other microbial pathogens.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2013.8.1 | Award Amount: 3.22M | Year: 2013

ConCrete aims to study conceptual creativity in humans and machines. Hierarchical memory representations and techniques for conceptual blending are implemented in context of a cognitive architecture of creativity based on information theoretic measures. ConCreTe serves a long-term vision of computer systems that can behave in ways comparable with human creativity, autonomously and interactively, with better interaction between human and machine, better autonomous systems in general, and possibly creativity of new kinds, not yet exhibited by humans. We anticipate on-line creative learning environments, to teach or support creative pursuits and promote creativity in humans. We anticipate immersive gaming and edutainment systems that respond creatively to users actions. We anticipate reasoning systems that can propose new technology not intended by their designers. This becomes possible with computationally-creative reasoning when necessary domain knowledge is made available. We use Semantic Web technology to avoid the bottleneck of domain modeling, so creative reasoning can be ready in advance. We focus on mechanisms for generating examples in the creative domain from a learned model, and mechanisms for evaluating generated examples according to novelty and value. We develop AI methodology for creative systems, to exploit the potential of creative computational resources for society. We develop computer systems to simulate conceptualisation by study of deliberately guided methods. We develop computer systems that can conceptualise new meaning in terms of, but not restricted by, its existing knowledge. We develop and implement a cognitive architecture that simulates human creativity, study it as a creative entity in its own right, and behaviourally and neuroscientifically as a model of human creativity. We develop new evaluation methods for computational creativity founded in behavioural study and user responses of software distributed by our exploitation partner.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: SSH.2013.3.1-1 | Award Amount: 3.23M | Year: 2014

The overall objective of the TEMPER project consists of providing a comprehensive assessment of the pros and cons of recent initiatives to promote circular migration as an alternative to more traditional forms of temporary and permanent migration, not only among prospective migrants but also among current residents in the EU. These initiatives usually rely on a poor understanding of the ultimate reasons why some migrants spontaneously return to their country of origin while others do not, and why some of them re-migrate after return. More importantly, it is far from being clear that circular migration actually responds to the needs and expectations of many (potential) migrants from third-countries, and entails for them and their families more benefits than alternative forms of mobility. To overcome this lack of understanding, the TEMPER project will pursue three main objectives: (1) to identify the main drivers of return and circulation decisions of migrants recently involved in temporary and permanent migration, (2) to measure and explain the role that different programs and immigration policies at large have played in shaping those individual decisions and, (3) to assess the impact that different types of temporary, permanent and circular mobility have for migrant and non-migrant workers, their families and their employers. Two implicit assumptions will be tested. First, that circularity is a realistic alternative to both strictly temporary labour and permanent settlement because there exists a large enough pool of prospective migrants and returnees interested in engaging in circular mobility. Secondly, that circularity benefits the involved parties, including migrants, their families and their areas of origin, more than traditional forms of migration.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: NOE | Phase: ICT-2009.4.2 | Award Amount: 7.59M | Year: 2010

The GaLA motivation stems from the acknowledgment of the potentiality of Serious Games (SGs) for education and training and the need to address the challenges of the main stakeholders of the SGs European landscape (users, researchers, developers/industry, educators). A foundational fault issue in this context is the fragmentation that affects the SG landscape.\nGALA aims to shape the scientific community and build a European Virtual Research Centre (VRC) aimed at gathering, integrating, harmonizing and coordinating research on SGs and disseminating knowledge, best practices and tools as a reference point at an international level. The other two key focuses of the project are (1) the support to deployment in the actual educational and training settings and (2) the fostering of innovation and knowledge transfer through research-business dialogue.\nThe NoE organizations aim to integrate their activities and resources in a long-term view structuring the activities along 3 major axes:\n\n\tResearch integration and harmonization.\no\tStrong integration among leading researchers, users and business;\no\tStrong concern on the current standards of education, in order to favour a real uptake and scaling of the educational games initiatives.\no\tAddress sustainability.\n\n\tJoint research activities.\no\tIdentify key issues and address them through multidisciplinary teams (putting always the users learners and teachers - and stakeholders in the centre of the focus) that will be iteratively explored;\no\tPromote Research and Development team forces organized in thematic areas - that will do focused research (e.g. joint PhD and MSc projects on hot SG research projects, joint project proposals) and continuously inform the project about the latest developments in technology and education;\n\n\n\tSpreading of excellence.\no\tDissemination of the NoE achievements as a flagship EU initiative in the TEL area\no\tStrong coordination with EU TEL activities, offering a specialized focus and expertise on SGs.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-RISE | Phase: MSCA-RISE-2015 | Award Amount: 1.81M | Year: 2016

Women with disabilities have more difficulties to find an employment and to integrate in social day life activities than men with disabilities. This project focuses on the collective of women with disabilities from different perspectives, trying to identify needs and best practices in several EU countries, representing different cultural and socio-economic environments, for the integration and improvement of their quality of life in several respects. By applying a novel analysis method, based on the experience acquired by the exchange of researchers, innovation staff and practitioners in the European area among the participating institutions, the project will identify a set of multi-sectorial research lines, to enhance integration and involvement of this population in the society along several dimensions. The delimitation of the scope of the project to this sector of the population has several advantages. First, it is the first relevant study at a global scale that is performed in Europe on this collective. Second, it allows putting into practice and validating a novel social research method, with a strong multidisciplinary approach, with such a well delimited case study. novel potential research lines can be explored in different settings to assess their opportunity and feasibility. Fourth, it will show the impact that this collective may have on a sustainable growth in economy and society, from different respects, by empowering their capacities, so far undervalued. Fifth, it will establish a platform for cooperation among research groups and associations in EU that are aware of the situation of this collective, looking for their synergies. It is worth mentioning that advances on technologies and measures towards a stronger social engagement of disabled people have finally a positive impact also in the whole population as many examples show on how solutions have been transferred to the rest of society in fields such as computer interfaces, ergonomic solutions, etc.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: IA | Phase: ICT-20-2015 | Award Amount: 7.05M | Year: 2016

BEACONING sets a forefront in multifaceted education technologies through large-scale piloting of a digital learning platform that blend physical and digital spaces. As innovation action strategies, pilots combine opportunities for new ICTs in multiple ways that merge learning acquired in formal, non-formal and informal means, developing the skills for todays abled and disabled learners and workforce. The BEACONING platform will be a ubiquitous solution that exploits advances in user experience design, mobile communication, location-based and context aware systems, procedural content generation, pedagogy-driven gamification, learning analytics and cloud technology though innovative integration towards a blended learning space. The BEACONING demonstrator will facilitate, assess and author gamified learning activities, integrating existing educational tools and services of the participating organisations. Focusing on STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics), the cross-subject approach embedded in a Problem-Based Learning model will contextualise learning within real world problem solving and applications. The role of learners is amplified in the process of filtering and connecting concepts framed under practical, investigative and exploratory scenarios. Large-scale pilots will validate and inform the development of the BEACONING ecosystem that democratises learning across and among fully abled and those with mild to moderate physical and mental impairments (age 15 to 24), undergoing general and vocational training. BEACONING anticipates the benefits of making cross-subject matter more understandable, fostering the application of subject specialism to other domains. The pilot substantiates the technical and economic viability and the impact of the innovative platform to strategise market adoption and replication. By integrating experiences in a highly engaging, contextualized and personalised manner, learning can beyond the barriers of space and time.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: HEALTH-2007-3.2-6 | Award Amount: 3.92M | Year: 2008

Reliable data on the prevalence and incidence of the spectrum of mental disorders in older people are currently lacking for the EU. Despite the availability of some national and a few cross-national cross-sectional studies with quite variable results, the size and burden of mental disorders in the elderly remains unclear. This has been attributed to a number of methodological factors (e.g. lack of appropriate diagnostic instruments). In addition patterns of incidence and of the natural course and prognosis of mental and physical disorders in people above 65 years are lacking nationally and cross-nationally in the EU, with only a few notable exceptions. Furthermore, there are no cross-national studies investigating the interaction of mental disorders and the utilisation of treatment under specific consideration of the severity and the impairment of activities and participation, in terms of ICF-categories, of older people in different European countries. Therefore, the objective of the proposed study is to (1) develop, respectively to adapt existing instruments and (2) to collect data on the prevalence, the incidence and on the natural course and prognosis of mental disorders, and to do this in sufficiently powered representative samples of older people living in the community across different European countries. This includes assessing health service needs, investigating to what extent existing services are used by older people and which specific barriers to utilisation may exist. Thereby, the implementation of the study will enable the further development and improvement of harmonised instruments for the assessment of impairments of activities and participation in older adults, to adapt already existing instruments, and to facilitate results that are comparable across cultures. Results will help to change health care in direct contact with people, and beyond this, they offer starting points for structural changes initiated on the level of health politics.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: SSH.2011.6.4-1 | Award Amount: 3.66M | Year: 2012

The objective of SIMPATIC is to provide policy makers with a comprehensive and operational tool box allowing for a better assessment of the impact of research and innovation policies in Europe. SIMPATIC represents a unique bottom-up project proposal, bringing together micro and macro researchers with expertise in evidence-based policy analysis and impact assessment of research and innovation policies, thus allowing European innovation policy makers to better address EU2020 challenges. Insights from micro-analysis and micro-evidence, including SIMPATICs own frontier pushing ex-post policy impact analysis of R&D subsidies and tax credits, will be used as input in SIMPATICs sectoral EU macro models, DEMETER and GEM-G3. These models have already regularly served in the assessment of innovation and environmental policies in Europe, and have thus proven their strength as support tools for ex ante and ex post assessments of EU policies. With SIMPATICs proposal, these models will be upgraded to include the latest insights from micro models in order to better respond to the new, grand challenges of RTD policies, including environment and social inclusion; SIMPATIC will thus develop and use the best possible evidence and methodologies to simulate the impact of a number of research and innovation policy alternatives, providing new insights into the potential impact of various policy alternatives, thus contributing to advancing impact assessment and evidence based innovation policy design in Europe.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA | Phase: ICT-2011.9.12 | Award Amount: 935.41K | Year: 2013

Creativity is a long-cherished and widely-studied aspect of human behavior that allows us to re-invent the familiar and to imagine the new. Computational Creativity (CC) is a recent but burgeoning area of creativity research that brings together academics and practitioners from diverse disciplines, genres and modalities, to explore the potential of computers to be autonomously creative or to collaborate as co-creators with humans.\n\nAs a scientific endeavor, CC proposes that computational modeling can yield important insights into the fundamental capabilities of both humans and machines. As an engineering endeavor, CC claims that it is possible to construct autonomous software artifacts that achieve novel and useful ends that are deserving of the label creative. Overall, the CC field seeks to establish a symbiotic relationship between these scientific and engineering endeavors, wherein the software artifacts that are produced are not only useful in their own right, but also serve as empirical tests of the adequacy of scientific theories of creativity. If sufficiently nurtured, the products of CC research can have a significant impact on many aspects of modern life, with particular consequences for the worlds of entertainment, culture, science, education, design and art.\n\nSo that CC can achieve its potential as a future and emerging topic of research and technology development, a range of important coordination actions are needed to solidify and promote the field while engaging with neighboring disciplines. These include focused outreach to researchers in cognitive science, psychology, linguistics, and neuroscience, as well as to practitioners in musicology, literary theory/art theory, design theory, and pedagogy. The goal of the proposed coordinating action is to perform outreach to these related research communities, in a way that maintains the coherence of the CC field without diluting its core principles.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ENV.2013.WATER INNO&DEMO-1 | Award Amount: 4.33M | Year: 2013

Heavy metal pollution is one of the most important environmental problems today even threatening human life. A large number of industries produce and discharge wastes containing different heavy metals into the environment and do not comply with current EU directives. BIOMETAL DEMO project aims at demonstrating the feasibility of the application of novel biotechnologies for the treatment of metal polluted wastewaters though the development of two pilot plants to be implemented in two metal polluting representative industries which are a mine and an electroplating company. Actual metal treatment technologies implemented in polluting industries fail to comply with the reduction of metal concentration required by the EU for wastewater treatments. For this reason, new technologies will be developed to overcome this problem. The biotechnologies that will be evaluated in BIOMETAL DEMO project will be: metal bioprecipitation by sulphate-reducing bacteria and immobilized phytase biocatalysis, and metal biosorption on agricultural industry by-products and biopolymers such as alginate & chitosan based materials. After the evaluation of these techniques, an optimized bioprocess or a synergy of two integrated bioprocesses will be selected to design and build two demonstration pilot plants for scaling-up the metal removal biotreatment. The feasibility of the application of the selected bioprocess will be explored at pilot plant scale in acid mine drainage and electroplating wastewaters contaminated with heavy metals. The operation will be monitored and optimized, and the kinetics and the performance of the metal removal/recovery bioprocess will be integrated within the pilot demonstration plants. Finally, an economic, social and technical analysis of the benefits of such tertiary biotreatment of metal polluted industrial wastewater will be carried out for the corresponding and related industrial sectors across EU.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: NMP-2009-3.4-1 | Award Amount: 8.89M | Year: 2010

In the last two decades, a precise management of agricultural land has been made possible due to the availability of new technologies, including global positioning systems (GPS), geographic information systems (GIS), sensors, automation of agricultural machinery, and high resolution image sensing. As a result, the concept of Precision Agriculture has emerged as the management strategy that uses information technologies to collect and process data from multiple sources in order to facilitate decisions associated with crop production. Moreover, the EUs sixth environmental action programme addresses the need to encourage farmers to change their use of plant protection products . RHEA is focused on the design, development, and testing of a new generation of automatic and robotic systems for both chemical and physical mechanical and thermal effective weed management focused on both agriculture and forestry, and covering a large variety of European products including agriculture wide row crops (processing tomato, maize, strawberry, sunflower and cotton), close row crops (winter wheat and winter barley) and forestry woody perennials (walnut trees, almond trees, olive groves and multipurpose open woodland). RHEA aims at diminishing the use of agricultural chemical inputs in a 75%, improving crop quality, health and safety for humans, and reducing production costs by means of sustainable crop management using a fleet of small, heterogeneous robots ground and aerial equipped with advanced sensors, enhanced end-effectors and improved decision control algorithms. RHEA can be considered as a cooperative robotic system, falling within an emerging area of research and technology with a large number of applications as reported by the FP6 Network of Excellence EURON, Special Interest Group on Cooperative Robotics, funded by the European Commission. RHEA will be a unique opportunity to gather a very large number of multidisciplinary research groups with adequate funds to accomplish an authentic step forward in applying precision agriculture techniques in a massive way. This consortium joints a number of multidisciplinary, experienced researchers capable of improving individual scientific knowledge, but a large cooperation project is demanded to sum up the individual efforts in a holistic manner. The success of RHEA could bring a new means of applying automatic systems to agriculture and forestry crops with an important impact in improving the economy and environment as well as in maintaining the sustainability of rural areas by launching new technological jobs.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: ICT-14-2014 | Award Amount: 6.87M | Year: 2015

The proposed SELFNET project will design and implement an autonomic network management framework to achieve self-organizing capabilities in managing network infrastructures by automatically detecting and mitigating a range of common network problems that are currently still being manually addressed by network operators, thereby significantly reducing operational costs and improving user experience. SELFNET explores a smart integration of state-of-the-art technologies in Software-Defined Networks (SDN), Network Function Virtualization (NFV), Self-Organizing Networks (SON), Cloud computing, Artificial intelligence, Quality of Experience (QoE) and Next-generation networking to provide a novel intelligent network management framework that is capable of assisting network operators in key management tasks: automated network monitoring by the automatic deployment of NFV applications to facilitate system-wide awareness of Health of Network metrics to have more direct and precise knowledge about the real status of the network; autonomic network maintenance by defining high-level tactical measures and enabling autonomic corrective and preventive actions against existing or potential network problems. SELFNET is driven by use cases designed to address major network management problems including Self-protection capabilities against distributed cyber-attacks, Self-healing capabilities against network failures, and Self-optimization to dynamically improve the performance of the network and the QoE of the users. SELFNET is designed within this economic and business context to substantially reduce operational costs of network operators by automating a significant number of current labour-intensive network management tasks. Therefore, SELFNET directly addresses the Strand Network Management challenge highlighted by the EC.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-RISE | Phase: MSCA-RISE-2015 | Award Amount: 1.39M | Year: 2016

In EU and Australia, every year thousands of square miles of forests and other lands burn due to wildfires. These fires cause important economic and ecological losses, and often, human casualties. Both EU and Australian governments are aware of how crucial it is to improve wildfires management and containment . Scientists from different specialties, both in EU and Australia, have already developed methods and models in order to improve the management and decision process pertaining to preparedness and response phases in case of bushfire. The present project, named Geospatial based Environment for Optimisation Systems Addressing Fire Emergencies (GEO SAFE), aims at creating a network enabling the two regions to exchange knowledge, ideas and experience , thus boosting the progress of wildfires knowledge and the related development of innovative methods for dealing efficiently with such fires. More precisely, the GEO SAFE project will focus on developing the tools enabling to set up an integrated decision support system optimizing the resources during the response phase, through: Developing a dynamic risk cartography of a region with regard to the possibility of a wildfire. The task will involve data collection (satellite and remote sensors), risk analysis and development of a tool enabling to forecast fire extension i, and in particular to predict fire and risk evolution during the response phase Designing and testing a resource allocation tool for the response phase using the dynamic risk cartography. One of the problems to consider will be the resource allocation for securing key places (schools, hospitals, .) given time dependent constraints. Problems will be identified through connections with final users, and the proposed solutions will be tested on simulated data. Developing analyses of relevant management processes as well as training tools in order to facilitate the implementation of such solutionto be completed


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: SFS-07b-2015 | Award Amount: 9.01M | Year: 2016

This aim of IMAGE is to enhance the use of genetic collections and to upgrade animal gene bank management. IMAGE will better exploit DNA information and develop methodologies, biotechnologies, and bioinformatics for rationalising animal genetic resources. It will demonstrate the benefits brought by gene banks to the development of sustainable livestock systems by: enhancing the usefulness of genetic collections to allow the livestock sector to respond to environment and market changes; using latest DNA technology and reproductive physiology for collecting, storing and distributing biological resources; Minimising genetic accidents such as abnormalities or genetic variability tipping points; Developing synergies between ex-situ and in-situ conservation to maximise resources for the future. To this end, the project will involve stakeholders, SME, and academic partners to achieve the following objectives. At the scientific level, the project will: Assess the diversity available in genetic collections; Search for adaptive traits through landscape genetics in local populations; Contribute to elucidate local populations and major genes history; Identify detrimental variants that can contribute to inbreeding depression; Predict cryobank samples reproductive performance; Facilitate the use of collections for genome-assisted breeding. At the technological level, it will develop: Procedures for harmonising gene bank operations and rationalising collections; Conservation and reproductive biotechnologies; A central information system to connect available data on germplasm and genomic collections. At the applied level, it will develop methods and tools for stakeholders to: Restore genetic diversity in livestock populations; Create or reconstruct breeds fitting new environmental constraints and consumer demands; Facilitate cryobanking for local breeds; Define and track breed-based product brands; Implement access and benefit sharing regulations.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-RISE | Phase: MSCA-RISE-2016 | Award Amount: 1.73M | Year: 2017

The goal of Olive-Net project is to introduce a novel approach for the exploration, valorization and marketing of new products based on bioactive compounds from Olea europaea. This will be achieved through an extended and well-balanced scheme of researchers secondments between universities and enterprises from EU & Associated countries as well as universities from Third countries. A mutual scientific project developed on the needs and interests of both sectors exploiting the existing expertise will be the base of this proposal. Products and side-products of the olive tree such as olive oil, edible olive fruits, olive mill waste and olive tree leaves, will be subjected to a series of state-of-the-art extraction and isolation cascades in order to provide extracts, enriched fractions and isolated compounds of high purity. Target chemical categories will involve the well known olive oil polyphenols and secoiridoids, that will be assessed for their safety and pharmacological effects against inflammation, osteoarthritis, cardiovascular disease, etc. in cell-based and in vivo assays. All active ingredients will be identified and characterized with advanced analytical techniques, in order to be integrated in formulations and products in the area of nutraceuticals/dietary supplements. Within this project, core scientific multidisciplinary knowledge from different research areas will be integrated creating valuable synergies. Expertise will be transferred by means of the seconded researchers training in environments with different research orientation where complimentary skills are required. Special attention will be given to dissemination activities aiming to public awareness of benefits of healthy diet(s). Olive-Net aspires to create a successful model promoting considerably researchers competences and long-lasting collaboration between Industry and Academia.


Patent
CSIC - Institute of Refrigeration, Research Center Biomedica En Red Of Enfermedades Respiratorias Ciberes and Complutense University of Madrid | Date: 2010-12-16

The present invention relates to a method for the detection and/or quantification of Streptococcus pneumoniae, a Gram-positive bacteria that is an important human pathogen, in an isolated biological sample, through magneto-amperometric biosensors, comprising detecting fragments of lytA gene of said microorganism, amplified through PCR, preferably asymmetric PCR or direct asymmetric PCR, by means of the hybridization thereof to a specific probe fully complementary to a region of said amplified fragment. Furthermore, the present invention also relates to the use of primers SEQ ID NO: 3 and 4 together with probes SEQ ID NO: 1 and/or SEQ ID NO: 2 to perform said detection. The biosensor developed to detect S. pneumoniae can be applied to different types of clinical samples from patients infected with this bacterium or other related bacteria. Preferably the clinical sample is an isolated biological fluid such as blood, cerebrospinal fluid, saliva or urine.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-TP | Phase: KBBE.2013.1.3-05 | Award Amount: 11.61M | Year: 2013

EFFORT studies the complex epidemiology and ecology of antimicrobial resistance and the interactions between bacterial communities, commensals and pathogens in animals, the food chain and the environment.This will be conducted by a combination of epidemiological and ecological studies using newly developed molecular and bio-informatics technologies. EFFORT will include an exposure assessment of humans from animal/environmental sources. The ecological studies on isolates will be verified by in vitro and in vivo studies. Moreover, real-life intervention studies will be conducted aiming at reducing the use of antimicrobials in veterinary practice. Focus will be on understanding the eco-epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance from animal origin and based on this, predicting and limiting the future evolution and exposure to humans of the most clinically important resistance by synthesising different sources of information in our prediction models. Through its results, the EFFORT research will provide scientific evidence and high quality data that will inform decision makers, the scientific community and other stakeholders about the consequences of AMR in the food chain, in relation to animal health and welfare, food safety and economic aspects. These results can be used to support political decisions and to prioritize risk management options along the food chain. The EFFORT consortium is made up of 20 partners from 10 European countries: Belgium, Bulgaria, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, Spain and Switzerland. The senior investigators leading this proposal bring together complementary strengths antimicrobial resistance, food safety, epidemiology of food borne pathogens and risk modelling, environmental epidemiology and microbial ecology, exposure assessment, veterinary microbiology, preventive molecular characterization of AMR, genetics and biology of DNA transfer mechanisms, whole genome sequencing for bacteria and economics of animal diseases


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: SSH-2007-1.2-02 | Award Amount: 1.90M | Year: 2008

Services are the dominant economic sector in modern economies and are a crucial component of competitiveness strategy and welfare in Europe. In the past public and private services have been studied in isolation of one another. At best this is misleading. At worst it produces a false understanding of the drivers, dynamics, and impact of services. The ServPPIN project addresses this problem by analyzing public and private services, and their impact on growth and welfare. In particular, it focuses on service innovation and on public-private innovation networks because these are an important organizational mode for developing, producing, and delivering new and improved services. They work by establishing and enhancing complementarities and synergies between public and private organizations. The research objectives of the project are: Identifying and understanding the links between public and private services and economic growth and welfare. Understanding service innovation and how public-private sector interactions function, and how they can be better managed to increase performance. Understanding the characteristics of successful public-private service networks which have a high impact on growth and welfare. The achievement of these objectives will be undertaken by theoretical and empirical research that is cross-country and cross-sector. This will be supported by in-depth case studies covering major service types: health, transport, and knowledge intensive services. The expected outputs of the project are the development of new knowledge/ improved scientific understanding of services, improved policy prescriptions, and the dissemination of this new knowledge to business leaders and policy makers. In order to diffuse knowledge effectively the Project has set up a stakeholder international Expert Reference Group that comprises enterprises, professional associations, trade unions and public institutions. The aim is to affect policy in services, including EU policies.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2011-ITN | Award Amount: 2.63M | Year: 2012

We propose an ambitious network based on a combination of training through high-level astrophysical research and a comprehensive package of complimentary skills training. Our network exploits a unique data set: a combination of very deep mid-infrared imaging of over 2300 local galaxies which we are obtaining with the Spitzer Space Telescope, with ground- and space-based UV, optical, and radio data. The data reach unprecedented levels of surface brightness and radial extent over a very large sample, which allows statistical studies of the distribution of old stars, thus stellar mass, young stars, and gas. Synergising the excellence in different areas of extragalactic research across our network, we will tackle fundamental questions concerning the origin and evolution of galaxies. The combination of our Spitzer imaging with a unique set of additional data tracing the distribution and motions of old and young stars, and gas, will allow us to reveal the interplay between galactic dynamics, current star formation and star formation history. Detailed numerical modelling is an integral part of our work plan , and will allow us to relate the present structure and dynamics of galaxies to their cosmological formation and subsequent evolution. We aim to train 8 ESRs and 2 ERs through this research, and through an ambitious programme of complimentary skills training. The latter will be delivered through a series of network events, covering such diverse aspects as project management, instrumentation, publishing, IT, outreach, and career training. Mobility is a key aspect of our network approach. All researchers will spend time at different nodes and at meetings, and our three private-sector associated partners will provide internships: a leading science publisher and two small hi-tech companies. Our proposed training programme will help prepare the next generation of scientists: Europes investment for the future.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ENV.2013.6.1-1 | Award Amount: 12.17M | Year: 2013

Tropical Atlantic climate recently experienced pronounced shifts of great socio-economic importance. The oceanic changes were largest in the eastern boundary upwelling systems. African countries bordering the Atlantic strongly depend upon their ocean - societal development, fisheries, and tourism. They were strongly affected by these climatic changes and will face important adaptation challenges associated with global warming. Furthermore, these upwelling regions are also of great climatic importance, playing a key role in regulating global climate. Paradoxically, the Tropical Atlantic is a region of key uncertainty in earth-climate system: state-of-the-art climate models exhibit large systematic error, climate change projections are highly uncertain, and it is largely unknown how climate change will impact marine ecosystems. PREFACE aims to address these interconnected issues, and has the following goals: To reduce uncertainties in our knowledge of the functioning of Tropical Atlantic climate. To improve climate prediction and the quantification of climate change impacts in the region. To improve understanding of the cumulative effects of the multiple stressors of climate variability, greenhouse induced climate change, and fisheries on marine ecosystems, and ecosystem services (e.g., fisheries, coastal vulnerability). To assess the socio-economic vulnerabilities and evaluate the resilience of Atlantic African fishing communities to climate-driven ecosystem shifts and global markets. To meet these goals we bring together European and African expertise to combine regional and global scale modelling capabilities, field experiments and observation systems. Our target region includes areas more affected by climate change and by its consequences, European outermost regions, and African countries bordering the Atlantic.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: KBBE-2007-1-1-03 | Award Amount: 6.22M | Year: 2009

Meiotic recombination has underpinned plant breeding for the generation of new traits of agronomic, environmental and economic importance, although we still have little understanding of the controlling mechanisms involved in this process. We will combine approaches in genomics and systems biology to obtain a detailed understanding of the factors that control recombination and will provide a basis for the development of strategies to modify recombination in a variety of crop species.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: INFRADEV-4-2014-2015 | Award Amount: 14.99M | Year: 2015

ASTERICS (Astronomy ESFRI & Research Infrastructure Cluster) aims to address the cross-cutting synergies and common challenges shared by the various Astronomy ESFRI facilities (SKA, CTA, KM3Net & E-ELT). It brings together for the first time, the astronomy, astrophysics and particle astrophysics communities, in addition to other related research infrastructures. The major objectives of ASTERICS are to support and accelerate the implementation of the ESFRI telescopes, to enhance their performance beyond the current state-of-the-art, and to see them interoperate as an integrated, multi-wavelength and multi-messenger facility. An important focal point is the management, processing and scientific exploitation of the huge datasets the ESFRI facilities will generate. ASTERICS will seek solutions to these problems outside of the traditional channels by directly engaging and collaborating with industry and specialised SMEs. The various ESFRI pathfinders and precursors will present the perfect proving ground for new methodologies and prototype systems. In addition, ASTERICS will enable astronomers from across the member states to have broad access to the reduced data products of the ESFRI telescopes via a seamless interface to the Virtual Observatory framework. This will massively increase the scientific impact of the telescopes, and greatly encourage use (and re-use) of the data in new and novel ways, typically not foreseen in the original proposals. By demonstrating cross-facility synchronicity, and by harmonising various policy aspects, ASTERICS will realise a distributed and interoperable approach that ushers in a new multi-messenger era for astronomy. Through an active dissemination programme, including direct engagement with all relevant stakeholders, and via the development of citizen scientist mass participation experiments, ASTERICS has the ambition to be a flagship for the scientific, industrial and societal impact ESFRI projects can deliver.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2013-ITN | Award Amount: 3.67M | Year: 2013

Biosensor development is a very promising and prospective field of research in food- clinical- and environmental analysis. Besides conventional analytical methods biosensors specifically detect only some decisive components. However, miniaturised sensor systems are able to detect components in the femto/ato-gramm region with almost no interference to other components in the investigated system. The advantage of such technologies is beside the high sensitivity/selectivity, the cost reduction and the very fast response of such analytic systems. Complex sensor systems will be developed for multiple parameter sensing on real samples combined with signal enhancement strategies. The network created by SAMOSS will improve the further development of biosensors in combination with optochemical sensing techniques in the fields of application and by broader distribution of knowledge. The main topics of the development will comprise the research and development of new materials for optochemical sensing and microfluidic applications, microfluidic sample handling modules, multifunctional elements, signal enhancement and innovative detection systems. SAMOSS will create a European Centre of Excellence for training young researchers in Biosensor Research and Development suited for Applications in Medicine, Food and Beverage Technologies as well as Environmental issues. Through well trained researchers SAMOSS will provide widely skilled personnel for a) the European Biosensor Research in Academia and b) the European Biosensor Industry. As a European Centre of Excellence SAMOSS will deliver a flexible and adaptable network of young researchers that is capable to accomplish the European needs in research and development of new, innovative biosensors for food and beverage analysis, environmental analysis and health care. Thus they will be well trained to become future team leaders in these research and development fields, whether in the domain of academia or in the private sector.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: NMBP-03-2016 | Award Amount: 4.95M | Year: 2017

Permanent magnets are crucial in modern technology as they allow storing, delivering and converting energy. They are able to transform electrical energy into mechanical and vice versa, which means that improving their performance entails transforming energy in a more efficient and sustainable way. The best magnets are based on rare-earths (RE), however, their status as a Critical Raw Material (CRM) has brought forward the realization that it is of great strategic, geographic, environmental and socio-economic importance to consider alternative magnets that present a reduced amount (or absence) of RE. One of the most sought approaches towards this goal consists on constructing composite magnetic materials magnetically coupled at the interface. In the framework of the success of a previous European Project (FP7-SMALL-NANOPYME-310516), focused on improving ferrite-based magnets, we developed a low-cost novel approach (Patent P201600092) that exploits the magnetostatic interactions within these composites and that yielded extremely promising results in the form of an experimental proof-of-concept. The goal of this project is to implement up-scalable and cost-efficient methods for fabrication of ferrite-based dense anisotropic magnets with a 40% enhanced magnetic performance (energy products above 55 kJ/m3) with respect to commercial ferrites. We aim at producing improved magnets that retain the advantages of ferrites availability, sustainability, cost, recyclability, eco-friendliness- and which have the potential to substitute currently used RE magnets (CRM) in the electric power system. Our targeted application is an electric energy storage device: we will substitute RE magnets by AMPHIBIAN ones in a demonstrator of a flywheel and evaluate its performance against cost, eco-friendliness and resource efficiency criteria.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2013.1.7 | Award Amount: 2.45M | Year: 2013

Commons based peer production (CBPP) is a new form of social innovation that is becoming ever more important in the information society. Current examples include Wikipedia, Open source software projects such as Drupal and Moodle, and open hardware projects such as Arduino and Raspberry Pi. In CBPP, collaboration is voluntary and autonomously organised around a common pool of knowledge and skills that are freely available to all members. CBPP has come to dominate innovation in software, and today we are witnessing it also making inroads into product design and production.\n\nBecause CBPP is a relatively new phenomenon, there is a need for theoretical and practical knowledge of how to organise this form of cooperation successfully. The P2PValue project will address this by developing a software platform designed to facilitate the creation of resilient and sustainable CBPP communities. The design of the platform will be empirically and experimentally grounded. Using qualitative and quantitative methods, we will elaborate guidelines for the institutional and technical features that support value creation in CBPP.\n\nThe project focuses on three key areas of improvement compared with current platforms: (1) Enhancing community sustainability by adopting the governance, legal, economic, and technical infrastructures that favour value creation and resilience; (2) Supporting the contributors with systems of reward that allow value to flow back to the creators; (3) Integrating the functions currently provided by online social networking services (e.g. Facebook) and collaborative software (e.g. Google Docs); (4) Building in features to provide privacy for users, using decentralized software rather than relying on a central server.\n\nThe project is based on inter-disciplinary cooperation between software developers, sociologists, political scientists and legal scholars. Partners include universities, research institutions and a non-profit.\n\nThe platform will be tested using the FP7 FIRE CONFINE facilities, which follow a federated approach in alignment with P2Pvalues. This will allow us to deploy, run, monitor and experiment with an open ecosystem of distributed P2Pvalue nodes within the CONFINE community networks. Evaluation of the P2Pvalue platform will be supported by experimentation on 3-4 communities that will adopt the platform. Additionally a Stakeholder Board, composed of external experts and user representatives, will provide periodical evaluation reports to the project.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: NMP-2008-1.1-1 | Award Amount: 4.86M | Year: 2009

The aim of this project is the assembly and the fabrication of a new generation of multifunctional nanostructures for performing combined hyperthermia and controlled drug release, specifically targeted to cancer cells. The magnetic nanocontainers we intend to develop can perform at the same time cell recognition, hyperthermia treatment, and, as a consequence of the heat and /or cell environment stimuli, the release of drug with high selectivity for ovarian carcinoma. These multifunctional tasks are made possible due to the inclusion of three main components: a) the magnetic nanoparticles, allowing detection by MRI, cancer treatment by hyperthermia and providing stimuli for drug release; b) the nanocontainers, which allow for drug encapsulation and protection from degradation, facilitate the release of the drug upon application of an external stimulus, such as heat, or an internal one, such as the acidic pH of the tumour cells; c) the antibody fragments attached to the surface of the magnetic nanocontainers to deliver them selectively to the ovarian cancer cells. The individual building blocks and their assemblies will be characterized with respect to physical, chemical, and biological features, followed by dissemination of the newly acquired knowledge. Cell culture experiments will allow to understand the performance of such nano-tools in vitro. Directed towards application in patients, in vivo animal studies will be carried out on the most successful magnetic nanocontainers. The objectives of this proposal cover a wide range of scientific fields, hence a truly interdisciplinary collaboration between chemists, physicists, and biologists is required. To this end, we propose a european network collaboration between academic partners, who will take care of the development of new solutions for nanofabrication, and industrial partners implied in the field of the proposed application who will evaluate/develop the materials and act as advisors for risks arising during the project.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-CSA-Infra | Phase: INFRA-2010-1.1.32 | Award Amount: 11.03M | Year: 2010

ENSAR is the Integrating Activity of Nuclear Scientists from almost all European countries performing research in three of the major subfields of Nuclear Physics: Nuclear Structure, Nuclear Astrophysics and Applications of Nuclear Science. It proposes an optimised ensemble of Networking (NAs), Transnational Access and Joint Research Activities (JRAs), which will ensure qualitative and quantitative improvement of the access provided by the current seven infrastructures, which are at the core of this proposal. The novel and innovative developments that will be achieved by the RTD activities will also assure state-of-the-art technology needed for the new large-scale projects. Our community of nuclear scientists profits from the diverse range of world-class research infrastructures in Europe that can supply different ion beams and energies. We have made great efforts to make the most efficient use of these facilities by developing the most advanced and novel equipment needed to pursue their excellent scientific programmes and applying state-of-the-art developments in nuclear instrumentation to other research fields and to benefit humanity (e.g. archaeology, medical imaging). Together with multidisciplinary and application-oriented research at the facilities these activities ensure a high-level socioeconomic impact. To enhance the access to these facilities, the community has defined a number of JRAs, using as main criterion scientific and technical promise. These activities deal with novel and innovative technologies to improve the operation of the facilities. In addition, a key JRA aims at integrating the laboratories in Central and South-Eastern European countries with those elsewhere in Europe. The NAs of ENSAR have been set-up with specific actions to strengthen the communities coherence around certain research topics and to ensure a broad dissemination of results and stimulate multidisciplinary and application-oriented research at the Research Infrastructures.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: BSG-SME-AG | Phase: SME-2012-2 | Award Amount: 1.19M | Year: 2012

The projects objective is the creation of an innovative process based on modification of recovered fibres to be used to produce new functional packaging products with high level of standardization in EU, reducing the need of the sector for virgin fibres and supporting the competitiveness of the SMEs in EU packaging sector, through: - study and develop potential treatments for recovered fibre modification capable of improving physical- chemical properties of recycled papers - select the best fibre modification treatments based on property and recyclability criteria and validate at pilot plant scale - develop appropriate modification process systems of recovered fibres, explore new possibilities for both cost reduction and quality increase in packaging design and manufacturing with the input of all stakeholders - implement, demonstrate and validate a pilot plant for fibre modification (energy and raw material efficiency). The plant will be realized with the assistance of SME consortium members - train the staff of all the participants and disseminate the results to interested packaging SMEs (organize training courses and technical seminars, publish in practical sector journals and brochures and use internet) - identify new uses of enhanced modified fibre papers by comparing the state-of-the-art and the results of Fibre\ technology in corrugating packaging SMEs - foster the implementation of the new innovative fibre modification technology in SME users. It is foreseen that the project will serve to identify the industrial bottlenecks of paperboard SMEs and to establish a channel for them to express their interests and specifications for the new innovative modification process of recovered fibres with criteria of performance and optimisation. The consortium will create a database of characteristics and properties on representative fibre raw materials and products (recovered fibres, grade papers, corrugated board, boxes) for the packaging companies throughout Europe.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: COMPET-08-2014 | Award Amount: 2.10M | Year: 2015

The goals of the UPWARDS project match the topics, challenges and scope of the Compet-8-2014 call. UPWARDS has as its overarching objective the revision and exploitation of data from the European Mars Express (MEx) mission as well as other Martian missions using a synergistic combination of state-of-the-art atmospheric/subsurface models and novel retrieval tools. UPWARDS will 1) address major open science questions which require an integrated understanding of the Mars coupled system from the subsurface to the upper atmosphere; 2) prepare for ExoMars 2016 Trace Gas Orbiter data analysis and exploitation; and 3) deliver enhanced scientific context and datasets for ExoMars 2018 Rover operations and future missions. The UPWARDS Consortium undertake five grand science themes which challenge our current understanding of the complex couplings of the Mars climate: 1) exchange of trace species between subsurface & atmosphere; 2) global cycle of Martian water; 3) surface properties and behaviour of suspended aerosols and dust storms; 4) drastic changes at the day/night terminator; 5) coupling of the lower and upper atmosphere and escape to space. All topics are addressed by experts in the field, exchanging results and knowledge in a truly synergistic and interdisciplinary collaboration. All topics share a common methodology and work flow: 1) compilation of new or unexploited data from MEx; 2) generation of added-value products with new/validated tools developed in the Consortium; 3) analysis and combination of the results with state-of-the-art models. Included is a novel data-assimilation devoted to supply as an end-product, the first of its-kind 4-D (x,y,z,t) database for ExoMars and beyond. The dissemination of UPWARDS high-level data products and the outreach activities by the scientists who produce them, will pave the way for establishing a long-term competency in Martian research at a global recognized level, and breed a new generation of European scientists.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2012-ITN | Award Amount: 3.31M | Year: 2012

Chronic liver diseases (CLD) and their end-stages, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), are leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide with enormous socio-economic costs. Patients with liver cirrhosis are at high risk of deadly hepatic failure and over 80% of HCC develop on a cirrhotic background. HCC ranks as the 5th most common cancer and with >600,000 deaths per annum it constitutes a major global health problem. The main etiologies of CLD are chronic HCV and HBV infections, alcohol abuse and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) as a result of the metabolic syndrome taking epidemic proportions. Liver transplantation is currently the only available therapy for terminal liver failure. It is well recognized that the cytokine TGF-Beta plays a pivotal role in the sequence of events leading to end-stage CLD, but the complexity of the underlying aberrant responses in the cells and the organ that lead to the drastic changes seen in CLD and HCC is poorly understood. A broad spectrum of scientific and technological capacities is needed to accomplish the goal of discovering drugs and treatment modalities for CLD and HCC.As a result, there is a lack in academia and industry alike - of internationally oriented researchers and research leaders, capable of seamless and bi-directional transfer of goal-oriented scientific knowledge and technologies between the basic, translational and clinical research and industrial capacities; a conditio sine qua non for effectively and efficiently combating CLD and HCC and alleviate its medical and socio-economic burdens. Consequently, the ITN formulated the mission to provide a multidisciplinary and intersectorial Research Training Programme for talented young researchers, so as to prepare them for leading roles in CLD research and drug discovery in European industry and academia.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: ENV.2011.1.3.2-2 | Award Amount: 4.19M | Year: 2011

The project will reduce future Europes vulnerability and risk to drought by innovative in-depth studies that combine drought investigations in six case study areas in water-stressed regions (river basin and national scale) with drought analyses at the pan-European scale. Knowledge transfer across these scales is paramount because vulnerability is context-specific (e.g. physical, environmental, socio-economic, cultural, legal, institutional), which requires analyses on detailed scales, whereas international policies and drought-generating climate drivers and land surface processes are operating on large scales. The project will adopt Science-Policy Interfacing at the various scales, by establishing Case Study Dialogue Fora and a pan-Europe Dialogue Forum, which will ensure that the research will be well integrated into the policy-making from the start of the project onwards. The study will foster a better understanding of past droughts (e.g. underlying processes, occurrences, environmental and socio-economic impacts, past responses), which then will contribute to the assessment of drought hazards and potential vulnerabilities in the 21th C. An innovative methodology for early drought warning at the pan-European scale will be developed, which will improve on the forecasting and a suite of interlinked physical and impact indicators. This will help to increase drought preparedness, and to indentify and implement appropriate Disaster Risk Reduction measures (along the lines of the UN/ISDR HFA). The project will lead through the combined drought studies at different scales to the identification of drought-sensitive regions and sectors across Europe and a more thorough implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive, particularly by further developing of methodologies for Drought Management Plans at different scales (incl. EU level). The work will be linked with the European Drought Centre ensuring that the outcome will be consolidated beyond the project lifetime.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2013-ITN | Award Amount: 3.65M | Year: 2013

Global population stands at 7 billion and is predicted to reach 9 billion by 2050. It is anticipated that food production will need to increase by at least 50% to meet the demand arising from this increase in population. This will require a sustained improvement in crop yield. The nature of this challenge is exacerbated by the likely impact of climate change. These factors combine to make Food Security one the key challenges for the 21st century. To deliver improvement and sustainability in crop production it will be necessary to harness a broad spectrum approaches. Crop improvement will be crucial and a major part in the delivery of this will be based on classical breeding. This harnesses the genetic variation that is generated by homologous recombination during meiosis. Meiotic recombination creates new combinations of alleles that confer new phenotypes that can be tested for enhanced performance. It is also crucial in mapping genetic traits and in the introgression of new traits from sources such as wild-crop varieties. Despite the central role played by meiosis in crop production we are remarkably ignorant as to how the process is controlled in these species. For example, it is not known why recombination in cereals and forage grasses is skewed towards the ends of the chromosomes such that an estimated 30-50% of genes rarely, if ever, recombine thereby limiting the genetic variation that is available to plant breeders. Moreover, as many crop species are polyploid a further level of complexity is added to the meiotic process. Over the past 15 years studies in Arabidopsis, many conducted in the laboratories in the COMREC consortium, have provided both insights into the control of meiosis in plants and generated the tools to analyze this process in crop species. It is now timely, to translate this knowledge, training a new generation of young scientists who will gain the expertise to understand and develop strategies to modify recombination in crops.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: HEALTH.2011.2.3.1-2 | Award Amount: 16.04M | Year: 2011

Antibiotics are essential therapeutics in the treatment of bacterial infections. However, the indiscriminate use of antibiotics has led to the emergence of antibiotic resistant bacteria that pose a major threat to human health as options for treating infections by these bacteria have become limited. The evolution, emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance genes are still only poorly understood and expanding our knowledge on these aspects will provide novel leads to combat the emergence of antibiotic resistance. The EvoTAR consortium gathers a multi-disciplinary group of leading European researchers in the fields of antibiotic resistance, microbial genomics and mathematical modelling. In addition, three research-intensive SMEs participate in EvoTAR, two of which are involved in the development of novel approaches to minimize the emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance. The purpose of EvoTAR is to increase the understanding of the evolution and spread of antibiotic resistance in human pathogens. EvoTAR will characterise the human reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes (the resistome) by investigating the dynamics and evolution of the interaction between resistant and non-resistant bacteria from the human microbiome and the interrelations of the human resistome with non-human reservoirs of resistance genes. Novel methods will be used to quantify resistance transfer under controlled conditions in gene exchange communities. Mathematical modelling will be applied to predict gene flow between different reservoirs and to predict future resistance trends. Novel in vitro and in vivo models will allow the study of the efficacy of novel therapeutics aimed at reducing selection and spread of antibiotic resistance. The EvoTAR project will generate novel insights into the evolution and spread of antibiotic resistance genes and thereby create opportunities for the development of novel interventions to curb the rising tide of antibiotic resistance in human pathogens.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2013.8.1 | Award Amount: 2.19M | Year: 2013

In Computational Creativity research, we study how to engineer software which can take on some of the creative responsibility in arts and science projects. There has been much progress towards the creative generation of artefacts of cultural value such as poems, music and paintings. Often, when produced by people, such artefacts embed a fictional idea invented by the creator. For instance, an artist might have the fictional idea: [What if there was a quiz show, where each week someone was shot dead?] and express this through a painting, poem or film. While such ideation is clearly central to creativity, with obvious applications to the creative industries, there have only been a few small, ad-hoc studies of how to automate fictional ideation. The time is therefore ripe to see whether we can derive, implement and test novel formalisms and processes which enable software to not only invent, but assess, explore and present such ideas. We propose to investigate the following model for creative idea generation: (a) collect and analyse some information about a domain, to form a shallow world view of that domain (b) form a set of what-if style ideas from the analysis using notions of surprise, semantic tension and incongruity (c) assess, rank and select ideas based on the quality and quantity of narratives that can be generated using each idea, and (d) use the world view, idea and narratives in linguistic renderings, taking into account notions of relevancy, expansion, obfuscation and affect. Given that ideas are for human consumption, we will also collect crowd-sourced data about how people value, appreciate and expand these ideas, and will machine learn predictors for how people will react to automatically generated ideas. We expect this project to not only bring into being a new era of idea-centric approaches to Computational Creativity, but also to highlight to creative industry practitioners the huge potential of creative software collaborators.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: NMP.2012.4.1-3 | Award Amount: 4.51M | Year: 2012

This project addresses the design and development of permanent magnets without rare earths but consisting on hybrid nanostructures based on metals and metal ferrite oxides. The metallic nanostructures offers high magnetization values while the ferrite oxide one provides high anisotropy. We intend to design and process novel permanent magnets based on traditional hard ferrites and additional new magnetic phases combined with a soft magnetic phase to achieve high magnetic performance through effective exchange-coupling of both magnetic phases. This phenomenon has been extensively studied in metallic systems but not in oxide nanocomposite permanent magnets, where the studies are very scarce mainly due to the difficulty in optimizing the magnetic properties because of microstructural complexities. In view of practical applications this will guarantee their use in some nowadays applications which are currently covered by more expensive rare-earth permanent magnets, simply because typical ferrites do not fulfill the required magnetic energy product. This no-mans-land applications area - characterized by required energy products between 35 to 100 kJ/m3 - includes fundamental fields such as diverse components for transport and energy applications. As an important consequence, the use of rare-earth based permanent magnets will be reduced to its maximum possible extent by fulfilling the needs for a broad applications range by these newly designed rare-earth free permanent magnets. This project is therefore important from a fundamental as well as from a practical point of view where the complementary expertise areas of the different groups will combine to achieve the proposed objectives.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: NMP-2009-1.1-1 | Award Amount: 5.45M | Year: 2010

This project will develop methodology for the manufacture of novel peptide-based nanoparticles and nanocapsules to satisfy an unmet clinical need: sustained drug delivery to the posterior segment of the eye. The proposed consortium brings together internationally leading groups in self-assembling polypeptide nanoparticle and nanocapsule preparation by chemical (Durham) and genetic (Nijmegen) approaches, drug loading and in vitro release studies (Helsinki & Madrid), in vitro and in vivo assessment of nanoparticle biocompatibility and functionality (Helsinki, Madrid & Tbingen) and polymer synthesis, processing and industrial validation of manufacturing processes (DSM). Polyester micro- and nanoparticles that have been proposed for ocular drug delivery have several major drawbacks: acidic degradation products cause inflammation; drug release is difficult to control; and peptides and proteins are difficult to encapsulate. A platform of novel, peptide-based nanomaterials, formed through bio-inspired self-assembly processes, will be developed to overcome these problems. Peptide-based materials have a number of attractive features: biodegradation gives non-inflammatory products; self-assembly occurs under mild conditions; they possess a rich chemical diversity; they are defined at the sequence level. Polypeptides and peptide hybrid materials will be processed into nanoparticles, polymeric vesicles (polymersomes) and nanocapsules. These biodegradable and biocompatible materials will be used as containers for the loading, controlled release and cellular delivery of therapeutic molecules. The consortium therefore will enable the industrial manufacture of as-yet unobtainable, high value nanotechnology-based products utilising intrinisically low-energy demand nanobiotechnological phenomena. These will produce a step change improvement in the quality of products for sustained drug delivery to the posterior segment of the eye, enhancing the competitiveness of European industry.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: HEALTH.2013.2.3.4-2 | Award Amount: 7.61M | Year: 2014

The infectious diseases burden imposed by the parasites of Trypanosomatidae family represents a huge problem on peoples lives in countries where these diseases are endemic. Problems associated with existing drugs include inefficient delivery, insufficient efficacy, excessive toxicity and increasing resistance. New drugs are urgently needed now and in the foreseeable future. The New Medicine for Trypanosomatid Infections (NMTrypI) consortium uses a highly interdisciplinary approach to optimize pteridine, benzothiazole and miltefosine derivatives, as well as natural products against Trypanosomatids. The lead compounds target mechanisms that are associated with protozoa virulence and pathogenicity. The major objectives of this 3-year project are: i) development of drug leads which may be used in combination with a known or an investigational drugs, by using a common drug discovery platform established by experts in their respective fields, ii) development of pharmacodynamic biomarkers enabling the proteomic profiling of compound efficacy and early identification of drug resistance. NMTrypI addresses sleeping sickness, leishmaniasis, and Chagas disease. The partners are SMEs (5) and academics (8) in Europe and in disease-endemic countries (Italy, Greece, Portugal, Sudan, and Brazil). The new platform enables high throughput screening of compound libraries, lead development, testing in relevant animal models, as well as toxicology and safety testing. NMTrypI will translate drug leads into drug candidacy through 6 scientific work packages (WPs1-6) supported by two transversal WPs dedicated to project dissemination and management. The major strength of the consortium lies in the complementary partnersexpertise and the integrated platform that will provide: - at least 1-2 innovative, less toxic and safer drug candidates for Trypanosomatid infections compared to existing ones, - early phase biomarkers for efficacy prediction (overall improved efficacy and safety)


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ENV.2013.6.1-2 | Award Amount: 11.32M | Year: 2013

StratoClim will produce more reliable projections of climate change and stratospheric ozone by a better understanding and improved representation of key processes in the Upper Troposphere and Stratosphere (UTS). This will be achieved by an integrated approach bridging observations from dedicated field activities, process modelling on all scales, and global modelling with a suite of chemistry climate models (CCMs) and Earth system models (ESMs). At present, complex interactions and feedbacks are inadequately represented in global models with respect to natural and anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases, aerosol precursors and other important trace gases, the atmospheric dynamics affecting transport into and through the UTS, and chemical and microphysical processes governing the chemistry and the radiative properties of the UTS. StratoClim will (a) improve the understanding of the microphysical, chemical and dynamical processes that determine the composition of the UTS, such as the formation, loss and redistribution of aerosol, ozone and water vapour, and how these processes will be affected by climate change; (b) implement these processes and fully include the interactive feedback from UTS ozone and aerosol on surface climate in CCMs and ESMs. Through StratoClim new measurements will be obtained in key regions: (1) in a tropical campaign with a high altitude research aircraft carrying an innovative and comprehensive payload, (2) by a new tropical station for unprecedented ground and sonde measurements, and (3) through newly developed satellite data products. The improved climate models will be used to make more robust and accurate predictions of surface climate and stratospheric ozone, both with a view to the protection of life on Earth. Socioeconomic implications will be assessed and policy relevant information will be communicated to policy makers and the public through a dedicated office for communication, stakeholder contact and international co-operation.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: ENV.2007.3.1.1.1. | Award Amount: 14.58M | Year: 2008

Sustainable water use in industry is the goal of AquaFit4Use, by a cross-sectorial, integrated approach. The overall objectives are: the development and implementation of new, reliable, cost-effective technologies, tools and methods for sustainable water supply, use and discharge in the main water consuming industries in order to significantly reduce water use, mitigate environmental impact and produce and apply water qualities in accordance with industrial own specifications (fit - for - use) from all possible sources, and contributing to a far-going closure of the water cycle in a economical, sustainable and safe way while improving their product quality and process stability. The 4 pillars of the project are Industrial Water Fit-for-use, Integrated water resource management, Strong industrial participation and Cross-sectorial technologies and approach. Water fit-for-use is the basis for sustainable water use; the integrated approach a must. Tools will be developed to define and control water quality. The heart of AquaFit4Use however is the development of new cross-sectorial technologies, with a focus at biofouling and scaling prevention, the treatment of saline streams, disinfection and the removal of specific substances. By intensive co-operation between the industries, the knowledge and the technologies developed in this project will be broadly transferred and implemented. This AquaFit4Use project is based on the work of the Working group Water in Industry of the EU Water Platform WSSTP; 40 % of the project partners of AquaFit4Use were involved in this working group. The expected impacts of AquaFit4Use are: A substantial reduction of fresh water needs (20 to 60%) and effluent discharge of industries; Integrating process technologies for further closing the water cycles; Improved process stability and product quality in the different sectors and strengthening the competitiveness of the European Water Industry.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2013.1.2 | Award Amount: 4.70M | Year: 2013

Software services are virtualized if they can adapt to the elasticity of cloud computing. To foster the industrial adoption of virtualized services, it is necessary to address two important problems: (1) the efficient analysis, dynamic composition and deployment of services with qualitative and quantitative service levels and (2) the dynamic control of resources such as storage and processing capacities according to the internal policies of the services. ENVISAGE plans to overcome these problems by leveraging service-level agreements (SLA) into software models and resource management into the early phases of service design.\n\nENVISAGE develops a semantic foundation for virtualization and SLA that goes beyond todays cloud technologies. This foundation makes it possible to efficiently develop SLA-aware and scalable services, supported by highly automated analysis tools using formal methods. SLA-aware services are able to control their own resource management and renegotiate SLA across the heterogeneous virtualized computing landscape.\n\nThe main outcome of the ENVISAGE project is a practical open-source framework for model-based development of virtualized services that includes (1) a behavioral specification language for describing resource-aware models; (2) a simulator with visualization facilities; and (3) tool support for automated resource analysis, validation of SLA, code generation, and runtime monitoring of SLA for deployed services.\n\nThe consortium has the complementary expertise required by this challenging research agenda, with leading researchers in formal methods, contract-based specification, service-oriented computing and resource analysis, and with industries in different business domains developing cutting edge ICT technologies based on virtualized services.\n\nThe methodology and tools developed in ENVISAGE will allow services to be delivered in a more effective, efficient, and reliable manner than today, accelerating the development cycle and lowering the operational costs for innovative networked services that make use of cloud computing. This has the potential to significantly improve the competitiveness of SMEs, and profoundly influence business ICT strategies in all sectors.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: SSH.2013.5.1-1 | Award Amount: 3.09M | Year: 2014

Since 2008, Europe has been shaken by an ongoing crisis. If relevant parts of populations are exposed to socioeconomic risks, it is a distinctive characteristic of European political ethics that they must not be left alone, but should be subject to support and solidarity by budget support policy, economic development policies and social policy at different levels. But, in analogy with medical and psychological findings, some parts of the vulnerable population, although experiencing the same living conditions as others, are developing resilience, which in our context means that they perform social, economic and cultural practices and habits which protect them from suffer and harm and support sustainable patterns of coping and adaption. This resilience to socioeconomic crises at household levels is the focus of the proposed project. It can consist of identity patterns, knowledge, family or community relations, cultural and social as well as economic practices, be they formal or informal. Welfare states, labour markets and economic policies at both macro or meso level form the context or environment of those resilience patterns. For reasons of coping with the crisis without leaving the common ground of the implicit European social model (or the unwritten confession to the welfare state) under extremely bad monetary conditions in many countries, and for reasons of maintaining quality of life and improving social policy, it is a highly interesting perspective to learn from emergent processes of resilience development and their preconditions. Thus, the main questions are directed at understanding patterns and dimensions of resilience at micro-/household level in different types of European member and neighbour states accounting for regional varieties, relevant internal and external conditions and resources as well as influences on these patterns by social, economic or labour market policy as well as legal regulations.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-SA | Phase: SiS.2012.2.1.1-1 | Award Amount: 3.19M | Year: 2013

GENOVATE is an action-research project based on the implementation of Gender Equality Action Plans (GEAPs) in six European universities. It brings together a consortium with diverse experience with gender equality mainstreaming approaches, with varying institutional and disciplinary backgrounds and located in different national contexts. All, however, share common challenges for women engaged in research and all have identified three common areas for intervention: (i) recruitment, progression and research support; (ii) working environment, work-life balance and institutional culture, and finally, (iii) the increasingly important domain of standards and diversity in research excellence and innovation. Each partner university will address these areas through their individually tailored GEAPs that will build on existing structures and policies where relevant, or develop new systems and practices where appropriate. This contextualised approach will be supported by an ongoing knowledge-exchange system within the consortium and by ongoing participatory evaluation, both of which will maximise the shared learning of all partners at every step of the process. An ePortfolio system will allow individual experiences, challenges and thoughts to be documented and collated throughout the implementation process and this will inform the main deliverables of the projects: a social model of gender equality implementation and guidelines tailored to different actors and different contexts highlighting the issues, the challenges and the approaches that work. Dissemination of the outcomes will be shaped by a communications strategy for learning within the institutions, within national learning circles with key stakeholders and, internationally, through networking, media and publication activities. The long-term impact of the project will also be felt within the partner universities: the implementation of the GEAPs involves sustainability strategies for each institution to ensure that ther


News Article | January 13, 2016
Site: www.rdmag.com

Scientists working with the Major Atmospheric Gamma-ray Imaging Cherenkov (MAGIC) observatory have reported the discovery of the most energetic pulsed emission radiation ever detected from the neutron star in the center of the supernova of 1054 A.D., known as the Crab pulsar. The Crab pulsar is the corpse left over when the star that created the Crab nebula exploded as a supernova. It has a mass of 1.5 the mass of the Sun concentrated in about 10 kilometers diameter object, rotates 30 times per second, and is surrounded by a region of intense magnetic field ten thousand billion times stronger than that of the Sun. This field is strong enough to dominate the motion of charges and forces them to rotate at the same rate as the stellar surface. This region is called the magnetosphere. The rotation of the magnetic field also generates intense electric fields that literally tear electrons from the surface. As these accelerated electrons stream outward, they produce beams of radiation that we receive every time the beam crosses our line of sight, like a lighthouse. In 2011, the MAGIC and VERITAS observatories discovered unexpected very energetic photons. Emma de Oña Wilhelmi from the Institute of Space Sciences (IEEC-CSIC, Barcelona) and Principal Investigator of this observation program says: "We performed deep observation of the Crab pulsar with MAGIC to understand this phenomenon, expecting to measure the maximum energy of the pulsating photons". Roberta Zanin from (ICCUB-IEEC, Barcelona) continues: "The new observations extend this tail to much higher, above TeV energies, that is, several times more energetic than the previous measurement, violating all the theory models believed to be at work in neutron stars." The photons arrive in two precise beams which should be created far from the neutron star surface: on the far end of the magnetosphere or outside it, in the ultra-relativistic wind of particles around the pulsar, to be able to accelerate electrons to such energies and to escape the large absorption in the magnetised atmosphere. But very surprisingly, the TeV beams arrive at the same time as the radio and X-ray beams, which are very likely produced within the magnetosphere. This tight synchronization of the beams at different energies implies that the bright radiation observed in the multi-wavelength spectrum is produced altogether in a rather small region. Alternatively one can say that the electrons responsible from the TeV radiation keep somehow memory of the low-energy beams. Daniel Galindo Fernandez (ICCUB-IEEC, Barcelona) says: "Where and how this TeV emission is created remains still unknown and difficult to reconcile with the standard theories." and David Carreto Fidalgo from Complutense University of Madrid adds: "But how and where this effect is achieved in such a small region challenges our knowledge of physics". MAGIC Spokeperson Razmik Mirzoyan from the Max Planck Institute for Physics (MPP) in Munich (Germany) says: "This is another very important result achieved by MAGIC on the puzzling celestial object, which incidentally besides the Sun is the most investigated one in all energy ranges. Hence from the beginning of operation of the MAGIC experiment in 2004, we have been intensively observing the Crab Nebula and the Crab pulsar. And that has really paid-off- in the mean time we revealed significant features of this enigmatic object thus providing substantial input to our theory colleagues- now it is their move to explain how the things are at work. MAGIC has been designed to be the most suitable instrument among imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes to perform this kind of observations." The Crab pulsar, created in a supernova explosion that occurred in 1054 A.D., is located at a distance of about 6500 light years at the center of a magnetized nebula visible in the Taurus constellation. The Crab is the most powerful pulsar in our galaxy and it is one of only a few pulsars detected across all wavelengths, from radio up to gamma rays. In its rotating magnetic field , electrons and positrons are accelerated up to relativistic energies and emit radiation that arrives to our telescopes in the form of pulses every 33 millisecond, each time the neutron star rotates and meets our telescopic sight. Before the MAGIC measurement this radiation was believed to stop abruptly when the photons reach a energy few billion times larger than visible light. MAGIC is a ground-based gamma-ray instrument located on the Canary island of La Palma, Spain. The system of two 17m diameter Cherenkov telescopes is currently one of the three major imaging atmospheric Cherenkov instruments in the world. It is designed to detect gamma rays tens of billions to tens of trillions times more energetic than visible light. MAGIC has been built with the joint efforts of a largely European collaboration that includes about 160 researchers from Germany, Spain, Italy, Switzerland, Poland, Finland, Bulgaria, Croatia, India and Japan.


News Article | January 12, 2016
Site: phys.org

The Crab pulsar is the corpse left over when the star that created the Crab nebula exploded as a supernova. It has a mass of 1.5 the mass of the Sun concentrated in about 10 kilometers diameter object, rotates 30 times per second, and is surrounded by a region of intense magnetic field ten thousand billion times stronger than that of the Sun. This field is strong enough to dominate the motion of charges and forces them to rotate at the same rate as the stellar surface. This region is called the magnetosphere. The rotation of the magnetic field also generates intense electric fields that literally tear electrons from the surface. As these accelerated electrons stream outward, they produce beams of radiation that we receive every time the beam crosses our line of sight, like a lighthouse. In 2011, the MAGIC and VERITAS observatories discovered unexpected very energetic photons. Emma de Oña Wilhelmi from the Institute of Space Sciences (IEEC-CSIC, Barcelona) and Principal Investigator of this observation program says: "We performed deep observation of the Crab pulsar with MAGIC to understand this phenomenon, expecting to measure the maximum energy of the pulsating photons". Roberta Zanin from (ICCUB-IEEC, Barcelona) continues: "The new observations extend this tail to much higher, above TeV energies, that is, several times more energetic than the previous measurement, violating all the theory models believed to be at work in neutron stars." The photons arrive in two precise beams which should be created far from the neutron star surface: on the far end of the magnetosphere or outside it, in the ultra-relativistic wind of particles around the pulsar, to be able to accelerate electrons to such energies and to escape the large absorption in the magnetised atmosphere. But very surprisingly, the TeV beams arrive at the same time as the radio and X-ray beams, which are very likely produced within the magnetosphere. This tight synchronization of the beams at different energies implies that the bright radiation observed in the multi-wavelength spectrum is produced altogether in a rather small region. Alternatively one can say that the electrons responsible from the TeV radiation keep somehow memory of the low-energy beams. Daniel Galindo Fernandez (ICCUB-IEEC, Barcelona) says: "Where and how this TeV emission is created remains still unknown and difficult to reconcile with the standard theories." and David Carreto Fidalgo from Complutense University of Madrid adds: "But how and where this effect is achieved in such a small region challenges our knowledge of physics". MAGIC Spokeperson Razmik Mirzoyan from the Max Planck Institute for Physics (MPP) in Munich (Germany) says: "This is another very important result achieved by MAGIC on the puzzling celestial object, which incidentally besides the Sun is the most investigated one in all energy ranges. Hence from the beginning of operation of the MAGIC experiment in 2004, we have been intensively observing the Crab Nebula and the Crab pulsar. And that has really paid-off- in the mean time we revealed significant features of this enigmatic object thus providing substantial input to our theory colleagues- now it is their move to explain how the things are at work. MAGIC has been designed to be the most suitable instrument among imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes to perform this kind of observations." The Crab pulsar, created in a supernova explosion that occurred in 1054 A.D., is located at a distance of about 6500 light years at the center of a magnetized nebula visible in the Taurus constellation. The Crab is the most powerful pulsar in our galaxy and it is one of only a few pulsars detected across all wavelengths, from radio up to gamma rays. In its rotating magnetic field , electrons and positrons are accelerated up to relativistic energies and emit radiation that arrives to our telescopes in the form of pulses every 33 millisecond, each time the neutron star rotates and meets our telescopic sight. Before the MAGIC measurement this radiation was believed to stop abruptly when the photons reach a energy few billion times larger than visible light. MAGIC is a ground-based gamma-ray instrument located on the Canary island of La Palma, Spain. The system of two 17m diameter Cherenkov telescopes is currently one of the three major imaging atmospheric Cherenkov instruments in the world. It is designed to detect gamma rays tens of billions to tens of trillions times more energetic than visible light. MAGIC has been built with the joint efforts of a largely European collaboration that includes about 160 researchers from Germany, Spain, Italy, Switzerland, Poland, Finland, Bulgaria, Croatia, India and Japan. More information: S. Ansoldi et al. Teraelectronvolt pulsed emission from the Crab Pulsar detected by MAGIC, Astronomy & Astrophysics (2016). DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201526853


News Article | February 21, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

In the year 2000 the first of a new class of distant solar system objects was discovered, orbiting the Sun at a distance greater than that of Neptune: the "extreme trans Neptunian objects (ETNOs). Their orbits are very far from the Sun compared with that of the Earth. We orbit the Sun at a mean distance of one astronomical unit (1 AU which is 150 million kilometres) but the ETNOs orbit at more than 150 AU. To give an idea of how far away they are, Pluto's orbit is at around 40 AU and its closest approach to the Sun (perihelion) is at 30 AU. This discovery marked a turning point in Solar System studies, and up to now, a total of 21 ETNOs have been identified. Recently, a number of studies have suggested that the dynamical parameters of the ETNOs could be better explained if there were one or more planets with masses several times that of the Earth orbiting the Sun at distances of hundreds of AU. In particular, in 2016 the researchers Brown and Batygin used the orbits of seven ETNOs to predict the existence of a "superearth" orbiting the sun at some 700 AU. This range of masses is termed sub Neptunian. This idea is referred to as the Planet Nine Hypothesis and is one of the current subjects of interest in planetary science. However, because the objects are so far away the light we receive from them is very weak and until now the only one of the 21 trans Neptunian objects observed spectroscopically was Sedna. Now, a team of researchers led by the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC) in collaboration with the Complutense University of Madrid has taken a step towards the physical characterization of these bodies, and to confirm or refute the hypothesis of Planet Nine by studying them. The scientists have made the first spectroscopic observations of 2004 VN112 and 2013 RF98, both of them particularly interesting dynamically because their orbits are almost identical and the poles of the orbits are separated by a very small angle. This suggest a common origin, and their present-day orbits could be the result of a past interaction with the hypothetical Planet Nine. This study, recently published in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, suggests that this pair of ETNOs was a binary asteroid which separated after an encounter with a planet beyond the orbit of Pluto. To reach these conclusions, they made the first spectroscopic observations of 2004 VN112 and 2013 RF98 in the visible range. These were performed in collaboration with the support astronomers Gianluca Lombardi and Ricardo Scarpa, using the OSIRIS spectrograph on the Gran Telescopio CANARIAS (GTC), situated in the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory (Garafía, La Plama). It was hard work to identify these asteroids because their great distance means that their apparent movement on the sky is very slow. Then, they measured their apparent magnitudes (their brightness as seen from Earth) and also recalculated the orbit of 2013 RF98, which had been poorly determined. They found this object at a distance of more than an arcminute away from the position predicted from the ephemerides. These observations have helped to improve the computed orbit, and have been published by the Minor Planet Center (MPEC 2016-U18: 2013 RF98), the organism responsible for the identification of comets and minor planets (asteroids) as well as for measurements of their parameters and orbital positions. The visible spectrum can give some information also about their composition. By measuring the slope of the spectrum, can be determined whether they have pure ices on their surfaces, as is the case for Pluto, as well as highly processed carbon compounds. The spectrum can also indicate the possible presence of amorphous silicates, as in the Trojan asteroids associated with Jupiter. The values obtained for 2004 VN112 and 2013 RF98 are almost identical and similar to those observed photometrically for two other ETNOs, 2000 CR105 and 2012 VP113. Sedna, however, the only one of these objects which had been previously observed spectroscopically, shows very different values from the others. These five objects are part of the group of seven used to test the hypothesis of Planet Nine, which suggests that all of them should have a common origin, except for Sedna, which is thought to have come from the inner part of the Oort cloud. "The similar spectral gradients observed for the pair 2004 VN112 - 2013 RF98 suggests a common physical origin", explains Julia de León, the first author of the paper, an astrophysicist at the IAC. "We are proposing the possibility that they were previously a binary asteroid which became unbound during an encounter with a more massive object". To validate this hypothesis, the team performed thousands of numerical simulations to see how the poles of the orbits would separate as time went on. The results of these simulations suggest that a possible Planet Nine, with a mass of between 10 and 20 Earth masses orbiting the Sun at a distance between 300 and 600 AU could have deviated the pair 2004 VN112 - 2013 RF98 around 5 and 10 million years ago. This could explain, in principle, how these two asteroids, starting as a pair orbiting one another, became gradually separated in their orbits because they made an approach to a much more massive object at a particular moment in time.


In the year 2000 the first of a new class of distant solar system objects was discovered, orbiting the Sun at a distance greater than that of Neptune: the "extreme trans Neptunian objects (ETNOs). Their orbits are very far from the Sun compared with that of the Earth. We orbit the Sun at a mean distance of one astronomical unit (1 AU which is 150 million kilometres) but the ETNOs orbit at more than 150 AU. To give an idea of how far away they are, Pluto's orbit is at around 40 AU and its closest approach to the Sun (perihelion) is at 30 AU. This discovery marked a turning point in Solar System studies, and up to now, a total of 21 ETNOs have been identified. Recently, a number of studies have suggested that the dynamical parameters of the ETNOs could be better explained if there were one or more planets with masses several times that of the Earth orbiting the Sun at distances of hundreds of AU. In particular, in 2016 the researchers Brown and Batygin used the orbits of seven ETNOs to predict the existence of a "superearth" orbiting the sun at some 700 AU. This range of masses is termed sub Neptunian. This idea is referred to as the Planet Nine Hypothesis and is one of the current subjects of interest in planetary science. However, because the objects are so far away the light we receive from them is very weak and until now the only one of the 21 trans Neptunian objects observed spectroscopically was Sedna. Now, a team of researchers led by the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC) in collaboration with the Complutense University of Madrid has taken a step towards the physical characterization of these bodies, and to confirm or refute the hypothesis of Planet Nine by studying them. The scientists have made the first spectroscopic observations of 2004 VN112 and 2013 RF98, both of them particularly interesting dynamically because their orbits are almost identical and the poles of the orbits are separated by a very small angle. This suggest a common origin, and their present-day orbits could be the result of a past interaction with the hypothetical Planet Nine. This study, recently published in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, suggests that this pair of ETNOs was a binary asteroid which separated after an encounter with a planet beyond the orbit of Pluto. To reach these conclusions, they made the first spectroscopic observations of 2004 VN112 and 2013 RF98 in the visible range. These were performed in collaboration with the support astronomers Gianluca Lombardi and Ricardo Scarpa, using the OSIRIS spectrograph on the Gran Telescopio CANARIAS (GTC), situated in the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory (Garafía, La Plama). It was hard work to identify these asteroids because their great distance means that their apparent movement on the sky is very slow. Then, they measured their apparent magnitudes (their brightness as seen from Earth) and also recalculated the orbit of 2013 RF98, which had been poorly determined. They found this object at a distance of more than an arcminute away from the position predicted from the ephemerides. These observations have helped to improve the computed orbit, and have been published by the Minor Planet Center (MPEC 2016-U18: 2013 RF98) responsible for the identification of comets and minor planets (asteroids) as well as for measurements of their parameters and orbital positions. The visible spectrum can give some information also about their composition. By measuring the slope of the spectrum, can be determined whether they have pure ices on their surfaces, as is the case for Pluto, as well as highly processed carbon compounds. The spectrum can also indicate the possible presence of amorphous silicates, as in the Trojan asteroids associated with Jupiter. The values obtained for 2004 VN112 and 2013 RF98 are almost identical and similar to those observed photometrically for two other ETNOs, 2000 CR105 and 2012 VP113. Sedna, however, the only one of these objects which had been previously observed spectroscopically, shows very different values from the others. These five objects are part of the group of seven used to test the hypothesis of Planet Nine, which suggests that all of them should have a common origin, except for Sedna, which is thought to have come from the inner part of the Oort cloud. "The similar spectral gradients observed for the pair 2004 VN112 - 2013 RF98 suggests a common physical origin", explains Julia de León, the first author of the paper, an astrophysicist at the IAC. "We are proposing the possibility that they were previously a binary asteroid which became unbound during an encounter with a more massive object". To validate this hypothesis, the team performed thousands of numerical simulations to see how the poles of the orbits would separate as time went on. The results of these simulations suggest that a possible Planet Nine, with a mass of between 10 and 20 Earth masses orbiting the Sun at a distance between 300 and 600 AU could have deviated the pair 2004 VN112 - 2013 RF98 around 5 and 10 million years ago. This could explain, in principle, how these two asteroids, starting as a pair orbiting one another, became gradually separated in their orbits because they made an approach to a much more massive object at a particular moment in time. Explore further: Extreme trans-Neptunian objects lead the way to Planet Nine More information: J. de León et al, Visible spectra of (474640) 2004 VN–2013 RFwith OSIRIS at the 10.4 m GTC: evidence for binary dissociation near aphelion among the extreme trans-Neptunian objects, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society: Letters (2017). DOI: 10.1093/mnrasl/slx003


News Article | February 3, 2016
Site: cen.acs.org

One of Peru’s top presidential candidates, who is a chemical engineer and university founder, risks disqualification by electoral authorities if a doctorate in education he obtained from a Spanish university is revoked because of plagiarism. César Acuña, who has made education a central theme of his campaign, faces additional accusations of obtaining a chemical engineering degree in Peru after the National University of Trujillo “unanimously disapproved” of his thesis, according to documents obtained by an investigative news outlet. University documents indicate that after appealing the decision in 1995, Acuña was granted the degree by a department dean. In a statement, the National University of Trujillo said Acuña’s chemical engineering thesis had serious “deficiencies” and qualified it as “hilarious.” The Peruvian university said it had begun inquiries into Acuña’s academic submissions. His candidate’s thesis was titled “Design for Separation Equipment in a Natural Gas Treatment Plant.” Meanwhile, the Complutense University of Madrid is investigating plagiarism in Acuña’s 2009 doctoral thesis in ­education. Francisco Távara, the head of Peru’s National Jury of Elections, says, “If they withdraw or invalidate his diploma or title, obviously that would mean falsehood.” Távara adds, “He would be removed [from the race] if it’s falsehood.” Acuña, a wealthy businessman and former governor, is the founder of César Vallejo University, a university consortium with 11 branches in six Peruvian cities.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: GARRI-1-2014 | Award Amount: 1.67M | Year: 2015

Fostering a Transition towards Responsible Research and Innovation Systems The main objective of FoTRRIS is to develop and introduce new governance practices to foster Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI) policies and methods in research and innovation systems. Since research and innovation systems and practices in different European MS and within different research performing organisations vary, FoTRRIS will consider the implementation of new governance practices in five different MS In order to stress that responsible research and innovation is a collaborative activity from the very beginningcollaboration starts upstream, from the definition of the problem or challenge, continues with the analysis of the problem, the projection of potential solutions, the design of a research and innovation project that aims at realising a solution, and goes on during its performance and monitoringFoTRRIS adds the prefix co to the acronym RRI. Moreover, because important present-day challenges are (at least partially) of a global nature, but manifest themselves in ways that are influenced by local conditions, FoTRRIS focusses on glocal challenges, i.e. local/regional manifestations of global challenges and on local opportunities for solving them. FoTRRIS will perform a transition experiment, i.e. an experiment to support the transformation of present-day research and innovation strategies into co-RRI-strategies. It will design, test and validate the organisation, operation and funding of a co-RRI-hub. This hub is conceived as a small organisational unit, that will function as a local one-stop innovation platform that encourages various knowledge actors from science, policy, industry and civil society to co-design, -perform, and monitor co-RRI-projects that are attuned to local manifestations of global sustainability challenges. The transition experiments performed in 5 member states will be evaluated and policy recommendations to implement co-RRI derived.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CPCSA | Phase: INFRA-2007-1.2-03 | Award Amount: 49.02M | Year: 2008

A globally distributed computing Grid now plays an essential role for large-scale, data intensive science in many fields of research. The concept has been proven viable through the Enabling Grids for E-sciencE project (EGEE and EGEE-II, 2004-2008) and its related projects. EGEE-II is consolidating the operations and middleware of this Grid for use by a wide range of scientific communities, such as astrophysics, computational chemistry, earth and life sciences, fusion and particle physics. Strong quality assurance, training and outreach programmes contribute to the success of this production Grid infrastructure. \nBuilt on the pan-European network GANT2, EGEE has become a unique and powerful resource for European science, allowing researchers in all regions to collaborate on common challenges. Worldwide collaborations have extended its reach to the benefit of European science.\nThe proposed EGEE-III project has two clear objectives that are essential for European research infrastructures: to expand, optimize and simplify the use of Europes largest production Grid by continuous operation of the infrastructure, support for more user communities, and addition of further computational and data resources; to prepare the migration of the existing Grid from a project-based model to a sustainable federated infrastructure based on National Grid Initiatives. \nBy strengthening interoperable, open source middleware, EGEE-III will actively contribute to Grid standards, and work closely with businesses to ensure commercial uptake of the Grid, which is a key to sustainability. \nFederating its partners on a national or regional basis, EGEE-III will have a structuring effect on the European Research Area. In particular, EGEE-III will ensure that the European Grid does not fragment into incompatible infrastructures of varying maturity. EGEE-III will provide a world class, coherent and reliable European Grid, ensuring Europe remains at the forefront of scientific excellence.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: ICT-10-2015 | Award Amount: 1.97M | Year: 2016

WHY: 2015 has been named by the United Nations as the International Year of Light (light2015.org). Light has had many obvious benefits for human mankind, but it also poses some relevant threats: the everyday-increasing excess of light thrown by humans to the sky seriously threatens to remove forever one of humanitys natural wonders, the view of our universe. More importantly, it has also an adverse impact on our environment and economy (energy wasted to the sky costs 2 billion US$ per year in the USA and 6,3 billion per year in Europe) and on the health of hundreds of species, including pathologies in human beings (e.g., stress, insomnia). Many professional and amateur scientists are already fighting against light pollution. However, it is necessary to increase social awareness about the importance of preserving the darkness of our cities and environment. WHAT: STARS4ALL will create an Light Pollution Initiative (LPI) incubation platform that will allow generating (and maintaining) customizable on-demand domain-focused LPIs (e.g., a light pollution working group in Brussels). The platform will be self-sustainable: it will integrate a crowdfunding tool to obtain funding for the LPIs; it will consider incentives that motivate citizens to participate in LPIs, as well as policies to handle those incentives; and it will provide innovations in data acquisition from sensors deployed by citizens and in games with a purpose. HOW: STARS4ALL will initially deploy 10 LPIs, which will be available by the end of the 1st semester of project execution, and will be operating and creating collective awareness during the rest of the project. At that moment we pave the way the creation of other LPIs by citizens, specially in other disciplines such as Energy Saving, Biodiversity, and Human Health, and will organize open competitions among them.


Tenti G.,Complutense University of Madrid | Teresa Ramos M.,Complutense University of Madrid | Carlos Menendez J.,Complutense University of Madrid
ACS Combinatorial Science | Year: 2012

The three-component formal [3 + 3] aza-annulation between chalcones, β-ketoamides, and ammonium acetate in the presence of CAN as a Lewis acid affords good to excellent yields of highly substituted nicotinamides or their fused derivatives. This transformation leads to the formation of one C-C and two C-N bonds in a single synthetic operation and involves up to five individual steps. © 2012 American Chemical Society.


Armand M.,University of Picardie Jules Verne | Arroyo Y De Dompablo M.E.,Complutense University of Madrid
Journal of Materials Chemistry | Year: 2011

First principles calculations have been used to investigate the effect of N for O substitution on the electrochemical properties of Li 2FeSiO4. Within the Li2FeSiO4 structure, hypothetical models of the N-substituted Li2FeSiO 3N and Li2FeSiO3.5N0.5 have been analyzed. The computational results indicate that the lithium deinsertion voltage associated to the Fe3+/Fe4+ redox couple can be decreased by N substitution (4.86 V in Li2FeSiO4, 4.7 V in Li2FeSiO3.5N0.5 and 4.1 V in Li 2FeSiO3N). The high theoretical specific capacity of Li2FeSiO4 (330 mA h g-1) could be retained in N-substituted silicates thanks to the oxidation of N3- anions. The redox activity of N ions is observed in a voltage range of ca. 3.5-4.2 V. In the light of the potential benefits of N substitution for O experimental work is encouraged, in particular to investigate the reversibility and overpotential of the N redox reaction. © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Fernandez I.,Complutense University of Madrid | Bickelhaupt F.M.,VU University Amsterdam
Journal of Computational Chemistry | Year: 2012

We have computationally explored the trend in reactivity of the Alder-ene reactions between propene and a series of seven enophiles using density functional theory at M06-2X/def2-TZVPP. The reaction barrier decreases along the enophiles in the order H 2C=CH 2 > HC≡CH > H 2C=NH > H 2C=CH(COOCH 3) > H 2C=O > H 2C=PH > H 2C=S. Thus, barriers drop in particular, if third-period atoms become involved in the double bond of the enophile. Activation-strain analyses show that this trend in reactivity correlates with the activation strain associated with deforming reactants from their equilibrium structure to the geometry they adopt in the transition state. We discuss the origin of this trend and its relationship with the extent of synchronicity between H transfer from ene to enophile and the formation of the new C-C bond. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Merino-Gracia J.,Complutense University of Madrid | Garcia-Mayoral M.F.,CSIC - Institute of Physical Chemistry "Rocasolano" | Rodriguez-Crespo I.,Complutense University of Madrid
FEBS Journal | Year: 2011

After fusion with the cellular plasma membrane or endosomal membranes, viral particles are generally too large to diffuse freely within the crowded cytoplasm environment. Thus, they will never reach the cell nucleus or the perinuclear areas where replication or reverse transcription usually takes place. It has been proposed that many unrelated viruses are transported along microtubules in a retrograde manner using the cellular dynein machinery or, at least, some dynein components. A putative employment of the dynein motor in a dynein-mediated transport has been suggested from experiments in which viral capsid proteins were used as bait in yeast two-hybrid screens using libraries composed of cellular proteins and dynein-associated chains were retrieved as virus-interacting proteins. In most cases DYNLL1, DYNLT1 or DYNLRB1 were identified as the dynein chains that interact with viral proteins. The importance of these dynein-virus interactions has been supported, in principle, by the observation that in some cases the dynein-interacting motifs of viral proteins altered by site-directed mutagenesis result in non-infective virions. Furthermore, overexpression of p50 dynamitin, which blocks the dynein-dynactin interaction, or incubation of infected cells with peptides that compete with viral polypeptides for dynein binding have been shown to alter the viral retrograde transport. Still, it remains to be proved that dynein light chains can bind simultaneously to incoming virions and to the dynein motor for retrograde transport to take place. In this review, we will analyse the association of viral proteins with dynein polypeptides and its implications for viral infection. After fusion with the cellular plasma membrane or endosomal membranes, viral particles are generally too large to diffuse freely within the crowded cytoplasm environment. It has been proposed that many unrelated viruses are transported along microtubules in a retrograde manner using the cellular dynein machinery or, at least, some dynein components, in most cases the light chains DYNLL1, DYNLT1 or DYNLRB1. © 2011 The Authors Journal compilation.


Sanchez-Ramos C.,Complutense University of Madrid
Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology | Year: 2010

Introduction: An essential role for metalloproteases (MMPs) has been described in blood vessel neoformation and the removal of cell debris. MMPs also play a key role in degenerative processes and in tumors. The participation of these enzymes in light-induced phototoxic processes is supported by both experimental and clinical data. Given that patients with age-related macular degeneration often show deposits, or drusen, these deposits could be the consequence of deficient MMP production by the pigment epithelium. Objective: To gain insight into the regulation of metalloproteases in the pathogenia of retinal degeneration induced by light. Materials and Methods: We examined the eyes of experimental rabbits exposed for 2 years to circadian cycles of white light, blue light and white light lacking short wavelengths. For the trial the animals had been implanted with a transparent intraocular lens (IOL) and a yellow AcrySof® IOL, one in each eye. After sacrificing the animals, the retinal layer was dissected from the eye and processed for gene expression analyses in which we examined the behavior of MMP-2, MMP-3 and MMP-9. Results: MMP-2 expression was unaffected by the light received and type of IOL. However, animals exposed to white light devoid of short wavelengths or those fitted with a yellow IOL showed 2.9- and 3.6-fold increases in MMP-3 expression, respectively compared to controls. MMP-9 expression levels were also 3.1 times higher following exposure to blue light and 4.6 times higher following exposure to white light lacking short wavelengths or 4.2 times higher in eyes implanted with a yellow IOL. Conclusion: Exposure to long periods of light irrespective of its characteristics leads to the increased expression of some MMPs. This alteration could indicate damage to the extracellular matrix and have detrimental effects on the retina. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010.


Canales A.,Complutense University of Madrid
Magnetic resonance in chemistry : MRC | Year: 2012

Solution nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy is especially useful in the carbohydrate field. The measurement of residual dipolar couplings provides long-range structural information, a valuable complement for the structural study of carbohydrates either in its free form or in the bound state to proteins. They permit to deduce the geometry and the flexibility of the glycosidic linkages, which have a major influence on the conformation of carbohydrates and their overall shape. This article reviews the current application of the residual dipolar couplings methodology to carbohydrates. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Garcia-Villamisar D.A.,Complutense University of Madrid | Dattilo J.,Pennsylvania State University
Journal of Intellectual Disability Research | Year: 2010

Background: Even though there is research demonstrating a positive relationship between leisure participation and the two constructs of quality of life and stress reduction, current conceptualisation of leisure as a contributor to quality of life is limited. In addition, in spite of improvements in accurate diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) at increasingly earlier ages and proliferation of interventions, research associated with leisure and quality of life for people with ASD is lacking. Methods: Therefore, a study using a repeated measures design was used to measure effects of a 1-year group leisure programme intended to facilitate interaction with media, engagement in exercise, playing games and doing crafts, attending events, and participating in other recreation activities on quality of life and stress of 37 participants (22 male, 15 female), ages 17-39 (M = 31.49) years at the beginning of the programme) diagnosed with an ASD and a group of 34 adults with ASD as control group (waiting list) (19 male, 15 female), ages 24-38 (M = 30 at programme initiation) years. Results: There was a significant decrease in overall scores of stress levels for participants over the course of the study and there was a significant increase in the four factors of quality of life that were measured (satisfaction, independence, competence and social interaction) as well as the total score for quality of life from baseline to the end of the intervention 12 months later. In contrast, the control group demonstrated no significant improvements related to stress or quality of life. Implications of these findings to leisure services and the quality of life of individuals with ASD are discussed. Conclusion: Findings support the contention that participation in recreation activities positively influenced the stress and quality of life of adults with ASD. © 2010 The Authors. Journal Compilation © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.


Guo Z.-H.,Hebei Normal University | Guo Z.-H.,University of Murcia | Oller J.A.,University of Murcia | De Elvira J.R.,Complutense University of Madrid
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2012

In this work, we perform the one-loop calculation of the scalar and pseudoscalar form factors in the framework of U(3) chiral perturbation theory with explicit tree level exchanges of resonances. The meson-meson scattering calculation from Guo and Oller is extended as well. The spectral functions of the nonet scalar-scalar (SS) and pseudoscalar-pseudoscalar (PP) correlators are constructed by using the corresponding form factors. After fitting the unknown parameters to the scattering data, we discuss the resonance content of the resulting scattering amplitudes. We also study spectral-function sum rules in the SS-SS, PP-PP, and SS-PP sectors as well as semilocal duality from scattering. The former relate the scalar and pseudoscalar spectra between themselves while the latter mainly connects the scalar spectrum with the vector one. Finally we investigate these items as a function of N C for N C>3. All these results pose strong constraints on the scalar dynamics and spectroscopy that are discussed. They are successfully fulfilled by our meson-meson scattering amplitudes and spectral functions. © 2012 American Physical Society.


Gonzalez-Tudela A.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Porras D.,Complutense University of Madrid
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2013

Implementations of solid-state quantum optics provide us with devices where qubits are placed at fixed positions in photonic or plasmonic one-dimensional waveguides. We show that solely by controlling the position of the qubits and with the help of a coherent driving, collective spontaneous decay may be engineered to yield an entangled mesoscopic steady state. Our scheme relies on the realization of pure superradiant Dicke models by a destructive interference that cancels dipole-dipole interactions in one dimension. © 2013 American Physical Society.


Viyuela O.,Complutense University of Madrid | Rivas A.,Complutense University of Madrid | Martin-Delgado M.A.,Complutense University of Madrid
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2014

We introduce the Uhlmann geometric phase as a tool to characterize symmetry-protected topological phases in one-dimensional fermion systems, such as topological insulators and superconductors. Since this phase is formulated for general mixed quantum states, it provides a way to extend topological properties to finite temperature situations. We illustrate these ideas with some paradigmatic models and find that there exists a critical temperature Tc at which the Uhlmann phase goes discontinuously and abruptly to zero. This stands as a borderline between two different topological phases as a function of the temperature. Furthermore, at small temperatures we recover the usual notion of topological phase in fermion systems. © 2014 American Physical Society.


Kirkpatrick T.R.,University of Maryland University College | Ortiz De Zarate J.M.,Complutense University of Madrid | Sengers J.V.,University of Maryland University College
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2013

In this Letter, we consider the fluctuation-induced force exerted between two plates separated by a distance L in a fluid with a temperature gradient. We predict that for a range of distances L, this nonequilibrium force is anomalously large compared to other Casimir forces. The physical reason is that correlations in a nonequilibrium fluid are generally of longer range than other correlations, even than those near an equilibrium critical point. This giant Casimir force is related to a divergent Burnett coefficient that characterizes an Onsager cross effect between the pressure and the temperature gradient. The predicted Casimir force should be detectable with currently available experimental techniques. © 2013 American Physical Society.


Gutierrez C.,Complutense University of Madrid | Garcia-Magarino I.,Spanish University for Distance Education (UNED)
Knowledge-Based Systems | Year: 2011

The aim of the job-shop scheduling problem is to optimize the task planning in an industrial plant satisfying time and technological constraints. The existing algorithmic and mathematical methods for solving this problem usually have high computational complexities making them intractable. Flexible job-shop scheduling becomes even more complex, since it allows one to assign each operation to a resource from a set of suitable ones. Alternative heuristic methods are only able to satisfy part of the constraints applicable to the problem. Moreover, these solutions usually offer little flexibility to adapt them to new requirements. This paper describes research within heuristic methods that combines genetic algorithms with repair heuristics. Firstly, it uses a genetic algorithm to provide a non-optimal solution for the problem, which does not satisfy all its constraints. Then, it applies repair heuristics to refine this solution. There are different types of heuristics, which correspond to the different types of constraints. A heuristic is intended to evaluate and slightly modify a solution that violates a constraint in a way that avoids or mitigates such violation. This approach improves the adaptability of the solution to a problem, as some changes can be addressed just modifying the considered chromosome or heuristics. The proposed solution has been tested in order to analyse its level of constraint satisfaction and its makespan, which are two of the main parameters considered in these types of problems. The paper discusses this experimentation showing the improvements over existing methods. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Delgado R.L.,Complutense University of Madrid | Dobado A.,Complutense University of Madrid | Llanes-Estrada F.J.,Complutense University of Madrid
Journal of High Energy Physics | Year: 2014

By including the recently discovered Higgs-like scalar φ in the Electroweak Chiral Lagrangian, and using the Equivalence Theorem, we carry out the complete oneloop computation of the elastic scattering amplitude for the longitudinal components of the gauge bosons V = W,Z at high energy. We also compute φ φ → φ φ and the inelastic process V V → φ φ, and identify the counterterms needed to cancel the divergences, namely the well known a4 and a5 chiral parameters plus three additional ones only superficially treated in the literature because of their dimension 8. Finally we compute all the partial waves and discuss the limitations of the one-loop computation due to only approximate unitarity. © 2014 The Authors.


Viyuela O.,Complutense University of Madrid | Rivas A.,Complutense University of Madrid | Martin-Delgado M.A.,Complutense University of Madrid
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2014

We construct a topological invariant that classifies density matrices of symmetry-protected topological orders in two-dimensional fermionic systems. As it is constructed out of the previously introduced Uhlmann phase, we refer to it as the topological Uhlmann number nU. With it, we study thermal topological phases in several two-dimensional models of topological insulators and superconductors, computing phase diagrams where the temperature T is on an equal footing with the coupling constants in the Hamiltonian. Moreover, we find novel thermal-topological transitions between two nontrivial phases in a model with high Chern numbers. At small temperatures we recover the standard topological phases as the Uhlmann number approaches to the Chern number. © 2014 American Physical Society.


Chico D.,Technical University of Madrid | Aldaya M.M.,Complutense University of Madrid | Garrido A.,Technical University of Madrid
Journal of Cleaner Production | Year: 2013

This study reports the results of a water footprint (WF) assessment of five types of textiles commonly used for the production of jeans, including two different fibres (cotton and Lyocell fibre) and five corresponding production methods for spinning, dyeing and weaving. The results show that the fibre production is the stage with the highest water consumption, being cotton production particularly relevant. Therefore, the study pays particular attention to the water footprint of cotton production and analyses the effects of external factors influencing the water footprint of a product, in this case, the incentives provided by the EU Common Agricultural Policy (CAP), and the relevance of agricultural practices to the water footprint of a product is emphasised. An extensification of the crop production led to higher WF per unit, but a lower overall pressure on the basins' water resources. This study performs a sustainability assessment of the estimated cotton WFs with the water scarcity index, as proposed by Hoekstra et al. (2011), and shows their variations in different years as a result of different water consumption by crops in the rest of the river basin. In our case, we applied the assessment to the Guadalquivir, Guadalete and Barbate river basins, three semi-arid rivers in South Spain. Because they are found to be relevant, the available water stored in dams and the outflow are also incorporated as reference points for the sustainability assessment. The study concludes that, in the case of Spanish cotton production, the situation of the basin and the policy impact are more relevant for the status of the basin's water resources than the actual WF of cotton production. Therefore, strategies aimed at reducing the impact of the water footprint of a product need to analyse both the WF along the value chain and within the local context.


Bouza E.,Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon | Bouza E.,Complutense University of Madrid
Clinical Microbiology and Infection | Year: 2012

Clostridium difficile is the leading cause of infectious nosocomial diarrhoea in developed countries, with a measured incidence of approximately five episodes per 10 000 days of hospital stay in Europe. Accurate diagnosis of C. difficile infection (CDI) is a prerequisite for obtaining reliable epidemiological data, but in many European countries diagnosis is probably suboptimal. A significant percentage of CDI cases are missed because clinicians often fail to request tests for C. difficile toxins in cases of unexplained diarrhoea. In addition, some laboratories continue to use tests of low sensitivity or apply them inappropriately. In one study in Spain, failure to request CDI testing in more than two-thirds of patients with unexplained diarrhoea led to significant underdiagnosis of cases. A recent pan-European survey revealed huge discrepancies in the rate of CDI testing across Europe, which suggests that epidemiological reports underestimate the true incidence of CDI in many parts of Europe. This is important because, as this review of the clinical and economic burden of CDI illustrates, infection with C. difficile imposes a significant burden not only on patients, owing to increased morbidity and mortality, but also on healthcare systems and society in general. On the basis of current incidence rates, annual costs for management of CDI amount to approximately $800 million in the USA and €3000 million in Europe. Moreover, estimates suggest that costs associated with recurrent CDI can exceed those of primary CDI. Measures to more effectively prevent CDI and reduce CDI recurrence rates may help to reduce this burden. © 2012 The Author Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2012 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.


Coumou D.,Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research | Robinson A.,Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research | Robinson A.,Complutense University of Madrid
Environmental Research Letters | Year: 2013

Climatic warming of about 0.5 ° C in the global mean since the 1970s has strongly increased the occurrence-probability of heat extremes on monthly to seasonal time scales. For the 21st century, climate models predict more substantial warming. Here we show that the multi-model mean of the CMIP5 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project) climate models accurately reproduces the evolution over time and spatial patterns of the historically observed increase in monthly heat extremes. For the near-term (i.e., by 2040), the models predict a robust, several-fold increase in the frequency of such heat extremes, irrespective of the emission scenario. However, mitigation can strongly reduce the number of heat extremes by the second half of the 21st century. Unmitigated climate change causes most (>50%) continental regions to move to a new climatic regime with the coldest summer months by the end of the century substantially hotter than the hottest experienced today. We show that the land fraction experiencing extreme heat as a function of global mean temperature follows a simple cumulative distribution function, which depends only on natural variability and the level of spatial heterogeneity in the warming. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd.


Aicart-Ramos C.,Complutense University of Madrid | Valero R.A.,Complutense University of Madrid | Rodriguez-Crespo I.,Complutense University of Madrid
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Biomembranes | Year: 2011

Protein S-palmitoylation, the covalent lipid modification of the side chain of Cys residues with the 16-carbon fatty acid palmitate, is the most common acylation of proteins in eukaryotic cells. This post-translational modification provides an important mechanism for regulating protein subcellular localization, stability, trafficking, translocation to lipid rafts, aggregation, interaction with effectors and other aspects of protein function. In addition, N-terminal myristoylation and C-terminal prenylation, two well-studied post-translational modifications, frequently precede protein S-palmitoylation at a nearby spot of the polypeptide chain. Whereas N-myristoylation and prenylation are considered essentially irreversible attachments, S-palmitoylation is a tightly regulated, reversible modification. In addition, the unique reversibility of protein palmitoylation also allows proteins to rapidly shuttle between intracellular membrane compartments in a process controlled, in some cases, by the DHHC family of palmitoyl transferases. Recent cotransfection experiments using the DHHC family of protein palmitoyl transferases as well as RNA interference results have revealed that these enzymes, frequently localized to the Golgi apparatus, tightly control subcellular trafficking of acylated proteins. In this article we will give an overview of how protein palmitoylation regulates protein trafficking and subcellular localization. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Diez-Rivero C.M.,Complutense University of Madrid | Reche P.A.,Complutense University of Madrid
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Distinguishing T cell epitope distribution patterns is relevant for epitope-vaccine design. To that end, we invest0069gated the distribution of known CD8 T cell epitopes from Hepatitis C Virus, Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 and Influenza A Virus using χ 2 statistics. We found that epitopes are not distributed in the viral proteomes proportionally to the size of the source proteins. Specifically, capsid and matrix proteins pack significantly more epitopes than those expected by their size. Such non-homogeneous distribution cannot be accounted by underlying MHC I-peptide binding preferences nor it is related to sequence variability. Instead, we propose that it might be related to preferential protein translation/biosynthesis. Overall, these results support the prioritization of structural antigens for epitope identification and vaccine design. © 2012 Diez-Rivero, Reche.


Gonzalez F.J.,Autonomous University of San Luis Potosi | Alda J.,Complutense University of Madrid
IEEE Journal on Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics | Year: 2010

The performance of dipole nanoantennas coupled to two different waveguides, a cylindrical waveguide and a photonic crystal waveguide, illuminated with a polarized electromagnetic wave incident from the air and from the substrate is analyzed by numerical simulations. When illuminated from the air, the photonic crystal waveguide antenna showed two resonances spectrally far apart from each other: one of them corresponds to the main antenna resonance and the other one to the modes excited in the photonic crystal cavity. The cylindrical waveguide antenna shows only the main antenna resonance. No significant antenna response was observed at a polarization perpendicular to the main axis of the antenna. Illumination from the substrate did not increase the response of the waveguide-coupled antenna. These results show that antenna-coupled waveguides could be used as detectors for near-field applications where polarization sensitivity and dual band operation are desired. © 2006 IEEE.


Hurtado O.,Complutense University of Madrid | Lizasoain I.,Complutense University of Madrid | Moro M.A.,Complutense University of Madrid
Stroke | Year: 2011

Background and Purpose: In this work, we review recent data on the actions of citicoline, citicoline is a drug with demonstrated neuroprotective properties in both animals and humans. Summary of Review-For neuroprotection, mechanisms involved are the improvement of cellular functions aimed to control excitotoxicity and to maintain cellular adenosine 5′-triphosphate levels by preserving membrane function and integrity at different levels. Importantly, these actions are theoretically achieved without interfering with possible underlying mechanisms for neurorepair. Furthermore, citicoline stimulates neuronal plasticity and improves sensorimotor recovery in the chronic phase of experimental stroke. Conclusions: Although the mechanisms of some of these actions remain to be elucidated, so far citicoline appears as a drug with the ability to promote "safe" neuroprotection capable of enhancing endogenous protective pathways at the same time as preparing the scenario for plasticity. © 2010 American Heart Association, Inc.


Perez-Higueras J.J.,Complutense University of Madrid | Arias A.,Complutense University of Madrid | De La Macorra J.C.,Complutense University of Madrid
Journal of Endodontics | Year: 2013

Introduction New designs and alloys and different motions have been introduced to increase the cyclic fatigue (CF) resistance of nickel-titanium (NiTi) files. The aim of this study was to compare the CF resistance of K3 (SybronEndo, Orange, CA), K3XF (SybronEndo), and TF (SybronEndo) files under continuous rotation and reciprocating motion. Methods A total of 210 files (30-tip diameter, 0.06 fixed taper), 60 K3, 60 K3XF, and 90 TF files, were divided into 7 groups (30 files each): K3-C, K3XF-C, and TF1-C were rotated at 300 rpm; TF2-C was rotated at 500 rpm; and K3-R, K3XF-R, and TF1-R were used in a reciprocating motion. CF resistance was tested in stainless steel, curved canals (60, r = 3 mm) until fracture, and the time to fracture was recorded. The mean half-life, beta, and eta were calculated for each group and were compared with Weibull analysis. Results The probability of a longer mean life was greater under reciprocating motion for all of the files (100% for K3, 87% for K3XF, and 99% for TF). Under continuous rotation, K3XF was more resistant than K3 and TF. TF lasted significantly longer than K3. TF was more resistant to CF when rotated at 300 rpm instead of 500 rpm. Under reciprocating motion, there were no significant differences between K3XF and TF mean lives, but both were significantly longer than the K3 mean life (78% for TF and 86% for K3XF). Conclusions Reciprocating motion and R-phase increase CF resistance. © 2013 American Association of Endodontists.


Pradillo M.,Complutense University of Madrid | Santos J.L.,Complutense University of Madrid
Chromosoma | Year: 2011

Recombination between homologous chromosomes is crucial to ensure their proper segregation during meiosis. This is achieved by regulating the choice of recombination template. In mitotic cells, double-strand break repair with the sister chromatid appears to be preferred, whereas interhomolog recombination is favoured during meiosis. However, in the last year, several studies in yeast have shown the importance of the meiotic recombination between sister chromatids. Although this thinking seems to be new, evidences for sister chromatid exchange during meiosis were obtained more than 50 years ago in non-model organisms. In this mini-review, we comment briefly on the most recent advances in this hot topic and also describe observations which suggest the existence of inter-sister repair during meiotic recombination. For instance, the behaviour of mammalian XY bivalents and that of trivalents in heterozygotes for chromosomal rearrangements are cited as examples. The "rediscovering" of the requirement for the sister template, although it seems to occur at a low frequency, will probably prompt further investigations in organisms other than yeast to understand the complexity of the partner choice during meiosis. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.


Diaz-Morales J.F.,Complutense University of Madrid | Escribano C.,Complutense University of Madrid
Chronobiology International | Year: 2013

Research has shown that thinking styles could have an influence on academic achievement. Previous studies have described that evening types are usually right-thinkers who tend to be creative and intuitive, whereas morning types tend to be left-thinkers who prefer verbal and analytic strategies in processing information. However, these studies have been realized among undergraduates, who have more freedom to choose their time schedules according to their circadian preference than adolescents or adult workers. On other hand, the relationship between thinking styles and circadian preference has not been analyzed considering school achievement. The present study aims (1) to investigate the relationship between circadian preference, that is, behavioral differences in circadian rhythmic expression, and thinking styles, referring to the preference toward information processing typical of the right versus the left cerebral hemisphere; and (2) to test the implications for self-reported school achievement. A sample of 1134 preadolescents and adolescents (581 girls; mean±SD age: 12.1±1.47, range: 10-14yrs) completed the Morningness-Eveningness Scale for Children (MESC) as measure of circadian preference (morning, neither, or evening types), the Hemispheric Preference Test (HPT), conceived as a tool to measure thinking styles (right-, balanced-, and left-thinkers), and self-reported school achievement. Results indicated a greater percentage of left-thinkers among morning types and a greater percentage of right-thinkers among evening types. No differences were found among balanced-thinkers and neither types. Morning types and left-thinkers reported the highest subjective level of achievement, followed by evening types and left-thinkers, and morning types and right-thinkers. Evening types and right-thinkers reported the lowest subjective level of achievement. Finally, multivariate regression analysis indicated that age, left hemisphere and morning preferences accounted for 14.2% of total variance on self-reported achievement. © 2013 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.


Quijandria F.,University of Zaragoza | Porras D.,Complutense University of Madrid | Garcia-Ripoll J.J.,Institute Fisica Fundamental | Zueco D.,University of Zaragoza
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2013

We present a scalable and tunable framework for the quantum simulation of critical dissipative models based on a circuit QED cavity array interacting with driven superconducting qubits. We will show that the strongly correlated many-body state of the cavities can be mapped into the state of propagating photons in a transmission line. This allows not only for an efficient way of accessing the correlations in the many-body system, but also provides a bright source of chiral entangled light where directionality and entanglement are assisted by collective phenomena and breaking of reflection symmetry. © 2013 American Physical Society.


Gervas P.,Complutense University of Madrid
Literary and Linguistic Computing | Year: 2014

Stories of several characters, where different characters may engage in separate activities at different locations over the same period, are produced by humans as linear discourses with no difficulty. The present article addresses this issue by engineering a computational model of the relevant task understood as that of composing a narrative discourse for the events in a chess game. The task of narrative composition is modelled as a set of operations that need to be carried out to obtain a span of narrative discourse from a set of events that inspire the narration. The model explores a set of intermediate representations required to capture the structure that is progressively imposed on the material, and connects this content planning task with a classic pipeline for natural language generation. Several strategies are explored for the linearization procedure and for the evaluation of its results. Additionally, the article considers this productive task immersed in a self-evaluation cycle where the produced discourse is validated via the construction of a possible interpretation (based exclusively on the information available in the discourse itself) and a comparison between this interpretation and the original source material. © The Author 2014.


Iglesias M.E.L.,Rey Juan Carlos University | De Bengoa Vallejo R.B.,Complutense University of Madrid
Dimensions of Critical Care Nursing | Year: 2013

Stress, burnout, and job satisfaction have become increasingly important in nursing environments over the last 20 years. For critical care nurses, the work environment is extremely stressful, even for the best-prepared professional. The aims of this study were to measure the prevalence of burnout syndrome, job satisfaction, job stress, and clinical manifestations of stress and to demonstrate the relationship between these variables among Spanish critical care nurses with a convenience sample of 74. Results showed a moderate frequency of nursing stress, high frequency of emotional exhaustion, and negative evaluation of career accompanied by moderate development of negative attitudes toward patients (depersonalization). Other findings are also presented. Copyright © 2013 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


Sanz-Bravo A.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Campos J.,Hospital Universitario Puerta Of Hierro Majadahonda | Mazariegos M.S.,Complutense University of Madrid | Lopez De Castro J.A.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Arthritis and Rheumatology | Year: 2015

Objective To characterize the alterations, as well as their mechanisms, induced in the HLA-B27-bound peptidome expressed in live cells by the natural ERAP1 polymorphisms predisposing to ankylosing spondylitis (AS): R528K and N575D/Q725R. Methods HLA-B27:05-bound peptides were isolated from 3 human lymphoid cell lines expressing distinct ERAP1 variants differing at residues 528 and/or 575/725. The high-performance liquid chromatography-fractionated peptide pools were compared by mass spectrometry based on identity of molecular mass and chromatographic retention time. The relative amount of each shared peptide in any given cell line pair was estimated from the respective ion peak intensities. Peptide sequencing was also carried out by mass spectrometry. Results HLA-B27-bound ligands predominant in the context of the ERAP1 variant with K528 collectively showed higher molecular mass, higher frequency of N-terminal residues resistant to ERAP1, and bulkier residues downstream of the N-terminus, relative to peptides predominant in the R528 context. None of these differences were observed with ERAP1 variants differing at positions 575/725, but not at residue 528. Neither R528K nor N575D/Q725R altered the mean length of B27:05-bound ligands. Conclusion The R528K, but not the N575D/Q725R, polymorphism alters the expression levels of many HLA-B27:05-bound peptides, depending on the susceptibility of their N-terminal residues to trimming and depending on the size of the amino acid side chains at multiple positions downstream of the N-terminus. The significant alterations in the B27:05 peptidome and the structural features of the peptides that determine their differential expression in distinct ERAP1 contexts account for the association of the R528K polymorphism with AS. Copyright © 2015 by the American College of Rheumatology.


Luque-Garcia J.L.,Complutense University of Madrid | Cabezas-Sanchez P.,Complutense University of Madrid | Camara C.,Complutense University of Madrid
TrAC - Trends in Analytical Chemistry | Year: 2011

Examining the toxic effects of heavy metals on protein expression can be useful for gaining insight into the biomolecular mechanisms of toxicity and for identifying potential candidate metal-specific protein markers of exposure and response. In this article, we present the state of the art of proteomics in metal-toxicity-related studies. We consider different methods used for sample preparation that depend on the nature of the sample (plants, microorganisms and animals). We also describe different proteomic strategies, both gel-based and gel-free technologies, including two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and multi-dimensional protein-identification technology (MudPIT). We critically review the advantages and the disadvantages of such techniques and discuss the main studies carried out so far. We also comment on future applications and potential research interests within this field. © 2011.


Blanco-Gutierrez V.,Complutense University of Madrid | Saez-Puche R.,Complutense University of Madrid | Torralvo-Fernandez M.J.,Complutense University of Madrid
Journal of Materials Chemistry | Year: 2012

ZnFe 2O 4 particles ranging from 4 to 19 nm have been prepared by a solvothermal method. They exhibit superparamagnetic behavior above the blocking temperature which takes a value from 14 to 62 K, magnetization values from 30 to 60 emu g -1, an anisotropy constant that ranges from 1.1 × 10 5 to 3.4 × 10 5 erg cm -3 and an effective superparamagnetic moment from 7.0 × 10 2 to 8.6 × 10 3μ B. The superparamagnetic behavior is affected by the presence of dipolar interparticle interactions which are deeply influenced by the synthesis conditions. These interactions yield a wider ZFC maximum and a higher blocking temperature. Moreover, other kinds of interparticle interactions have been found to take place at low temperature and occur through frozen surface spins. Whereas the dipole interactions reduce the anisotropy of the system, the surface spin interactions tend to increase it and the material becomes magnetically harder. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


de la Fuente Marcos C.,Complutense University of Madrid | de la Fuente Marcos R.,Complutense University of Madrid
Astronomische Nachrichten | Year: 2015

Arjuna-type orbits are characterized by being Earth-like, having both low-eccentricity and low-inclination. Objects following these trajectories experience repeated trappings in the 1:1 commensurability with the Earth and can become temporary Trojans, horseshoe librators, quasi-satellites, and even transient natural satellites. Here, we review what we know about this peculiar dynamical group and use a Monte Carlo simulation to characterize geometrically the Arjuna orbital domain, studying its visibility both from the ground and with the European Space Agency Gaia spacecraft. The visibility analysis from the ground together with the discovery circumstances of known objects are used as proxies to estimate the current size of this population. The impact cross-section of the Earth for minor bodies in this resonant group is also investigated. We find that, for ground-based observations, the solar elongation at perigee of nearly half of these objects is less than 90°. They are best observed by space-borne telescopes, but Gaia is not going to improve significantly the current discovery rate for members of this class. Our results suggest that the size of this population may have been underestimated by current models. On the other hand, their intrinsically low encounter velocities with the Earth induce a 10-1000-fold increase in the impact cross-section with respect to what is typical for objects in the Apollo or Aten asteroid populations. We estimate that their probability of capture as transient natural satellites of our planet is about 8 %. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Cunha B.A.,Winthrop University | Cunha B.A.,State University of New York at Stony Brook | Burillo A.,Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon | Burillo A.,Complutense University of Madrid | And 3 more authors.
The Lancet | Year: 2016

Summary Since first identified in early 1977, bacteria of the genus Legionella are recognised as a common cause of community-acquired pneumonia and a rare cause of hospital-acquired pneumonia. Legionella bacteria multisystem manifestations mainly affect susceptible patients as a result of age, underlying debilitating conditions, or immunosuppression. Water is the major natural reservoir for Legionella, and the pathogen is found in many different natural and artificial aquatic environments such as cooling towers or water systems in buildings, including hospitals. The term given to the severe pneumonia and systemic infection caused by Legionella bacteria is Legionnaires' disease. Over time, the prevalence of legionellosis or Legionnaires' disease has risen, which might indicate a greater awareness and reporting of the disease. Advances in microbiology have led to a better understanding of the ecological niches and pathogenesis of the condition. Legionnaires' disease is not always suspected because of its non-specific symptoms, and the diagnostic tests routinely available do not offer the desired sensitivity. However, effective antibiotics are available. Disease notification systems provide the basis for initiating investigations and limiting the scale and recurrence of outbreaks. This report reviews our current understanding of this disease. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.


Emotional disorders (ED), including anxiety, mood and adaptive disorders, and somatization share common pathways with psychosocial factors, such as stress, high levels of anxiety or negative emotionality, and are very common in primary care (PC). The frequency of PC visits made by these patients and the low efficacy of non-established evidencebased usual treatments have promoted the implementation of psychological intervention programmes of a cognitive-behavioural type to help improve the effectiveness and efficiency rates, following the recommendations of high-quality clinical guidelines. This paper proposes an integrative approach for ED and somatization based on emotional regulation problems (elevated cognitive biases and unadaptive emotional learning) that defends the possibility of reversing the cognitive-emotional processes involved in the onset of these disorders, using cognitive-behavioural techniques, especially cognitive restructuring and exposure. In addition, we analyse and discuss the theoretical foundations of these techniques (which can act as the psychological support of collaborative programmes), according to the principles of proper emotion regulation (cognitive bias reduction and adaptive emotional learning). Finally, the dissemination of these effective psychological treatments is recommended, with a transdiagnostic focus and Internetbased homework, through the implementation of collaborative stepped programmes in PC. © Copyright 2011: de los Editores de Ansiedad y Estrés.


Vidorreta M.,University of Navarra | Wang Z.,University of Pennsylvania | Rodriguez I.,Complutense University of Madrid | Rodriguez I.,CIBER ISCIII | And 3 more authors.
NeuroImage | Year: 2013

Arterial spin labeling (ASL) can be implemented by combining different labeling schemes and readout sequences. In this study, the performance of 2D and 3D single-shot pulsed-continuous ASL (pCASL) sequences was assessed in a group of young healthy volunteers undergoing a baseline perfusion and a functional study with a sensory-motor activation paradigm. The evaluated sequences were 2D echo-planar imaging (2D EPI), 3D single-shot fast spin-echo with in-plane spiral readout (3D FSE spiral), and 3D single-shot gradient-and-spin-echo (3D GRASE). The 3D sequences were implemented with and without the addition of an optimized background suppression (BS) scheme. Labeling efficiency, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and gray matter (GM) to white matter (WM) contrast ratio were assessed in baseline perfusion measurements. 3D acquisitions without BS yielded 2-fold increments in spatial SNR, but no change in temporal SNR. The addition of BS to the 3D sequences yielded a 3-fold temporal SNR increase compared to the unsuppressed sequences. 2D EPI provided better GM-to-WM contrast ratio than the 3D sequences. The analysis of functional data at the subject level showed a 3-fold increase in statistical power for the BS 3D sequences, although the improvement was attenuated at the group level. 3D without BS did not increase the maximum t-values, however, it yielded larger activation clusters than 2D. These results demonstrate that BS 3D single-shot imaging sequences improve the performance of pCASL in baseline and activation studies, particularly for individual subject analyses where the improvement in temporal SNR translates into markedly enhanced power for task activation detection. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.


Rodriguez-Perez L.,Complutense University of Madrid | Herranz M.A.,Complutense University of Madrid | Martin N.,Complutense University of Madrid | Martin N.,IMDEA Madrid Institute for Advanced Studies
Chemical Communications | Year: 2013

Graphene is a unique material with outstanding mechanical and electronic properties. For solution processes graphene layers have to be stabilized by means of molecular or supramolecular chemical derivatization, prior to their transfer to solid substrates. The most common chemical methodology for the preparation of graphene involves the formation of graphene oxide under highly oxidizing conditions, which even after reduction, lacks the electronic quality of pristine graphene. Presently, there is increasing concern in the chemical community about the starting material quality, and recent efforts are directed to wet chemical approaches toward high-quality graphene flakes which encompass the use of graphite as initial material. In addition, epitaxial growth of graphene on metallic surfaces is becoming a powerful technique for the production of pristine graphene with a control on its electronic properties, somehow due to the supramolecular interaction with the metallic surface. Current approaches for the preparation of modified pristine graphene are the aim of this review. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Benito M.,Complutense University of Madrid | Benito M.,CIBER ISCIII
Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry | Year: 2011

Insulin resistance is the most important pathophysiological feature in many pre-diabetic states. Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a complex metabolic disease and its pathogenesis involves abnormalities in both peripheral insulin action and insulin secretion by pancreatic beta cells. The creation of monogenic or polygenic genetically manipulated mice models in a tissue-specific manner was of great help to elucidate the tissue-specificity of insulin action and its contribution to the overall insulin resistance. However, complete understanding of the molecular bases of the insulin action and resistance requires the identification of the intracellular pathways that regulate insulin-stimulated proliferation, differentiation and metabolism. Accordingly, cell lines derived from insulin target tissues such as brown adipose tissue, liver and beta islets lacking insulin receptors or sensitive candidate genes such as IRS-1, IRS-2, IRS-3, IR and PTP1B were developed. Indeed, these cell lines have been also very useful to understand the tissue-specificity of insulin action and inaction. © 2011 Informa UK, Ltd.


Coronado P.J.,Complutense University of Madrid | Fasero M.,Hospital Sanitas la Zarzuela
Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation | Year: 2014

Background/Aims: To assess the performance of colposcopists and correlate it with their experience when diagnosing cervical pathology by reviewing conventional colposcopy (CC) digital images and the Dynamic Spectral Imaging System (DySIS) cervical map. Methods: Images from 50 women with normal and abnormal cervix collected during CC and the corresponding DySIS maps were projected consecutively to 63 participating colposcopists. Participants were asked for their diagnosis (normal, abnormal findings or cancer). The clinical experience of the participants was divided into low (n = 27), medium (n = 18) and high (n = 18), considering the number of colposcopies each one performed routinely. Results: The mean of overall correct diagnoses was significantly higher with DySIS than CC for the low and medium experience group (20.4 vs. 24.4, and 21.9 vs. 26.0, respectively; p < 0.001), but not in the high experience group. The correct diagnosis was significantly higher with DySIS than CC for all experience groups in cases with a normal cervix and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2+ (CIN2+), but not for those with CIN1. All groups agreed that DySIS guides biopsies better, offers more information and allows performing colposcopy even without extensive experience. Conclusions: The results of evaluating projected colposcopy images were more successful with DySIS than with CC in the diagnosis of cervical pathology, especially among less experienced colposcopists. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.


Moreno M.A.,Complutense University of Madrid
Research in Veterinary Science | Year: 2014

Antimicrobial use is a major driver of antimicrobial resistance and prescribers (physicians and veterinarians) and end users (patients, food producers and pet owners) are the cornerstones of this scenario. Intensive pig farming is a livestock activity that has a high antimicrobial use. This study is based on the opinions of pig producers.The study was done at national level and comprised two independent cross-sectional surveys using a questionnaire-based methodology and face-to-face interviews carried out between April and October, 2010. The collected data, which consisted of opinions of producers on 48 farrow-to-finish farms and 62 finisher farms, showed that, irrespective of farm type, pig producers in Spain have an imperfect knowledge of the main use of antimicrobials. Antimicrobials are perceived as valuable cost-effective tools for animal health and husbandry and there is little concern among pig producers about the harmful effects on public health of on-farm antimicrobial use. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Garcia-Vela A.,Institute Fisica Fundamental | Banares L.,Complutense University of Madrid
Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics | Year: 2011

The effect of changing the temporal width of the pump and probe pulses in the time-resolved photodissociation of CH3I in the A-band has been investigated using multisurface nonadiabatic wave packet calculations. The effect is analyzed by examining properties like the photodissociation reaction times and the CH3 fragment vibrational and rotational distributions, by using four different widths of the pump and probe pulses, namely pulses with full-width-at-half-maximum of 100, 50, 20, and 10 fs. Simulations are carried out for two different excitation wavelengths, 295 and 230 nm, located to the red and to the blue of the maximum of the absorption spectrum, in order to explore possible effects of the excitation wavelength. The reaction times are found to decrease significantly with decreasing pulse temporal width. The times associated with the CH3 + I*(2P1/2) dissociation channels decrease more remarkably than those of the CH3 + I(2P3/2) channels. The results indicate that for excitation wavelengths located to the blue of the absorption spectrum maximum the effect of changing the pulse width is less pronounced than for wavelengths to the red of the spectrum maximum. On the contrary, the CH3 vibrational and rotational distributions show little variation upon large changes in the pulse width. The trends found are explained in terms of the changes in the spectral bandwidth of the pulses and of the shape and slope of the absorption spectrum at the different excitation wavelengths. © the Owner Societies.


Gonzalo I.,Complutense University of Madrid | Bargueno P.,Complutense University of Madrid
Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics | Year: 2011

We study the tunnel dynamics of a chiral molecule between its left (L) and right (R) conformations, under the global effect of collisional decoherence together with the effect of a mean-field generated by the environment where an energetic difference, K, between homochiral and heterochiral interactions is assumed. We show that this decoherence leads unavoidably to equal populations of the L and R chiral conformations even for a high enough value of K which tends to keep localized an initial chiral state. However, we also show that K contributes to the stabilization of an initial L or R state for times that could be many orders of magnitude larger than the tunneling time, in the case the decoherence rate is much greater than the tunneling rate. In this case, an estimation of this stabilization time and a critical tunneling time is made. Even in the case in which the tunneling rate is greater than the decoherence rate, the effect of K is to keep localized the initial chiral state for times greater than the tunneling time. A possible slight chiral asymmetry is also considered. © 2011 the Owner Societies.


Rey A.A.,Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz | Purrio M.,Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz | Viveros M.-P.,Complutense University of Madrid | Lutz B.,Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz
Neuropsychopharmacology | Year: 2012

Biphasic effects of cannabinoids have been shown in processes such as feeding behavior, motor activity, motivational processes and anxiety responses. Using two different tests for the characterization of anxiety-related behavior (elevated plus-maze and holeboard), we first identified in wild-type C57BL/6N mice, two doses of the synthetic CB1 cannabinoid receptor agonist CP-55,940 with anxiolytic (1 μg/kg) and anxiogenic properties (50 μg/kg), respectively. To clarify the role of CB1 receptors in this biphasic effect, both doses were applied to two different conditional CB1 receptor knockout (KO) mouse lines, GABA-CB1-KO (CB1 receptor inactivation in forebrain GABAergic neurons) and Glu-CB1-KO (CB1 receptor inactivation in cortical glutamatergic neurons). We found that the anxiolytic-like effects of the low dose of cannabinoids are mediated via the CB1 receptor on cortical glutamatergic terminals, because this anxiolytic-like response was abrogated only in Glu-CB1-KO mice. On the contrary, the CB1 receptor on the GABAergic terminals is required to induce an anxiogenic-like effect under a high-dose treatment because of the fact that this effect was abolished specifically in GABA-CB1-KO mice. These experiments were carried out in both sexes, and no differences occurred with the doses tested in the mutant mice. Interestingly, the positive allosteric modulation of GABA B receptor with GS-39783 was found to largely abrogate the anxiogenic-like effect of the high dose of CP-55,940. Our results shed new light in further understanding the biphasic effects of cannabinoids at the molecular level and, importantly, pave the way for the development of novel anxiolytic cannabinoid drugs, which may have favorable effect profiles targeting the CB1 receptor on glutamatergic terminals. © 2012 American College of Neuropsychopharmacology.


Maroto J.M.,Complutense University of Madrid | Moran M.,Complutense University of Madrid
Ecological Economics | Year: 2014

Motivated by the evidence that many collapsed stocks have failed to recover despite the fact that fishing mortality has been reduced, or even when a moratorium is in effect, we develop a methodological approach using splines to analyze the stochastic population dynamics of fish stocks at low stock levels. Considering the aggregate Northern cod stock by way of illustration, we find that the species' lack of recovery, despite the moratorium which still remains in force, is consistent with the hypothesis of depensatory population dynamics at low population sizes, as opposed to the compensation estimated by the conventional regression methods used in classic bioeconomic models. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Perez-Rodriguez A.,Complutense University of Madrid | Ramirez A.,Complutense University of Madrid | Richardson D.S.,University of East Anglia | Perez-Tris J.,Complutense University of Madrid
Global Ecology and Biogeography | Year: 2013

Aim: The study of parasite biogeography on islands is important for our understanding of both the processes involved in the evolution of parasite assemblages worldwide and the ecology and conservation of insular communities. By studying the haemosporidian blood parasites of a bird that has recently colonized a number of oceanic islands, we were able to test hypotheses relating to the processes of parasite colonization and community assembly prior to the permanent isolation of host species on islands. Location: The Atlantic Ocean archipelagos of Madeira and the Canary Islands. Methods: We used cytochrome bDNA sequences to determine the prevalence and richness of parasites of the genera Haemoproteus, Plasmodium and Leucocytozoon in blackcaps, Sylvia atricapilla, a widespread passerine that colonized these archipelagos during the Last Glacial Maximum. We compared insular blackcap parasite assemblages with those observed in 37 blackcap populations sampled on mainland Europe. Results: The insular parasite assemblage was impoverished, containing c.10% of the parasites found on the continent. None of the parasites observed on the islands were blackcap specific. Some of the observed parasites appear to have switched from blackcaps to other Macaronesian host species, whereas others were of Afrotropical origin and were acquired after blackcaps colonized the islands. The prevalence of parasites in the island populations of blackcaps was lower than in mainland blackcap populations and parasite richness decreased with increasing island distance to the continent. Main conclusions: Macaronesian blackcaps do not face the strong parasite load encountered by their mainland counterparts despite the fact that blackcap migration from the continent may directly transport mainland blackcap parasites to the islands. This supports the idea that normal mainland host-parasite associations are compromised on islands and that parasite island syndromes (low richness, frequent host-switching and reduced specialization) evolve even before insular host populations become completely isolated from their mainland counterparts. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Essalhi M.,Complutense University of Madrid | Khayet M.,Complutense University of Madrid | Khayet M.,IMDEA Madrid Institute for Advanced Studies
Journal of Membrane Science | Year: 2014

The effects of the polymer polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) concentration on the characteristics and direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) desalination performance of self-sustained electrospun nano-fibrous membranes (ENMs) have been studied. Different polymer concentrations ranging from 15 to 30. wt% were considered in the solvent mixture N,. N-dimethyl acetamide and acetone, while all other electrospinning parameters were maintained the same. Viscosity, electrical conductivity and surface tension of the polymer solutions were measured and the effects of the PVDF concentration on fiber diameter, thickness, water contact angle, inter-fiber space, void volume fraction, liquid entry pressure, mechanical and thermal properties of the ENMs were investigated. The minimum polymer concentration, critical chain entanglement concentration, required for electrospinning beaded fibers and the concentration needed for the formation of bead-free fibers were localized. Two groups of ENMs were identified based on the surface structure of the ENMs, their void volume fraction and inter-fiber space. Bead-free ENMs, prepared with PVDF concentration higher than 22.5. wt%, exhibit higher DCMD permeate flux than the beaded ENMs. Beaded ENMs can be used in desalination by DCMD. Among the prepared ENMs, the optimized membrane exhibiting the highest DCMD performance was prepared with 25. wt% PVDF concentration. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Roscales S.,Complutense University of Madrid | Csaky A.G.,Complutense University of Madrid
Organic Letters | Year: 2015

The transition-metal-free intermolecular direct 1,2-carboboration reaction of heteroarylacetylenes using boronic acids as reagents is achieved by utilizing tartaric acid as promoter. The reaction proceeds with excellent regioselectivity and anti stereoselectivity to afford boroxole frameworks. The resulting compounds are of use for the stereoselective preparation of polysubstituted alkenylheteroarenes. © 2015 American Chemical Society.


Martin-Hernandez F.,Complutense University of Madrid | Garcia-Hernandez M.M.,CSIC - Institute of Materials Science
Geophysical Journal International | Year: 2010

The applied fields in previous studies of goethite's magnetic properties were often not sufficiently high to reach reversible magnetization behaviour of the hard magnetic iron oxide (α-FeOOH). Existing data of its magnetic anisotropy constant are fairly scattered that hampers the further development of more elaborate models of remanence acquisition, magnetic susceptibility behaviour or trends in microcoercivity. Classic rock magnetic properties (magnetization of remanence Mr, saturation magnetization Ms and coercive force Bc) and the first anisotropy constant K on six goethite natural crystals have been determined at room and low temperature using hysteresis up to 9 T. After a detailed analysis of the magnetic properties of the samples, a mean value of K = 90 ± 20 Jm-3 has been evaluated at room temperature and K = 210 ± 40 Jm-3 at 5 K for pure goethite. © 2010 The Authors Journal compilation © 2010 RAS.


Fernandez-Diaz L.,Complutense University of Madrid | Fernandez-Gonzalez A.,University of Oviedo | Prieto M.,University of Oviedo
Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta | Year: 2010

The nucleation and growth of CaCO3 phases from aqueous solutions with SO4 2-:CO3 2- ratios from 0 to 1.62 and a pH of ~10.9 were studied experimentally in batch reactors at 25°C. The mineralogy, morphology and composition of the precipitates were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and microanalyses. The solids recovered after short reaction times (5min to 1h) consisted of a mixture of calcite and vaterite, with a S content that linearly correlates with the SO4 2-:CO3 2- ratio in the aqueous solution. The solvent-mediated transformation of vaterite to calcite subsequently occurred. After 24h of equilibration, calcite was the only phase present in the precipitate for aqueous solutions with SO4 2-:CO3 2-{less-than above slanted equal above greater-than above slanted equal}1. For SO4 2-:CO3 2->1, vaterite persisted as a major phase for a longer time (>250h for SO4 2-:CO3 2-=1.62). To study the role of sulfate in stabilizing vaterite, we performed a molecular simulation of the substitution of sulfate for carbonate groups into the crystal structure of vaterite, aragonite and calcite. The results obtained show that the incorporation of small amounts (<3mole%) of sulfate is energetically favorable in the vaterite structure, unfavorable in calcite and very unfavorable in aragonite. The computer modeling provided thermodynamic information, which, combined with kinetic arguments, allowed us to put forward a plausible explanation for the observed crystallization behavior. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Martinez-Santos P.,Complutense University of Madrid | Martinez-Alfaro P.E.,Complutense University of Madrid
Agricultural Water Management | Year: 2010

Measuring groundwater extractions is central to adequate groundwater management in agricultural basins. Groundwater pumping records are often subject to considerable uncertainties, particularly in the case of arid and semiarid settings where irrigation is the most important water use. In most cases this is due to the difficulties involved in locating and monitoring all wells. We describe the estimation of groundwater pumping by coupling the water table fluctuation method with the groundwater balance equation. This is demonstrated through its application to the Mancha Occidental aquifer, Spain, an area subject to intensive pumping for irrigation since the early 1970s. A sensitivity analysis is conducted to evaluate the effect of relevant hydrogeological parameters, namely specific yield, as well as the most appropriate theoretical semivariogram, to calculate yearly storage variations within the system. Results are validated in the light of official pumping estimates. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


This communication displays some of our on-going research on the incompleteness of China's advances toward "best practice" in policy-making and institution-building for renewables. In particular, this paper: (1) summarizes how Chinese policies and institutions for the deployment of renewable electricity are only partially compliant with what is internationally recognized as "best practice"; and (2) contextualizes Chinese policies and institutions for renewables in the broader picture of China's political economy. Much as a political economy perspective has aided the understanding of why Chinese economic reforms were partial and unique, the said contextualization might help explain why China's policies and institutions for renewables diverge from "best practice". Further, given that China proved successful in promoting its economic growth with partial and unique reforms, the partiality and uniqueness of its renewables policies and institutions need not impede the rapid development of renewable electricity. This on-going research has so far combined a review of specialized literature and the business press with semi-structured interviews held with relevant actors in policy, business, and research related to renewable energies. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Sanchez-Vizcaino J.M.,Complutense University of Madrid | Mur L.,Complutense University of Madrid | Martinez-Lopez B.,Complutense University of Madrid
Transboundary and Emerging Diseases | Year: 2012

African swine fever (ASF) is one of the most important swine diseases, mainly because of its significant sanitary and socioeconomic consequences. This review gives an update on the epidemiology of the disease and reviews key issues and strategies to improve control of the disease and promote its eradication. Several characteristics of ASF virus (ASFV) make its control and eradication difficult, including the absence of available vaccines, marked virus resistance in infected material and contaminated animal products, and a complex epidemiology and transmission involving tick reservoir virus interactions. The incidence of ASF has not only increased on the African continent over the last 15years, so that it now affects West African countries, Mauritius and Madagascar, but it has also reached new areas, such as the Caucasus region in 2007. In fact, the rapid spread of the disease on the European continent and the uncontrolled situation in the Russian Federation places all countries at great risk as a result of intense global trade. The proximity of some affected areas to the European Union (EU) borders (<150km) has increased concerns about the potential economic consequences of an ASF incursion into the EU pig sector. Establishing effective surveillance, control and eradication programmes that implicate all actors (veterinarians, farmers, and policy makers) is essential for controlling ASF. African swine fever -free countries should be aware of the potential risk of ASF incursion and implement risk reduction measures such as trade controls and other sanitary measures. This review will discuss lessons learnt so far about ASF control, current challenges to its control and future studies needed to support global efforts at prevention and control. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.


Poch C.,Complutense University of Madrid | Campo P.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Campo P.,Polytechnic University of Mozambique
Frontiers in Human Neuroscience | Year: 2012

Working memory (WM) is the ability to transiently maintain and manipulate internal representations beyond its external availability to the senses. This process is thought to support high level cognitive abilities and been shown to be strongly predictive of individual intelligence and reasoning abilities. While early models of WM have relied on a modular perspective of brain functioning, more recent evidence suggests that cognitive functions emerge from the interactions of multiple brain regions to generate large-scale networks. Here we will review the current research on functional connectivity of WM processes to highlight the critical role played by neural interactions in healthy and pathological brain states. Recent findings demonstrate that WM abilities are not determined solely by local brain activity, but also rely on the functional coupling of neocortical-hippocampal regions to support WM processes. Although the hippocampus has long been held to be important for long-term declarative memory, recent evidence suggests that the hippocampus may also be necessary to coordinate disparate cortical regions supporting the periodic reactivation of internal representations in WM. Furthermore, recent brain imaging studies using connectivity measures, have shown that changes in cortico-limbic interactions can be useful to characterize WM impairments observed in different neuropathological conditions. Recent advances in electrophysiological and neuroimaging techniques to model network activity has led to important insights into how neocortical and hippocampal regions support WM processes and how disruptions along this network can lead to the memory impairments commonly reported in many neuropathological populations. ©2012 Pochand Campo.


The central role of carbohydrates in medicinal chemistry has stimulated intensive research in the last few years to develop simpler and more efficient routes for their preparation. Among them, routes starting from simple and achiral building blocks have received particular attention considering their efficiency in terms of cost process and atom economy. Recent developments in the field of biocatalytic asymmetric aldol reactions have allowed the preparation of complex carbohydrate derivatives with high degrees of sophistication (up to five chiral centers). Starting from simple and achiral building blocks, such as dihydroxyacetone, glycolaldehyde, and formaldehyde, the reactions were found to proceed under complete stereocontrol. The aim of this review is to cover the most significant advances in the preparation of carbohydrate derivatives through asymmetric aldol reactions within the last five years. Selected examples include the preparation of rare natural d-sugars such as d-psicose, non-natural l-sugars and azasugars, as well as iminocyclitols or homo(iminocyclitols), C-arylcarbohydrates, etc. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Banares R.,Complutense University of Madrid
Current gastroenterology reports | Year: 2013

Liver support systems aim to provide temporary support of liver function while maintaining extra-hepatic function in patients with liver failure. Important advances have been achieved in the design of artificial and bio-artificial devices, but the current systems are far from meeting the ideal. Artificial devices provide detoxification through different dialysis procedures, whereas bio-artificial devices add synthetic functions by incorporating a cellular component into the system. Overall, liver support systems have consistently shown beneficial effects on the pathophysiology of liver failure, especially in acute-on-chronic liver failure. However, these beneficial effects have not been translated into an improvement of survival. Our review discusses the current evidence, paying special attention to the clinical aspects of (bio)-artificial liver support devices.


Garcia F.,Complutense University of Madrid | Sanchez L.,Complutense University of Madrid
Journal of the American Chemical Society | Year: 2012

A systematic study on the structural rules that regulate the chiral supramolecular organization of oligo(phenylene ethynylene) (OPE)-based discotics is presented. This study is based on the chirooptical properties of two different series of triangular shape OPEs. The first of them is composed by OPE-based trisamides with a variable number of chiral side chains (compounds 1) that self-assemble following a cooperative mechanism. The CD experiments carried out with these desymmetrized trisamides demonstrate that only one stereogenic center is sufficient to achieve a helical organization with a preferred handedness. However, the ability to amplify the chirality decreases upon decreasing the number of stereocenters at the peripheral side chains. The second series is constituted by triangular shape OPEs with a variable number of ether and amide functional groups and constant absolute configuration of the stereogenic centers at all of the peripheral chains (compounds 2). These compounds do not self-assemble into helical aggregates as demonstrated by the corresponding CD studies. The amplification of chirality observed in the mixtures of some of the components of both series has been investigated. The combination of chiral trisamide 1d with chiral but nonhelical 2b or 2c does not produce an amplification of chirality most probably due to the mismatch between the stereogenic centers of both components. However, the combination of achiral trisamide 1a with chiral but nonhelical bisamide 2c generates, in a cooperative manner, helical structures with a preferred handedness in a process involving the transfer of helicity from 1a to 2c and the transfer of chirality from 2c to 1a. The structural features of the OPE discotics also exert a strong influence on the columnar aggregates. Thus, while achiral 1a bundles into thick filaments to form an organogel, the gelation ability of these triangular OPEs decreases upon increasing the number of stereogenic centers, being totally canceled for compounds 2 in which the amide functionalities are replaced by ether linkages. Finally, we have also registered AFM images of the helical aggregates obtained from the mixture of 1a+2c, which implies an efficient transfer of the chiral objects from solution to surfaces. The study presented herein increases the understanding of the structural rules that regulate the chiral supramolecular organization of discrete molecules in general and, more specifically, those based on π-conjugated oligomers. © 2011 American Chemical Society.


Diaz-Guerra C.,Complutense University of Madrid | Vila M.,Complutense University of Madrid | Piqueras J.,Complutense University of Madrid
Applied Physics Letters | Year: 2010

Exchange anisotropy has been observed and investigated in single-crystalline CuO nanowires grown by thermal oxidation of Cu. The exchange bias field decreases by increasing temperature and can be tuned by the strength of the cooling field. A training effect has also been observed. The obtained results can be understood in terms of a phenomenological core-shell model, where the core of the CuO nanowire shows antiferromagnetic behavior and the surrounding shell behaves as a spin glass-like system due to uncompensated surface spins. © 2010 American Institute of Physics.


Garcia-Perez M.A.,Complutense University of Madrid
Scientometrics | Year: 2014

Journals are increasingly making use of online supplemental information (OSI) as a means to convey part of the material previously included in the papers themselves. Quite often, material displaced to OSI is accompanied by references that, with rare exceptions, are not incorporated into citation databases. An analysis of OSI in a random sample of papers published in 2013 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA revealed that unique references only listed in OSI amount to more than 10 % of the number of references included in the papers themselves. Obliteration of these references in citation databases contributes to substantial inaccuracies in citation counts, with a bias against papers that are cited only in the methods sections usually displaced to OSI. © 2014, Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary.


Calatayud J.O.,Complutense University of Madrid
The European journal of esthetic dentistry : official journal of the European Academy of Esthetic Dentistry | Year: 2010

The objective of the present study was to assess the clinical efficacy of a dental bleaching system based on hydrogen peroxide with or without light activation. This randomized controlled trial evaluated the effect of the light when applied to the hydrogen peroxide by using a split-mouth design with 21 patients, with light activation in one hemi-arch but not in the other. The bleaching agent was QuickWhite 35% hydrogen peroxide and activation was conducted with a diode lamp (Luma Cool). The Classic Vita Guide was used to score tooth shades. Two consecutive applications of hydrogen peroxide were made to one hemi-arch, each light-activated for 10 min. The other hemi-arch was then identically treated but without light activation. After removal of the bleaching agent, the shade was re-scored and the Wilcoxon signed ranks test was used to compare differences in tooth shade values. The bleaching treatment produced significant shade changes (P < 0.01) in both hemi-arches. After treatment, there were no statistically significant differences between light-treated and non-light-treated tooth types (central incisors, lateral incisors, and canines). However, taking central incisor, lateral incisor, and canine as a group, comparison between each hemi-arch showed a significant effect in the hemi-arch with light activation (P < 0.05). The use of diode light with a 35% hydrogen peroxide gel slightly improved the dental bleaching.


Gomez J.J.,Complutense University of Madrid | Arias C.,Complutense University of Madrid
Marine Micropaleontology | Year: 2010

Here we present the results of the study of two Lower Toarcian carbonate sections located in the Iberian Range of central Spain. Analyses of stable isotope on belemnite calcite allowed calculation of seawater palaeotemperature variations, which were compared with the stratigraphical distribution of ostracods. These organisms are particularly sensitive to ratios of temperature and salinity variations and hence are good indicators of climate changes. From a cooling interval, with seawater temperatures of 13.2 °C recorded at the Pliensbachian-Toarcian transition, seawater temperature began to rise in the lowermost Toarcian Tenuicostatum Zone, reaching average temperatures between 14.6 °C and 16.3 °C during the time of deposition of this Zone. Coinciding with this seawater warming, up to 85% of the ostracods species progressively disappeared during a period of approximately 300 kyr, marking the extinction interval. The extinction boundary, located around the Tenuicostatum-Serpentinum zonal boundary, coincides with a marked increase in temperature in the Serpentinum Zone, on which average seawater temperatures of 22 °C have been calculated. Warming continued through part of the Middle Toarcian Bifrons Zone, reaching average temperatures of 24.7 °C. Readjustment of the ostracod population allowed recovery of these faunas in the upper Serpentinum Zone, although the extinction of a major ostracod group, the healdioids, was also recorded. The correlation between mass extinction and warming infers a causal relationship. Comparison of the results with the records of stable isotopes in belemnites and in bulk carbonates, as well as TOC and facies analysis suggests that the anoxia linked to the Early Toarcian oceanic anoxic event was not the main responsible for the ostracod mass extinction. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Alvarez-Lao D.J.,University of Oviedo | Garcia N.,Complutense University of Madrid
Quaternary International | Year: 2010

During the coldest episodes of the Late Pleistocene, the cold-adapted large mammal faunas moved southward, reaching southern regions such as the Iberian Peninsula. Thus, during the Late Pleistocene, remains of Mammuthus primigenius, Coelodonta antiquitatis and Rangifer tarandus were found in Iberia. In addition, four other cold-adapted species (Gulo gulo, Alopex lagopus, Ovibos moschatus and Saiga tatarica) were present, although in very low proportions. All published chronologies from these Iberian findings, as well as new radiocarbon dates, were compiled and subsequently correlated with the published paleoclimatic information for the Iberian Late Pleistocene. These cold-adapted faunas were present in the Iberian Peninsula from at least the late Middle Pleistocene (MIS 6), and several findings, although chronologically imprecise, were dated to the first half of the Late Pleistocene. After about 44 ka BP, these faunas became relatively abundant on the Iberian Peninsula. However, there is a chronological gap between 31 and 26 ka, in which these faunas were practically absent in Iberia. Subsequently, during MIS 2, the presence of these species was again well documented. The last Iberian occurrences of most of these species have been registered during the LGM, except the reindeer, that survived until the end of the Younger Dryas. The chronology of the Iberian findings of cold-adapted large mammal faunas is consistent with the paleoclimatical evidence provided by other sources. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA.


Astilleros J.M.,Complutense University of Madrid | Fernandez-Diaz L.,Complutense University of Madrid | Putnis A.,University of Munster
Chemical Geology | Year: 2010

The mechanisms that determine the inhibition of calcite growth by magnesium have remained unclear and subject to controversy over decades. Although it has been long apparent that the inhibition mechanisms take place at the crystal-solution interface, the molecular phenomena occurring at calcite surfaces in contact with Mg-bearing solutions are still not completely understood. The main goal of this work is to contribute to further clarify those phenomena. With this aim, we carried out in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) observations of the growth behaviour of calcite {10 over(1, -) 4} surfaces in contact with supersaturated aqueous solutions (β = 5) bearing different amounts of Mg (ranging from 0.05 to 4.00 mmol dm- 3). Under the conditions considered, growth occurred by monolayer spreading. Our observations revealed that only the first elementary growth layer advancing on the original calcite surfaces grow normally, showing characteristics nearly identical to the growth of pure calcite. However, subsequent monolayers behave differently. Thus, as soon as one of these monolayers reaches areas of the surface that have grown incorporating Mg and whose composition can consequently be described as MgxCa1-xCO3, the rate at which this step advances significantly decreases. Moreover, the step becomes progressively rougher. A clear relationship between the extent of the inhibition effect and the concentration of Mg in the aqueous solution exists. Furthermore, our observations allow us to conclude that each newly formed monolayer exerts a certain control on the development of the growth of subsequent monolayers. Such a control causes the reproduction of the nanotopographic features of the original surface, producing the so called "template effect". This behaviour cannot be easily incorporated within the general framework of the currently accepted impurity crystal growth models, which are based on either the pinning of elementary step motion by impurities or changes in the solubility of the newly formed layers as a result of the incorporation of the impurity into the lattice of the growing crystal. We discuss our results on the basis of the solid solution-aqueous solution model and provide a complementary explanation for the development of "dead zones" in the case of the growth of calcite {10 over(1, -) 4} surfaces from divalent cation-bearing aqueous solutions. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


OBJECTIVE:: To evaluate the efficacy of a cleansing eyelid wipe in reducing the microbiota present on the ocular surface before cataract surgery. METHODS:: A single-center, prospective, single-blind phase IV study was conducted at the University Complutense of Madrid. Forty-five adult patients who were scheduled for ocular surgery after treatment with commercially available eyelid wipes were consecutively enrolled. The study lasted 5 days and the patients were examined at day 0 (D0), day 3 (D3), and day 5 (D5). They received instructions to apply the eyelid wipe only to the eye subject to surgery, using the other eye as a control with no treatment. Lid and conjunctival swabs were taken on each day and microbes identified. Ocular surface microbiota was estimated by measuring the area of the agar plate occupied by the grown colonies with respect to the total available area. RESULTS:: Measurements at D3 and D5 showed a percent reduction of 58% and 63%, respectively, in the microbial load on the eyelid in the treated eyes (P=0.0011). There was also a reduction, although nonsignificant, in the microbiota of the conjunctiva of 72% and 69% on D3 and D5, respectively. CONCLUSIONS:: The degree of microbiota reduction was comparable with that obtained after topical application of antibiotics in other studies. The results suggest the use of these eyelid wipes as a complementary prophylactic method before any ocular surgery.This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives License 4.0 (CC BY-NC-ND), which permits downloading and sharing the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially. © 2015 Contact Lens Association of Ophthalmologists, Inc.


Identification of differentially expressed proteins during Neospora caninum tachyzoite-bradyzoite conversion processes may lead to a better knowledge of the pathogenic mechanisms developed by this important parasite of cattle. In the present work, a differential expression proteomic study of tachyzoite and bradyzoite stages was accomplished for the first time by applying DIGE technology coupled with MS analysis. Up to 72 differentially expressed spots were visualized (1.5-fold in relative abundance, p<0.05, t-test). A total of 53 spots were more abundant in bradyzoites and 19 spots in tachyzoites. MS analysis identified 26 proteins; 20 of them overexpressed in the bradyzoite stage and 6 in the tachyzoite stage. Among the novel proteins, enolase and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (involved in glycolysis), HSP70 and HSP90 (related to stress response) as well as the dense granule protein GRA9, which showed higher abundance in the bradyzoite stage, might be highlighted. On the other hand, isocitrate dehydrogenase 2, involved in the Krebs cycle, was found to be more abundant in tachyzoites extract. Biological functions from most novel proteins were correlated with previously reported processes during the differentiation process in Toxoplasma gondii. Thus, DIGE technology arises as a suitable tool to study mechanisms involved in the N. caninum tachyzoite to bradyzoite conversion.


Sutter G.D.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Deschamps J.-P.,Rovira i Virgili University | Imana J.L.,Complutense University of Madrid
IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics | Year: 2011

Modular exponentiation with large modulus and exponent, which is usually accomplished by repeated modular multiplications, has been widely used in public key cryptosystems. Typically, the Montgomery's modular-multiplication algorithm is used since no trial division is necessary, and the carrysave addition (CSA) is employed to reduce the critical path. In this paper, we optimize the Montgomery's multiplication and propose architectures to perform the least significant bit first and the most significant bit first algorithms. The developed architecture has the following distinctive characteristics: 1) use of digit serial approach for Montgomery multiplication. 2) Conversion of the CSA representation of intermediate multiplication using carryskip addition. This allows the critical path to be reduced, albeit with a small-area speed penalty; and 3) precompute the quotient value in Montgomery's iteration in order to speed up the operating frequency. In this paper, we present results in Xilinx Virtex 5 and in 0.18-μm application-specified integrated circuit technologies. For fair comparison with previous works, Xilinx Virtex 2 results are reported. Experimental results show that the proposed modular exponentiation and modular-multiplication design obtain the best delay performance compared with the published works and outperform them in terms of areatime complexity as well. © 2006 IEEE.


The joint consequences of inbreeding, natural selection, and deleterious mutation on mean fitness after population shrinkage are of great importance in evolution and can be critical to the conservation of endangered populations. I present simple analytical equations that predict these consequences, improving and extending a previous heuristic treatment. Purge is defined as the "extra" selection induced by inbreeding, due to the "extra" fitness disadvantage (2d) of homozygotes for (partially) recessive deleterious alleles. Its effect is accounted for by using, instead of the classical inbreeding coefficient f, a purged inbreeding coefficient g that is weighed by the reduction of the frequency of deleterious alleles caused by purging. When the effective size of a large population is reduced to a smaller stable value N (with Nd ≥ 1), the purged inbreeding coefficient after t generations can be predicted as g t≤≠[(1 - 1/2N) g t-1 + 1/2N](1 - 2d f t-1), showing how purging acts upon previously accumulated inbreeding and how its efficiency increases with N. This implies an early fitness decay, followed by some recovery. During this process, the inbreeding depression rate shifts from its ancestral value (d) to that of the mutation-selection-drift balance corresponding to N (δ*), and standard selection cancels out the inbreeding depression ascribed to d*. Therefore, purge and inbreeding operate only upon the remaining δ -δ*. The method is applied to the conservation strategy in which family contributions to the breeding pool are equal and is extended to make use of genealogical information. All these predictions are checked using computer simulation. © 2012 by the Genetics Society of America.


Villalonga M.L.,University of Matanzas | Diez P.,Complutense University of Madrid | Sanchez A.,Complutense University of Madrid | Gamella M.,Complutense University of Madrid | And 4 more authors.
Chemical Reviews | Year: 2014

Aspects concerning neoglycoenzyme synthesis, classification, structural and functional properties, and applications are reviewed. Several chemical approaches developed to activate polysaccharide-based supports for protein immobilization were also employed for artificial glycosylation. A capital contribution to neoglycoenzymes development was performed by Marshall et al., which reported the preparation of a variety of enzyme-dextran conjugates using CNBr as the activation method. They demonstrated the effect of this chemical glycosylation on the enhanced functional stability in vitro and increased circulatory lifetime in vivo of the neoglycoenzymes. Original site-selective glycosylation methods have been also developed for the rational design and synthesis of artificial glycoenzymes with defined structure and composition. New challenges are open for neoglycoenzyme research. Artificial glycosylation has been postulated as a more biocompatible alternative to PEGylation technology, addressed to prepare enzyme drug formulations with improved pharmacokinetics and pharmacological properties.


Gonzalez P.G.,Complutense University of Madrid | Pliego-Cuervo Y.B.,IT de Orizaba
Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis | Year: 2013

The bamboo species Guadua angustifolia, Bambusa vulgaris striata and Bambusa oldhamii, were used as raw materials to obtain sixteen activated carbons. The physicochemical characterization showed wide adsorption capacity values (measured as iodine number) ranging from 280 to 1500 mg/g, activation yields from 80 to 85%, average point of zero charge ≈9.9 and high content of quinonic surface groups. The influence of the bamboo species, particle size, time and temperature on the final surface properties was analysed using factorial experimental design methodology. Results indicated that the maximum adsorption capacity was achieved with B. vulgaris striata and 4 h of activation time. The content of superficial oxygenated acidic groups on the samples were identified as the result of the third order interaction (raw material, time and temperature) allowing the control of the surface polarity on the final activated carbons. The scanning electron microscopy micrographs showed the shape conservation of the raw material after carbonization and activation stages. Transmission electron microscopy examinations suggest that structure of the prepared material is formed by highly disordered graphene-like layers as it was confirmed with the diffuse diffraction rings observed by selected area diffraction pattern and the shape of the carbon-K energy-loss near edge structure. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


The non-isothermal membrane distillation (MD) separation process is known for about 50. years and very few studies are reported on its economics, energy analysis and costs evaluations. Dispersed and confusing water production costs (WPC) and specific energy consumption (EC) analysis were reported. Most of them are simulated and others are based on various costs assumptions. At present, the common asked questions about the published papers in MD including EC and WPC are: how these reported calculations on WPC and EC were made?, what is the current WPC of MD?, and how WPC of MD can be improved?. An overview of most studies carried out on these issues is presented and some useful equations and information in this context are reported. Comparison to other separation processes used in desalination is made. At present, the main challenge for large-scale MD is EC and WPC. New directions on MD should be raised. More rigorous investigations and focused directions on economical analysis of MD systems should be conducted. A unified standard method for analysis and calculations should be followed to determine WPC. For the benefit of MD process, one should be cautious when reporting simulated, non-realistic and non-contrasted WPC. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Khayet M.,Complutense University of Madrid | Cojocaru C.,Complutense University of Madrid
Desalination | Year: 2013

Sweeping gas membrane distillation process (SGMD) has been used for desalination and its performance index, defined as the product of the distillate flux and the salt rejection factor, has been modeled using artificial neural network (ANN) methodology. A feed-forward ANN has been developed for prediction of the performance index based on a set of 53 different experimental SGMD tests. A feed solution of 30g/L sodium chloride was used in all experiments and the salt rejection factors were found to be greater than 99.4%. The individual and interaction effects of the input variables, namely the feed inlet temperature, the feed flow rate or the feed circulation velocity, and the air flow rate or the air circulation velocity, on the SGMD performance index have been investigated. The optimum point was determined by means of Monte Carlo simulation. The obtained optimal conditions were a feed inlet temperature of 69°C, an air flow rate of 34.5L/min (i.e. 2.02m/s air circulation velocity) and a feed flow rate of 160L/h (i.e. 0.155m/s liquid circulation velocity). Under these operating conditions a performance index of 1.493×10-3kg/m2.s has been achieved experimentally being the maximal SGMD performance index obtained inside the region of experimentation. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Estevez V.,Complutense University of Madrid | Villacampa M.,Complutense University of Madrid | Carlos Menendez J.,Complutense University of Madrid
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2014

Pyrrole is one of the most important one-ring heterocycles. The ready availability of suitably substituted and functionalized pyrrole derivatives is essential for the progress of many branches of science, including biology and materials science. Access to this key heterocycle by multicomponent routes is particularly attractive in terms of synthetic efficiency, and also from the environmental point of view. We update here our previous review on this topic by describing the progress made in this area in the period between mid-2009 and the end of 2013. © 2014 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


De la Fuente Marcos C.,Complutense University of Madrid | De la Fuente Marcos R.,Complutense University of Madrid
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society | Year: 2013

Apart from Mercury that has no known co-orbital companions, Venus remains as the inner planet that hosts the smallest number of known co-orbitals (two): (322756) 2001 CK32 and 2002 VE68. Both objects have absolute magnitudes 18 < H < 21 and were identified as Venus co-orbitals in 2004. Here, we analyse the orbit of the recently discovered asteroid 2012 XE133 with H = 23.5 mag to conclude that it is a new Venus co-orbital currently following a transitional trajectory between Venus' Lagrangian points L5 and L3. The object could have been a 1:1 librator for several thousand years and it may leave the resonance with Venus within the next few hundred years, after a close encounter with the Earth. Our calculations show that its dynamical status as co-orbital, as well as that of the two previously known Venus co-orbitals, is controlled by the Earth-Moon system with Mercury playing a secondary role. The three temporary co-orbitals exhibit resonant (or near-resonant) behaviour with Mercury, Venus and the Earth and they follow rather chaotic but similar trajectories with e-folding times of the order of 100 yr. Out of the three co-orbitals, 2012 XE133 currently follows the most perturbed path. An actual collision with the Earth during the next 10 000 yr cannot be discarded; an encounter at 0.005 au may take place in 2028, but even closer encounters are possible within that time frame. Extrapolation of the number distribution of Venus co-orbitals as a function of the absolute magnitude suggests that dozens of objects similar to 2012 XE133 could be transient companions to Venus. Some additional objects that were or will be transient co-orbitals to Venus are also briefly discussed. © 2013 The Authors Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society.


Mirabal N.,Complutense University of Madrid
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society | Year: 2013

Evidence of excess GeV emission nearly coinciding with the Galactic Centre has been interpreted as a possible signature of annihilating dark matter. In this paper, we argue that it seems too early to discard pulsars as a viable explanation for the observed excess. On the heels of the recently released Second Fermi LAT Pulsar Catalogue (2FPC), it is still possible that a population of hard (Γ<1) millisecond pulsars (MSPs) either endemic to the innermost region or part of a larger nascent collection of hard MSPs that appears to be emerging in the 2FPC could explain the GeV excess near theGalactic Centre. © 2013 The Author Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society.


Hwang H.J.,Pohang University of Science and Technology | Velazquez J.J.L.,Complutense University of Madrid
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis | Year: 2010

In this paper we prove global existence for solutions of the Vlasov-Poisson system in convex bounded domains with specular boundary conditions and with a prescribed outward electrical field at the boundary. © Springer-Verlag 2009.


There are many controversies in the literature over the influence of different firm characteristics on the importance to the firm of cooperation for innovation. Empirical studies have focused on the fact of cooperation but have not measured its importance for the firm. The purpose of this work is to go a step further by investigating the characteristics and cooperative behaviour of firms that use cooperation as the main way to achieve innovation (cooperation-based innovators). We draw on the 2004 Spanish Innovation Survey and employ a two-step Heckman model. Our main results show that there are sharp differences among firms. More precisely, we find that smaller firms and firms outside the high-tech sectors are more likely to be cooperation-based innovators. We also find that the type of cooperative behaviour matters. Cooperation with providers, with a few agents and with national partners are strong features of cooperation-based innovators. We discuss some management and policy implications of our results. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Schaffner-Barbero C.,CSIC - Biological Research Center | Martin-Fontecha M.,Complutense University of Madrid | Chacon P.,CSIC - Institute of Physical Chemistry "Rocasolano" | Andreu J.M.,CSIC - Biological Research Center
ACS Chemical Biology | Year: 2012

FtsZ is the key protein of bacterial cell division and an emergent target for new antibiotics. It is a filament-forming GTPase and a structural homologue of eukaryotic tubulin. A number of FtsZ-interacting compounds have been reported, some of which have powerful antibacterial activity. Here we review recent advances and new approaches in modulating FtsZ assembly with small molecules. This includes analyzing their chemical features, binding sites, mechanisms of action, the methods employed, and computational insights, aimed at a better understanding of their molecular recognition by FtsZ and at rational antibiotic design. © 2011 American Chemical Society.


Tamargo J.,Complutense University of Madrid | Solini A.,University of Pisa | Ruilope L.M.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Seminars in Nephrology | Year: 2014

The first aldosterone blocker, spironolactone, initially was used as a diuretic but was accompanied by a significant amount of side effects that necessitated the withdrawal of the drug in a relevant number of patients. The discovery of the many receptor-mediated actions of aldosterone in several different organs greatly contributed to expand the indications of aldosterone blockers. Eplerenone was the second component of this class of drugs and differed from spironolactone because of its significantly better safety, albeit this was accompanied by a lower potency when used at equinumeric doses. Although these two drugs were being used in clinical practice, the epithelial sodium channel blockers, amiloride and triamterene, with a similar antialdosterone action, continued to be used in clinical practice in combination with thiazides and loop diuretics. New members of the third and fourth generation of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists and aldosterone synthase inhibitors are in development. These new compounds, which include the new nonsteroidal mineralocorticoid-receptor antagonists and aldosterone synthase inhibitors, try to maintain adequate efficacy, avoiding the drawbacks of spironolactone and eplerenone. Ongoing studies will show the certainty of the capacities of these new compounds to override the virtues of the first mineralocorticoid-receptor spironolactone while avoiding the side effects leading so frequently to the withdrawal of the drug, including a significantly lower prevalence of hyperkalemia when chronic kidney disease is present. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.


MacCarrone M.,Biomedical University of Rome | MacCarrone M.,European Center for Brain Research | Guzman M.,Complutense University of Madrid | MacKie K.,Indiana University | And 3 more authors.
Nature Reviews Neuroscience | Year: 2014

Among the many signalling lipids, endocannabinoids are increasingly recognized for their important roles in neuronal and glial development. Recent experimental evidence suggests that, during neuronal differentiation, endocannabinoid signalling undergoes a fundamental switch from the prenatal determination of cell fate to the homeostatic regulation of synaptic neurotransmission and bioenergetics in the mature nervous system. These studies also offer novel insights into neuropsychiatric disease mechanisms and contribute to the public debate about the benefits and the risks of cannabis use during pregnancy and in adolescence. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited.


Duarte J.,University of Granada | Francisco V.,University of Coimbra | Perez-Vizcaino F.,Complutense University of Madrid
Food and Function | Year: 2014

One of the main mechanisms by which dietary flavonoids are thought to influence cardiovascular disease is via protection of the bioactivity of the endothelium-derived nitric oxide (NO). Additionally, flavonoids may also interfere with the signalling cascades of inflammation and prevent overproduction of NO and its deleterious consequences in shock and ischemia-reperfusion injury. In the present paper we review the evidence of the effects of flavonoids on NO. Flavonoids exert complex actions on the synthesis and bioavailability of NO which may result both in enhanced or decreased NO levels: (1) in cell free systems, several flavonoids may scavenge NO via its pro-oxidant properties by increasing superoxide. However, under conditions of oxidative stress, flavonoids may also protect NO from superoxide-driven inactivation. (2) In intact healthy tissues, some flavonoids increase eNOS activity in endothelial cells. Paradoxically this effect involves a pro-oxidant effect which results in Ca2+-dependent activation of eNOS. As inhibitors of PI3K, flavonoids may potentially inhibit the PI3K/Akt-dependent activation of eNOS. (3) Under conditions of inflammation and oxidative stress, flavonoids may prevent the inflammatory signalling cascades via inhibition of NFκB and thereby downregulate iNOS. On the other hand, they also prevent the overexpression of ROS generating enzymes, reducing superoxide and peroxynitrite levels, and hence preventing superoxide-induced NO inactivation and eNOS uncoupling. Therefore, the final effect of flavonoids on NO levels will depend on the flavonoid structure and the concentrations used, on the cell type under study and particularly on the presence of inflammatory/oxidative conditions. © the Partner Organisations 2014.


Roscales S.,Complutense University of Madrid | Csaky A.G.,Complutense University of Madrid
Chemical Communications | Year: 2014

The ring-opening of epoxides with potassium trifluoroborates proceeds smoothly in the presence of trifluoroacetic anhydride under metal-free conditions. The reactions are regioselective and afford a single diastereomer. Both electron-rich and electron-poor aryltrifluoroborates are tolerated. © 2014 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Pulido F.,Complutense University of Madrid
Oikos | Year: 2011

Partial migration is a common and widespread phenomenon in animal populations. Even though the ecological causes for the evolution and maintenance of partial migration have been widely discussed, the consequences of the genetics underlying differences in migration patterns have been little acknowledged. Here, I revise current ideas on the genetics of partial migration and identify open questions, focussing on migration in birds. The threshold model of migration describing the inheritance and phenotypic expression of migratory behaviour is strongly supported by experimental results. As a consequence of migration being a threshold trait, high levels of genetic variation can be preserved, even under strong directional selection. This is partly due to strong environmental canalization. This cryptic genetic variation may explain rapid de novo evolution of migratory behaviour in resident populations and the high prevalence of partial migration in animal populations. To date the threshold model of migration has been tested only under laboratory conditions. For obtaining a more realistic representation of migratory behaviour in the wild, the simple threshold model needs to be extended by considering that the threshold of migration or the liability may be modified by environmental effects. This environmental threshold model is valid for both facultative and obligate migration movements, and identifies genetic accommodation as an important process underlying evolutionary change in migration status. Future research should aim at identifying the major environmental variables modifying migration propensity and at determining reaction norms of the threshold and liability across variation in these variables. © 2011 The Authors.


Herrero J.,University of Alcalá | Esteban-Carrasco A.,Complutense University of Madrid | Zapata J.M.,University of Alcalá
Plant Physiology and Biochemistry | Year: 2013

Monolignol polymerization into lignin is catalyzed by peroxidases or laccases. Recently, a Zinnia elegans peroxidase (ZePrx) that is considered responsible for monolignol polymerization in this plant has been molecularly and functionally characterized. Nevertheless, Arabidopsis thaliana has become an alternative model plant for studies of lignification, filling the gaps that may occur with Z.elegans. The arabidopsis genome offers the possibility of performing bioinformatic analyses and data mining that are not yet feasible with other plant species, in order to obtain preliminary evidence on the role of genes and proteins.In our search for arabidopsis homologs to the ZePrx, we performed an exhaustive in silico characterization of everything from the protein to the transcript of Arabidopsis thaliana peroxidases (AtPrxs) homologous to ZePrx, with the aim of identifying one or more peroxidases that may be involved in monolignol polymerization.Nine peroxidases (AtPrx 4, 5, 52, 68, 67, 36, 14, 49 and 72) with an E-value greater than 1e-80 with ZePrx were selected for this study. The results demonstrate that a high level of 1D, 2D and 3D homology between these AtPrxs and ZePrx are not always accompanied by the presence of the same electrostatic and mRNA properties that indicate a peroxidase is involved in lignin biosynthesis.In summary, we can confirm that the peroxidases involved in lignification are among AtPrx 4, 52, 49 and 72. Their structural and mRNA features indicate that exert their action in the cell wall similar to ZePrx. © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS.


Hein J.E.,Scripps Research Institute | Hein J.E.,University of California at Merced | Huynh Cao B.,University of California at Merced | Viedma C.,Complutense University of Madrid | And 2 more authors.
Journal of the American Chemical Society | Year: 2012

Insights into the mechanism of attrition-enhanced deracemization and resolution of solid enantiomorphic chiral compounds are obtained by crystal size and solubility measurements and by isotopic labeling experiments. Together these results help to deconvolute the various chemical and physical rate processes contributing to the phenomenon. Crystal size measurements highlight a distinct correlation between the stochastic, transient growth of crystals and the emergence of a single solid enantiomorph under attrition conditions. The rapid mass transfer of molecules between the solution and solid phases under attrition is demonstrated, and the concept of a crystal-size-induced solubility driving force is exploited to overcome the stochastic nature of the crystal growth and dissolution processes. Extension to non-racemizing conditions provides a novel methodology for chiral resolution. Implications both for practical chiral separations and for the origin of biological homochirality are discussed. © 2012 American Chemical Society.


Anton I.,Complutense University of Madrid | Lopez-Gomez J.,Complutense University of Madrid
Nonlinear Analysis: Real World Applications | Year: 2013

This paper studies the existence and the uniqueness of coexistence states in a spatially heterogeneous reaction diffusion model originated by the theory of nuclear reactors. The mathematical relevance of our analysis relies on the fact that the underlying variational systems are of non-cooperative type and, consequently, the nice comparison techniques available for cooperative systems fail to be true, making the problem of ascertaining whether or not the model admits a unique coexistence state an extremely challenging task. In this paper we are giving a series of new uniqueness results complementing those available in the literature. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Fernandez S.,Complutense University of Madrid | Naranjo F.B.,Campus Universitario
Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells | Year: 2010

Aluminum-doped zinc oxide films were deposited at 100 °C on polyethylene terephthalate by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering. The sputtering parameters such as RF power and Argon working pressure were varied from 25 to 125 W and from 1.1 to 0.2 Pa, respectively. The structural properties of as-deposited films were analysed by X-ray diffraction, showing that all the deposited films were polycrystalline, with hexagonal structure and a strong preferred c-axis orientation (0 0 2). Full width at half maximum and grain sizes were around 0.27° and ranged from 24 to 32 nm, respectively. The strain state of the samples was also estimated from X-ray diffraction measurements, obtaining compressive stresses from 0.29 to 0.05 GPa. Resistivity as low as 1.1×10-3 Ω cm was achieved for the film deposited at 75 W and 0.2 Pa, sample that showed a low strain state of -0.06 GPa. High optical transmittance (∼80%) was exhibited when films were deposited at RF powers below 100 W. Band gap energies ranged from 3.36 to 3.39 eV and a refractive index of 1.80±0.05, constant in the visible region, was also obtained. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Fernandez I.,Complutense University of Madrid | Bickelhaupt F.M.,VU University Amsterdam | Bickelhaupt F.M.,Radboud University Nijmegen
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2014

In this Tutorial Review, we make the point that a true understanding of trends in reactivity (as opposed to measuring or simply computing them) requires a causal reactivity model. To this end, we present and discuss the Activation Strain Model (ASM). The ASM establishes the desired causal relationship between reaction barriers, on one hand, and the properties of reactants and characteristics of reaction mechanisms, on the other hand. In the ASM, the potential energy surface ΔE(ζ) along the reaction coordinate ζ is decomposed into the strain ΔEstrain(ζ) of the reactants that become increasingly deformed as the reaction proceeds, plus the interaction ΔEint(ζ) between these deformed reactants, i.e., ΔE(ζ) = ΔEstrain(ζ) + ΔE int(ζ). The ASM can be used in conjunction with any quantum chemical program. An analysis of the method and its application to problems in organic and organometallic chemistry illustrate the power of the ASM as a unifying concept and a tool for rational design of reactants and catalysts. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014.


Alcaide B.,Complutense University of Madrid | Almendros P.,Institute Quimica Organica General | Aragoncillo C.,Complutense University of Madrid
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2014

The chemistry of allenes is an appealing topic which fascinates chemists nowadays. Their reactivity and versatility makes this skeleton a useful moiety to create a great variety of structures depending on the functional groups attached and the reaction conditions used. Recently, there is a growing interest in the study of the reactivity of bis(allenes) inspired in the chemistry developed in simple allenes. In this review a collection of examples of cyclization reactions of bis(allenes) is presented as well as the future perspectives. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014.


Fernandez I.,Complutense University of Madrid
Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics | Year: 2014

The recently introduced activation strain model (ASM) has allowed us to gain more insight into the intimacies of different fundamental processes in chemistry. In combination with the energy decomposition analysis (EDA) method, we have nowadays a very useful tool to quantitatively understand the physical factors that govern the activation barriers of reactions within organic and organometallic chemistry. In this Perspective article, we present selected illustrative examples of the application of this method to pericyclic reactions (Diels-Alder and double group transfer reactions) to show that this methodology nicely complements other more traditional, widely used theoretical methods. © 2014 the Partner Organisations.


Soriano E.,Institute Quimica Organica General IQOG | Fernandez I.,Complutense University of Madrid
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2014

The present review is focused on the application of computational/ theoretical methods to the wide and rich chemistry of allenes. Special emphasis is made on the interplay and synergy between experimental and computational methodologies, rather than on recent developments in methods and algorithms. Therefore, this review covers the state-of-the-art applications of computational chemistry to understand and rationalize the bonding situation and vast reactivity of allenes. Thus, the contents of this review span from the most fundamental studies on the equilibrium structure and chirality of allenes to recent advances in the study of complex reaction mechanisms involving allene derivatives in organic and organometallic chemistry. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014.


Roscales S.,Complutense University of Madrid | Csaky A.G.,Complutense University of Madrid
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2014

Investigation of new methods for the synthesis of C-C bonds is fundamental for the development of new organic drugs and materials. Aryl-, alkenyl- and alkynylboronic acids and their derivatives constitute attractive reagents towards this end, due to their stability, low toxicity and ease of handling. However, these compounds are only moderately nucleophilic. Consequently, the most popular C-C bond forming reactions of these boronic acids, such as the Suzuki-Miyaura, Heck, and Hayashi-Miyaura reactions, or additions to C=O and C=N bonds, require catalysis by transition metals. However, due to the toxicity and cost of transition metals, some new methods for C-C bond formation using aryl-, alkenyl- and alkynylboronic acids under transition-metal-free conditions are beginning to emerge. In this tutorial review, the recent synthetic advances in this field are highlighted and discussed. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2014.


Benet J.,Complutense University of Madrid | Macdowell L.G.,Complutense University of Madrid | Sanz E.,Complutense University of Madrid
Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics | Year: 2014

In this work we study the ice-water interface under coexistence conditions by means of molecular simulations using the TIP4P/2005 water model. Following the methodology proposed by Hoyt and co-workers [J. J. Hoyt, M. Asta and A. Karma, Phys. Rev. Lett., 2001, 86, 5530] we measure the interfacial free energy of ice with liquid water by analysing the spectrum of capillary fluctuations of the interface. We get an orientationally averaged interfacial free energy of 27(2) mN m-1, in good agreement with a recent estimate obtained from simulation data of the size of critical clusters [E. Sanz, C. Vega, J. R. Espinosa, R. Caballero-Bernal, J. L. F. Abascal and C. Valeriani, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2013, 135, 15008]. We also estimate the interfacial free energy of different planes and obtain 27(2), 28(2) and 28(2) mN m-1 for the basal, the primary prismatic and the secondary prismatic planes respectively. Finally, we inspect the structure of the interface and find that its thickness is approximately 4-5 molecular diameters. Moreover, we find that when the basal plane is exposed to the fluid the interface alternates regions of cubic ice with regions of hexagonal ice. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014.


Roldan I.,Complutense University of Madrid | Parrondo J.M.R.,Complutense University of Madrid
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2010

In this Letter we show that the time reversal asymmetry of a stationary time series provides information about the entropy production of the physical mechanism generating the series, even if one ignores any detail of that mechanism. We develop estimators for the entropy production which can detect nonequilibrium processes even when there are no measurable flows in the time series.


Creffield C.E.,Complutense University of Madrid | Platero G.,CSIC - Institute of Materials Science
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2010

A powerful method of manipulating the dynamics of quantum coherent particles is to control the phase of their tunneling. We consider a system of two electrons hopping on a quasi-one-dimensional lattice in the presence of a uniform magnetic field and study the effect of adding a time-periodic driving potential. We show that the dynamical phases produced by the driving can combine with the Aharonov-Bohm phases to give precise control of the localization and dynamics of the particles, even in the presence of strong particle interactions. © 2010 The American Physical Society.


Brask J.B.,Copenhagen University | Rigas I.,Complutense University of Madrid | Polzik E.S.,Copenhagen University | Andersen U.L.,Technical University of Denmark | Sorensen A.S.,Copenhagen University
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2010

We propose a hybrid (continuous-discrete variable) quantum repeater protocol for long-distance entanglement distribution. Starting from states created by single-photon detection, we show how entangled coherent state superpositions can be generated by means of homodyne detection. We show that near-deterministic entanglement swapping with such states is possible using only linear optics and homodyne detectors, and we evaluate the performance of our protocol combining these elements. © 2010 The American Physical Society.


Ceron I.,Technical University of Madrid | Neila J.,Technical University of Madrid | Khayet M.,Complutense University of Madrid
Energy and Buildings | Year: 2011

The use of phase change materials (PCM) and their possible architectural integration is a path in the search for optimizing energy efficiency in construction. As part of this path, a pavement has been designed which, in combination with the PCM, serves as a passive thermal conditioning system (new patent n°. ES2333092 A1) [1]. The prototype has been tested experimentally and the results proved that it is a viable constructive solution improving the energy performance of sunny locals. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Santos M.,Complutense University of Madrid
RIAI - Revista Iberoamericana de Automatica e Informatica Industrial | Year: 2011

The purpose of this paper is to show how intelligent control can solve real control problems. Several complex control applications are described. Intelligent techniques, in some cases combined with classical controllers, are applied and have been proved successful for these applications. These developments have been carried out by the people of the ISCAR (System Engineering, Control, Automation and Robotics) Research Group, at the Complutense University of Madrid. © 2011 CEA.


Langevin D.,University Paris - Sud | Monroy F.,Complutense University of Madrid
Current Opinion in Colloid and Interface Science | Year: 2010

In this review, we describe interfacial rheology studies of polymer monolayers at the air-water interface. Since polyelectrolytes are usually soluble in water, the formation of surface monolayers requires the presence of a surfactant of opposite charge. The first part of the review is dedicated to these mixed monolayers. The second part is related to neutral monolayers that can be either adsorbed or deposited at the interface. Interfacial rheology studies of these systems are still scarce, despite a considerable interest: insoluble polymer monolayers in two dimensions are suitable model systems for the tests of polymer theories in two dimensions, such as and glass transition. The rheology of soluble polymer monolayers has important connections with the dynamic properties of dispersions stabilized with these polymers. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Carbonell R.,Complutense University of Madrid
Journal for Nature Conservation | Year: 2015

Understanding the phylogenetic history, genetic variation and ecological requirements of a species is fundamental to the design of effective strategies for its conservation and management. Where such knowledge is lacking, it is particularly important that newly acquired information be incorporated into conservation programs immediately, following a protocol of adaptive management. However, given the inertia of conservation projects, this information is often not incorporated into the decision-making process in a timely fashion. Herein, I present an example in which molecular techniques and distribution trends shed light on the conservation value of one of the three populations of a globally threatened species: the European mink (Mustela lutreola). This note suggests that conservation programs for this population should be reviewed in depth, and reoriented appropriately. © 2015 Elsevier GmbH.


Garcia-Diez M.,Institute Fisica Of Cantabria | Garcia-Diez M.,University of Cantabria | Fernandez J.,University of Cantabria | Fita L.,University of Cantabria | And 2 more authors.
Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society | Year: 2013

The seasonal dependence of Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model surface temperature biases and sensitivity to planetary boundary layer (PBL) schemes are jointly explored. For this purpose, the year 2001 was simulated using three different PBL schemes in a domain covering all Europe. The simulations were compared with gridded observations, upper-air data and high-frequency station data. Seasonal and daily cycles were analysed, aimed at providing a link between long-term biases and restricted case studies. The results show that the model mean bias significantly depends on the season, being warm in winter and cold in summer. The winter warm bias is related to misrepresented cold extremes, while a systematic cold bias dominates the whole temperature range in summer. Regarding PBL schemes, an overall underestimation of the entrainment is found, with the non-local Yonsei University scheme producing systematically warmer temperatures. It is shown that the opposite seasonal biases and systematic behaviour of the PBL schemes during the year lead to a different best-performing scheme in winter and summer. Moreover, the best-performing PBL scheme in an average sense is a result of the compensation of errors. The average summer results can be partially explained by a detailed case study. It is concluded that short-term studies should be used with caution to decide on the parametrizations to be used in long-term simulations. © 2012 Royal Meteorological Society.


Marathe R.,Complutense University of Madrid | Parrondo J.M.R.,Complutense University of Madrid
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2010

The possibility of extracting energy from a system in a cyclic process is discussed. We present an explicit example where a system, initially prepared in a microcanonical state, is able to perform such an operation. The example is similar to the Szilard engine, but the microcanonical initial condition allows one to design a protocol where measurement is not necessary. © 2010 The American Physical Society.


Hradil Z.,Palacky University | Rehacek J.,Palacky University | Sanchez-Soto L.L.,Complutense University of Madrid
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2010

Light is a major carrier of information about the world around us, from the microcosmos to the macrocosmos. The present methods of detection are sensitive both to robust features, such as intensity, or polarization, and to more subtle effects, such as correlations. Here we show how wave front detection, which allows for registering the direction of the incoming wave flux at a given position, can be used to reconstruct the mutual coherence function when combined with some techniques previously developed for quantum information processing. © 2010 The American Physical Society.


Torres-Rincon J.M.,Complutense University of Madrid | Llanes-Estrada F.J.,Complutense University of Madrid
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2010

Heavy hadrons containing heavy quarks (for example, Υ mesons) feature a scale separation between the heavy-quark mass and the QCD scale that controls the effective masses of lighter constituents. As in ordinary molecules, the deexcitation of the lighter, faster degrees of freedom leaves the velocity distribution of the heavy quarks unchanged, populating the available decay channels in qualitatively predictable ways. Automatically an application of the Franck-Condon principle of molecular physics explains several puzzling results of Υ(5S) decays as measured by the Belle Collaboration, such as the high rate of Bs*B̄s* versus Bs*B̄s production, the strength of three-body B*B̄π decays, or the dip in B momentum shown in these decays. We argue that the data show the first Sturm-Liouville zero of the Υ(5S) quantum-mechanical squared wave function and provide evidence for a largely bb̄ composition of this meson. © 2010 The American Physical Society.


Gonzalez-Santander C.,Complutense University of Madrid | Dominguez-Adame F.,Complutense University of Madrid
Physics Letters, Section A: General, Atomic and Solid State Physics | Year: 2010

We analyze the exciton states in a quantum wire under intense laser radiation. Electrons and holes are confined by the parabolic potential of the quantum wire. An exactly solvable model is introduced for calculating the exciton binding energy, replacing the actual Coulomb interaction between the electron and the hole by a projective operator. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Dominguez-Adame F.,Complutense University of Madrid
European Journal of Physics | Year: 2010

Electrons moving in a tilted periodic potential perform a periodic motion, known as Bloch oscillation. Within a semiclassical description, the crystal momentum increases linearly with time until it reaches the boundary of the first Brillouin zone in reciprocal space. Then, it reenters the first Brillouin zone by the opposite edge. This periodic motion in reciprocal space is accompanied by an oscillation in real space. The angular frequency of the oscillations and their amplitude can be calculated within the semiclassical framework. Nevertheless, the semiclassical approach cannot explain the rich phenomenology of the Bloch oscillations, such as the breathing of the electronic wave packet. We present a simple description of the Bloch oscillations of tightly bound electrons in biased lattices at a basic level and calculate exactly the wavefunction as a function of time. © 2010 IOP Publishing Ltd.


Horowitz J.M.,Complutense University of Madrid | Sagawa T.,Kyoto University | Parrondo J.M.R.,Complutense University of Madrid
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2013

To induce transport, detailed balance must be broken. A common mechanism is to bias the dynamics with a thermodynamic fuel, such as chemical energy. An intriguing, alternative strategy is for a Maxwell demon to effect the bias using feedback. We demonstrate that these two different mechanisms lead to distinct thermodynamics by contrasting a chemical motor and information motor with identical dynamics. To clarify this difference, we study both models within one unified framework, highlighting the role of the interaction between the demon and the motor. This analysis elucidates the manner in which information is incorporated into a physical system. © 2013 American Physical Society.


Gomez-Ullate D.,Complutense University of Madrid | Kamran N.,McGill University | Milson R.,Dalhousie University
Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical | Year: 2010

We adapt the notion of the Darboux transformation to the context of polynomial Sturm-Liouville problems. As an application, we characterize the recently described Xm Laguerre polynomials in terms of an isospectral Darboux transformation. We also show that the shape invariance of these new polynomial families is a direct consequence of the permutability property of the Darboux-Crum transformation. © 2010 IOP Publishing Ltd.


El-Abbassi A.,Laboratory of Food science | Khayet M.,Complutense University of Madrid | Hafidi A.,Laboratory of Food science
Water Research | Year: 2011

Olive mill wastewater (OMW) is an important environmental pollution problem, especially in the Mediterranean, which is the main olive oil production region worldwide. Environmental impact of OMW is related to its high organic load and particularly to the phytotoxic and antibacterial action of its phenolic content. In fact, polyphenols are known as powerful antioxidants with interesting nutritional and pharmaceutical properties. In the present work, the efficiency of OMW Micellar Enhanced Ultrafiltration (MEUF) treatment for removal and concentration of polyphenols was investigated, using an anionic surfactant (Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate salt, SDS) and a hydrophobic poly(vinyldene fluoride) (PVDF) membrane. The effects of the process experimental conditions on the permeate flux were investigated, and the secondary membrane resistance created by SDS molecules was evaluated. The initial fluxes of OMW processing by MEUF using SDS were 25.7 and 44.5 l/m 2 h under transmembrane pressures of 3.5 and 4.5 bar, respectively. The rejection rate of polyphenols without using any surfactant ranged from 5 to 28%, whereas, it reached 74% when SDS was used under optimum pH (pH 2). The MEUF provides a slightly colored permeate (about 88% less dark), which requires clearly less chemical oxygen demand (COD) for its oxidation (4.33% of the initial COD). These results showed that MEUF process can efficiently be applied to the treatment of OMW and for the concentration and recovery of polyphenols. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Campoamor-Stursberg R.,Complutense University of Madrid
Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical | Year: 2010

The class of solvable Lie algebras with an N-graded nilradical of maximal nilpotency index is classified. It is shown that such solvable extensions are unique up to isomorphism. The generalized Casimir invariants for the N-graded nilradicals and their associated solvable extensions are computed by the method of moving frames. © 2010 IOP Publishing Ltd.


Martinez-Herrero R.,Complutense University of Madrid | Mejias P.M.,Complutense University of Madrid
Optics Express | Year: 2010

The total angular momentum per unit length of a general nonparaxial beam is decomposed into an orbital component associated with the spiral spectrum at the far field and a component concerning the balance between right-and left-handed circular-polarization content of the angular spectrum. Expressions for the linear momentum and energy per unit length are also provided. The well-known division into orbital and spin components is shown to be recovered in the paraxial limit. © 2010 Optical Society of America.


Jimenez J.B.,Complutense University of Madrid | Maroto A.L.,Complutense University of Madrid
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2010

We consider electromagnetic field quantization in an expanding universe. We find that the covariant (Gupta-Bleuler) method exhibits certain difficulties when trying to impose the quantum Lorenz condition on cosmological scales. We thus explore the possibility of consistently quantizing without imposing such a condition. In this case there are three physical states, which are the two transverse polarizations of the massless photon and a new massless scalar mode coming from the temporal and longitudinal components of the electromagnetic field. An explicit example in de Sitter space-time shows that it is still possible to eliminate the negative norm state and to ensure the positivity of the energy in this theory. The new state is decoupled from the conserved electromagnetic currents, but is non-conformally coupled to gravity and therefore can be excited from vacuum fluctuations by the expanding background. The cosmological evolution ensures that the new state modifies Maxwell's equations in a totally negligible way on sub-Hubble scales. However, on cosmological scales it can give rise to a non-negligible energy density which could explain in a natural way the present phase of accelerated expansion of the universe. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Abreu L.M.,Federal University of Bahia | Cabrera D.,Complutense University of Madrid | Torres-Rincon J.M.,Complutense University of Madrid
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2013

In this work we evaluate the B-meson drag and diffusion coefficients in a hot medium constituted of light mesons (π, K, K̄, and η). We treat the B-meson and B*-meson interactions with pseudo-Goldstone bosons in chiral perturbation theory at next-to-leading order within the constraints from heavy quark symmetry and employ standard unitarization techniques of next-to-leading order amplitudes in order to account for dynamically generated resonances (leading to a more efficient heavy-flavor diffusion) and thus reach higher temperatures. We estimate individual meson contributions from the gas to the transport coefficients and perform a comparison with other findings in literature. We report a bottom relaxation length of about 80 fm at a temperature of 150 MeV and for typical momenta of 1 GeV, at which our approach is reliable. Compared to a charm relaxation length of 40 fm in the same conditions, we conclude that the B mesons provide a cleaner probe of the early stages of a heavy-ion collision. © 2013 American Physical Society.


Gomez De Castro A.I.,Complutense University of Madrid | Marcos-Arenal P.,Complutense University of Madrid
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2012

Low-mass pre-main-sequence stars, i.e., T Tauri stars (TTSs), strongly radiate at high energies, from X-rays to the ultraviolet (UV). This excess radiation with respect to main-sequence cool stars (MSCSs) is associated with the accretion process, i.e., it is produced in the extended magnetospheres, in the accretion shocks on the stellar surface, and in the outflows. Although evidence of accretion shocks and outflow contribution to the high-energy excess have been recently addressed, there is not an updated revision of the magnetospheric contribution. This article addresses this issue. The UV observations of the TTSs in the well-known Taurus region have been analyzed together with the XMM-Newton observations compiled in the XEST survey. For the first time the high sensitivity of the Hubble Space Telescope UV instrumentation has allowed measurement of the UV line fluxes of TTSs to M8 type. UV- and X-ray-normalized fluxes have been determined to study the extent and properties of the TTS magnetospheres as a class. They have been compared with the atmospheres of the MSCSs. The main results from this analysis are (1) the normalized fluxes of all the tracers are correlated; this correlation is independent of the broad mass range and the hardness of the X-ray radiation field; (2) the TTS correlations are different than the MSCS correlations; (3) there is a very significant excess emission in O I in the TTSs compared with MSCSs that seems to be caused by recombination radiation from the disk atmosphere after photoionization by extreme UV radiation; the Fe II/Mg II recombination continuum has also been detected in several TTSs and most prominently in AA Tau; and (4) the normalized flux of the UV tracers anticorrelates with the strength of the X-ray flux, i.e., the stronger the X-ray surface flux is, the weaker the observed UV flux. This last behavior is counterintuitive within the framework of stellar dynamo theory and suggests that UV emission can be produced in the extended and dense stellar magnetosphere directly driven by local collisional processes. The brown dwarf 2MASS J12073346-3332539 has been found to follow the same flux-flux relations of the TTSs. Thus, TTS-normalized flux scaling laws seem to be extendable to the brown dwarf limit and can be used for identification/diagnosis purposes. We report the discovery of an inverse correlation between the C IV-normalized flux and the magnetospheric radius derived for stars with known magnetic fields. The normalized C IV flux is found to be αexp (-αrmag), with α = 0.5-0.7. © 2012. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.


Navascues M.,Complutense University of Madrid | Vertesi T.,Hungarian Academy of Sciences
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2011

We find two two-qubit bipartite states ρ1,ρ2 such that arbitrarily many copies of one or the other cannot exhibit nonlocal correlations in a two-setting-two-outcome Bell scenario. However, the bipartite state ρ1-ρ2 violates the Clauser-Horne-Shimony- Holt (CHSH) Bell inequality by an amount of 2.023. We also identify a CHSH-local state ρ such that ρ-2 is CHSH inequality-violating. The tools employed can be easily adapted to find instances of nonlocality activation in arbitrary Bell scenarios.© 2011 American Physical Society.


Gutierrez-Giron A.,Complutense University of Madrid | Gavilan R.G.,Complutense University of Madrid
Plant Ecology | Year: 2010

The aim of this study is to investigate distribution patterns of species occurring at definite spatial scales and to address the main ecological factors that structure a Mediterranean high mountain grassland community. Following the protocols of the GLORIA long-term study, four summits were sampled during the year 2006 and 2007 in Sierra de Guadarrama (Spain). The data recorded on two of those summits were analysed for spatial pattern of species, interspecific associations and environmental relationships were determined from the recorded data. This was done by multivariate analyses (ordinations), SADIE analyses (distance indices) and Pearson χ2 test, respectively. Results showed that chamaephyte species were more abundant in less disturbed situations whilst caespitose hemicryptophyte species and mosses were more abundant in disturbed ones. High mountain species were more abundant in less disturbed situations. Higher spatial heterogeneity was detected on northern and eastern slopes, which could be related to the increased environmental severity of northern exposures and to the greater intensity of the disturbances on eastern exposures. The frequent aggregated distribution of a few species may be related to facilitation processes due to their frequent participation in positive interactions. Finally we observed that positive pairwise associations of species were more frequent than negative associations. The relevance of the studied relationships lied in a better understanding of those threats on high mountain biodiversity induced by climate warming. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Garcia-Martin R.,Complutense University of Madrid | Kaminski R.,Polish Academy of Sciences | Pelaez J.R.,Complutense University of Madrid | De Elvira J.R.,Complutense University of Madrid
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2011

We use our latest dispersive analysis of ππ scattering data and the very recent Kℓ4 experimental results to obtain the mass, width, and couplings of the two lightest scalar-isoscalar resonances. These parameters are defined from their associated poles in the complex plane. The analytic continuation to the complex plane is made in a model-independent way by means of once- and twice-subtracted dispersion relations for the partial waves, without any other theoretical assumption. We find the f0(600) pole at (457-13+14)-i(279-7+11)MeV and that of the f0(980) at (996±7)-i(25-6+10)MeV, whereas their respective couplings to two pions are 3.59-0.13+0.11 and 2.3±0.2GeV. © 2011 American Physical Society.


Cembranos J.A.R.,Complutense University of Madrid | Delgado R.L.,Complutense University of Madrid | Dobado A.,Complutense University of Madrid
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2013

We study the possibility of testing some generic properties of brane world scenarios at the LHC. In particular, we pay attention to Kaluza-Klein graviton and branon production. Both signals can be dominant depending on the value of the brane tension. We analyze the differences between these two signatures. Finally, we use recent data in the single photon channel from the ATLAS Collaboration to constrain the parameter space of both phenomenologies. © 2013 American Physical Society.


Garcia-Romero E.,Complutense University of Madrid | Suarez M.,University of Salamanca
Applied Clay Science | Year: 2013

The fibrous morphology, the small particle size, and the presence of tunnels and channels in their structure give sepiolite (Sep) and palygorskite (Pal) a large specific surface area (SSA). The surface properties vary greatly among different Sep or Pal deposits because they are strongly conditioned by their textural and microtextural features (size, morphology, and arrangement of fibres). In this work, a detailed study is presented based on the scanning electron microscopy (SEM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FEG) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations of the microtextural features of a wide range of deposits of extremely pure Sep and Pal from all over the world. It has been confirmed that although all Sep and Pal have "the same characteristic" fibrous morphology, the samples from different deposits have their own characteristic signatures that vary greatly from one locality to another, explaining why each deposits has different physical and chemical properties. Sep and Pal can consist of fibres with different sizes, curls, or types of aggregation. Several morphological fibre classifications have been made according to length, the width-length ratio (W/L), or curliness. In addition, local heterogeneities have been found as a consequence of particular genetic conditions. Aside from local heterogeneities, each Sep or Pal deposit has its own characteristic signature. As the minor width of fibres observed depends on the resolution of the study technique, we use three terms: lath (the smallest units that can be observed, the true unit crystal), rod (several laths in a crystallographical arrangement), and bundle (several rods parallel to the c-axis). Laths are approximately 10-30 nm wide and are the primary stable particles of Sep and Pal. Small crystals will not be stable and will have dissolved. After lath formation (nucleation), they should grow by oriented aggregation, forming rods and bundles after which they grow by adding ions to the ends of the fibres. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Fernandez I.,Complutense University of Madrid | Mascarenas J.L.,University of Santiago de Compostela
Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry | Year: 2012

In this emerging area article, we focus on novel intramolecular transition metal catalysed (4 + 3)-cycloaddition reactions of allenedienes in which the allene acts as an allylic-cation surrogate. This process has emerged as a powerful tool for the construction not only of complex seven-membered rings containing compounds but also different types of useful molecular skeletons by the proper selection of the catalyst. The transformation proceeds with high chemo- and stereoselectivity mainly because it occurs through an exo-like concerted transition state which exhibits a clear in-plane aromatic character. Despite that, different reaction mechanisms (i.e. stepwise processes) are also possible depending on the nucleophilicity of the diene moiety. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Faza O.N.,University of Vigo | Fernandez I.,Complutense University of Madrid | Lopez C.S.,University of Vigo
Chemical Communications | Year: 2013

In this work we show that a base is needed to generate the active catalyst through any of three different paths close in energy. The facial differentiation arises from steric interactions that induce a very asynchronous, non-pericyclic disfavored transition state. Catalyst regeneration takes place through two steps that avoid a forbidden pericyclic mechanism. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Romero-Lopez J.,Complutense University of Madrid | Lopez-Rodas V.,Complutense University of Madrid | Costas E.,Complutense University of Madrid
Aquatic Toxicology | Year: 2012

There is increasing scientific interest in how phytoplankton reacts to petroleum contamination, since crude oil and its derivatives are generating extensive contamination of aquatic environments. However, toxic effects of short-term petroleum exposure are more widely known than the adaptation of phytoplankton to long-term petroleum exposure. An analysis of short-term and long-term effects of petroleum exposure was done using experimental populations of freshwater (Scenedesmus intermedius and Microcystis aeruginosa) and marine (Dunaliella tertiolecta) microalgae isolated from pristine sites without crude oil product contamination. These strains were exposed to increased levels of petroleum and diesel oil. Short-term exposure to petroleum or diesel oil revealed a rapid inhibition of photosynthetic performance and cell proliferation in freshwater and marine phytoplankton species. A broad degree of inter-specific variation in lethal contamination level was observed. When different strains were exposed to petroleum or diesel oil over the long-term, the cultures showed massive destruction of the sensitive cells. Nonetheless, after further incubation, some cultures were able to grow again due to cells that were resistant to the toxins. By means of a fluctuation analysis, discrimination between cells that had become resistant due to physiological acclimatization and resistant cells arising from rare spontaneous mutations was accomplished. In addition, an analysis was done as to the maximum capacity of adaptation to a gradual contamination process. An experimental ratchet protocol was used, which maintains a strong selection pressure in a temporal scale up to several months over very large experimental populations of microalgae. Microalgae are able to survive to petroleum contamination as a result of physiological acclimatization without genetic changes. However, when petroleum concentration exceeds the physiological limits, survival depends exclusively on the occurrence on mutations that confer resistance and subsequent selection of these mutants. Finally, it is certain that further mutations and selection will ultimately determine adaptation of microalgae to the environmental forcing. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Moreno-Vozmediano R.,Complutense University of Madrid | Montero R.S.,Complutense University of Madrid | Llorente I.M.,Complutense University of Madrid
Computer | Year: 2012

As a key component in a modern datacenter, the cloud operating system is responsible for managing the physical and virtual infrastructure, orchestrating and commanding service provisioning and deployment, and providing federation capabilities for accessing and deploying virtual resources in remote cloud infrastructures. © 2012 IEEE.


Maiz-Arevalo C.,Complutense University of Madrid
Journal of Pragmatics | Year: 2012

Compliments are certainly one of the most widely studied speech acts, as shown by the extensive literature devoted to the topic. However, as pointed out by different authors, research has almost exclusively focused on formulaic compliments while neglecting implicit ones, most probably because the first tend to outnumber the latter. The present paper is an attempt to redress the balance in favor of implicit compliments. My focus, however, is not on the interpretive procedures employed by interlocutors when receiving an implicit compliment but on the pragmatic motives underlying the speaker's choice of this much rarer speech act. Thus, this paper aims to answer the following research question: What are the speaker's pragmatic motivations to opt for an implicit instead of an explicit compliment? Results show that implicit compliments are preferred when evaluating someone's qualities, achievements or personal appearance in order to avoid face-threat, especially when the relationship between the interlocutors is still distant. Finally, it can also be argued that not all implicit compliments share the same degree of implicitness. In fact, some of them show recurrent linguistic patterns which lead to us argue in favor of a cline of explicitness both in English and Spanish. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Hawksworth D.L.,Complutense University of Madrid | Hawksworth D.L.,Natural History Museum in London
Biodiversity and Conservation | Year: 2012

Recent estimates of the global species numbers of fungi suggest that the much-used figure of 1. 5 million is low, and figures up to 5. 1 million have been proposed in the last few years. Data emerging from tropical studies, and from large-scale sequencing of environmental samples, have the potential to contribute towards a more robust figure. Additional evidence of species richness is coming from long-term studies of particular non-tropical sites, and also from molecular phylogenetic studies revealing extensive cryptic speciation. However, uncertainties remain over fungus:plant species ratios and how they should be extrapolated to the global scale, and also as to the geographical distribution of fungi known only as sequences. Also unclear is the extent to which figures should be modified to allow for insect-associated fungi. The need for comprehensive studies, especially in the tropics, to address the uncertainties used in past extrapolations, is stressed. For the present, it is recommended that the phrase "at least 1. 5, but probably as many as 3 million" be adopted for general use until some of the current uncertainties are resolved. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Cubitt T.S.,Complutense University of Madrid | Smith G.,IBM
IEEE Transactions on Information Theory | Year: 2012

The zero-error capacity of a channel is the rate at which it can send information perfectly, with zero probability of error, and has long been studied in classical information theory. We show that the zero-error capacity of quantum channels exhibits an extreme form of nonadditivity, one which is not possible for classical channels, or even for the usual capacities of quantum channels. By combining probabilistic arguments with algebraic geometry, we prove that there exist channels ε E 1 and ε 2 with no zero-error classical capacity whatsoever, C 0(ε1) = C 0(ε 2) = 0, but whose joint zero-error quantum capacity is positive, Q 0 (ε 1⊗ ε 2) ≥ 1. This striking effect is an extreme form of the superactivation phenomenon, as it implies that both the classical and quantum zero-error capacities of these channels can be superactivated simultaneously, while being a strictly stronger property of capacities. Superactivation of the quantum zero-error capacity was not previously known. © 2012 IEEE.


Tordsson J.,Umeå University | Montero R.S.,Complutense University of Madrid | Moreno-Vozmediano R.,Complutense University of Madrid | Llorente I.M.,Complutense University of Madrid
Future Generation Computer Systems | Year: 2012

In the past few years, we have witnessed the proliferation of a heterogeneous ecosystem of cloud providers, each one with a different infrastructure offer and pricing policy. We explore this heterogeneity in a novel cloud brokering approach that optimizes placement of virtual infrastructures across multiple clouds and also abstracts the deployment and management of infrastructure components in these clouds. The feasibility of our approach is evaluated in a high throughput computing cluster case study. Experimental results confirm that multi-cloud deployment provides better performance and lower costs compared to the usage of a single cloud only. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Castellote M.,Complutense University of Madrid | Clark C.W.,Cornell University | Lammers M.O.,Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology
Biological Conservation | Year: 2012

Non-lethal behavioural effects of underwater noise in marine mammals are difficult to measure. Here we report acoustic and behavioural changes by fin whales in response to two different types of anthropogenic noise: shipping and airgun noise. Acoustic features of fin whale 20-Hz song notes recorded in the Mediterranean Sea and Northeast Atlantic Ocean were compared for areas with different shipping noise levels, different traffic intensities in the Strait of Gibraltar and during a seismic airgun array survey. In high noise conditions 20-Hz note duration shortened, bandwidth decreased, centre frequency decreased and peak frequency decreased. Similar results were obtained in 20-Hz song notes recorded during a 10-day seismic survey. During the first 72. h of the survey, a steady decrease in song received levels and bearings to singers indicated that whales moved away from the airgun array source and out of our detection area, and this displacement persisted for a time period well beyond the 10-day duration of seismic airgun activity. This study provides evidence that male fin whales from two different subpopulations modify song characteristics under increased background noise conditions, and that under seismic airgun activity conditions they leave an area for an extended period. We hypothesize that fin whale acoustic communication is modified to compensate for increased background noise and that a sensitization process may play a role in the observed temporary displacement. The observed acoustic and behavioural changes of this endangered species are discussed in the context of reproduction success and population survival. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Garcia-Perez M.A.,Complutense University of Madrid | Alcala-Quintana R.,Complutense University of Madrid
Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology | Year: 2013

Morgan, Dillenburger, Raphael, and Solomon have shown that observers can use different response strategies when unsure of their answer, and, thus, they can voluntarily shift the location of the psychometric function estimated with the method of single stimuli (MSS; sometimes also referred to as the single-interval, two-alternative method). They wondered whether MSS could distinguish response bias from a true perceptual effect that would also shift the location of the psychometric function. We demonstrate theoretically that the inability to distinguish response bias from perceptual effects is an inherent shortcoming of MSS, although a three-response format including also an "undecided" response option may solve the problem under restrictive assumptions whose validity cannot be tested with MSS data. We also show that a proper two-alternative forced-choice (2AFC) task with the three-response format is free of all these problems so that bias and perceptual effects can easily be separated out. The use of a three-response 2AFC format is essential to eliminate a confound (response bias) in studies of perceptual effects and, hence, to eliminate a threat to the internal validity of research in this area. © 2013 Copyright The Experimental Psychology Society.


Avendano C.,Complutense University of Madrid | De La Cuesta E.,Complutense University of Madrid
Chemistry - A European Journal | Year: 2010

Saframycins, safracins, renieramycins, cribrostatins, and esteinascidins are 6,15-iminoisoquino[3,2-ft]3benzazocine compounds that constitute the largest subgroup among the antitumor antibiotics belonging to the tetrahydroisoquinoline family. Their structural complexity has led to widespread synthetic attention to obtain them in both racemic and enantiopure forms. Publication in 1996 of the first total synthesis of ecteinascidin743 by Corey's group was an important milestone, but the development of preparative protocols for these structures has continued, offering new possibilities to exploit the biological activity of the above-mentioned natural products and their analogues. This minireview is intended to update this progress following a methodological rather than a chronological organization. Besides of a brief description of the different strategies evolved from retrosynthetic analyses, which have been organized according to the order of bonding events that will link the precursors, semisynthetic approaches and a brief account of the total syntheses of ecteinascidin 743, have been analyzed. © 2010 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH& Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Hoyos P.,Complutense University of Madrid | Sinisterra J.-V.,Complutense University of Madrid | Molinari F.,University of Milan | Alcantara A.R.,Complutense University of Madrid | De Maria P.D.,RWTH Aachen
Accounts of Chemical Research | Year: 2010

(Figure Presented) The development of efficient syntheses for enantiomerically enriched α-hydroxy ketones is an important research focus in the pharmaceutical industry. For example, α-hydroxy ketones are found in antidepressants, in selective inhibitors of amyloid-β protein production (used in the treatment of Alzheimer's), in farnesyl transferase inhibitors (Kurasoin A and B), and in antitumor antibiotics (Olivomycin A and Chromomycin A3). Moreover, α-hydroxy ketones are of particular value as fine chemicals because of their utility as building blocks for the production of larger molecules. They can also be used in preparing many other important structures, such as amino alcohols, diols, and so forth. Several purely chemical synthetic approaches have been proposed to afford these compounds, together with some organocatalytic strategies (thiazolium-based carboligations, proline α-hydroxylations, and so forth). However, many of these chemical approaches are not straightforward, lack selectivity, or are economically unattractive because of the large number of chemical steps required (usually combined with low enantioselectivities). In this Account, we describe three different biocatalytic approaches that have been developed to efficiently produce a-hydroxy ketones: (i) The use of thiamine diphosphate-dependent lyases (ThDP-lyases) to catalyze the umpolung arboligation of aldehydes. Enantiopure α-hydroxy ketones are formed from inexpensive aldehydes with this method. Some lyases with a broad substrate spectrum have been successfully characterized. Furthermore, the use of biphasic media with recombinant whole cells overexpressing lyases leads to productivities of ~80-100 g/L with high enantiomeric excesses (up to >99%). (ii) The use of hydrolases to produce α-hydroxy ketones by means of (in situ) dynamic kinetic resolutions (DKRs). Lipases are able to successfully resolve racemates, and many outstanding examples have been reported. However, this approach leads to a maximum theoretical yield of 50%. As a means of overcoming this problem, these traditional lipase-catalyzed kinetic resolutions are combined with racemization of remnant substrate, which can be done in situ or in separate compartments. Examples showing high conversions (>90%) and enantiomeric excesses (>99%) are described. (iii) Whole-cell redox processes, catalyzed by several microorganisms, either by means of free enzymes (applying a cofactor regeneration system) or by whole cells. Through the use of redox machineries, different strategies can lead to high yields and enantiomeric excesses. Some enantiopure α-hydroxy ketones can be formed by reductions of diketones and by selective oxidations of vicinal diols. Likewise, some redox processes involving sugar chemistry (involving α-hydroxy ketones) have been developed on the industrial scale. Finally, the redox whole-cell concept allows racemizations (and deracemizations) as well. These three strategies provide a useful and environmentally friendly synthetic toolbox. Likewise, the field represents an illustrative example of how biocatalysis can assist practical synthetic processes, and how problems derived from the integration of natural tools in synthetic pathways can be efficiently tackled to afford high yields and enantioselectivities. © 2010 American Chemical Society.


Ribera Casado J.M.,Complutense University of Madrid
Revista Espanola de Geriatria y Gerontologia | Year: 2013

This article attempts to provide a framework for reflection on the relationships between 2 close specialties, such as geriatrics and palliative care. In medicine today, with the progressive ageing of the population, 80% of deaths occur at a very advanced age, and a high percentage of these are potentially likely to receive palliative care in their final stages. The reflections offered in this presentation are made from a perspective of someone who has always worked in the geriatrics field. Throughout this article, some the common points in the historic evolution of both specialities are made and discussed. The inter-relationships and common ground in other fields may be, their form of understanding medical care, clinical objectives, doctrinal bases, the work methodology, or the overlapping of some elements of training. Several aspects of where they differ on these same points are also discussed. It is concluded with a call for collaboration between the specialists of both fields, as well as in the need to demand that the health administrations introduce larger palliative teams in all hospitals in the country. © 2012 SEGG.


Daschner A.,Hospital Universitario Of La Princesa | Cuellar C.,Complutense University of Madrid | Rodero M.,Complutense University of Madrid
Trends in Parasitology | Year: 2012

Allergic phenomena share common pathways with the immune response against helminth parasites. The definitions regarding allergens and their related concepts have their roots in the area of allergy research. The experience with the fish parasite Anisakis simplex-associated allergic features still nurtures an open debate on the necessity of larvae being alive to induce allergic reactions such as urticaria or anaphylaxis. Conceptual definitions of allergen, major allergen, as well as putatively crossreacting antibodies, as are used in food allergy, depend on the clinical relevance of specific IgE and deserve careful interpretation in the various forms of A. simplex-associated allergic features. Conversely, an evolutionary based interpretation of the presence of specific IgE depends on the viability of A. simplex. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


De La Fuente Marcos C.,Complutense University of Madrid | De La Fuente Marcos R.,Complutense University of Madrid
Astronomy and Astrophysics | Year: 2012

Context. Upon discovery, asteroid (309239) 2007 RW 10 was considered a Neptune Trojan candidate. The object is currently listed by the Minor Planet Center as a Centaur but it is classified as a scattered disk or trans-Neptunian object by others. Now that its arc-length is 8154 d and has been observed for more than 20 yr, a more robust classification should be possible. Aims. Here we explore the orbital behaviour of this object in order to reveal its current dynamical status. Methods. We perform N-body simulations in both directions of time to investigate the evolution of its orbital elements. In particular, we study the librational properties of the mean longitude. Results. Its mean longitude currently librates around the value of the mean longitude of Neptune with an amplitude of nearly 50° and a period of about 7.5 kyr. Our calculations show that it has been in its present dynamical state for about 12.5 kyr and it will stay there for another 12.5 kyr. Therefore, its current state is relatively short-lived. Due to its chaotic behaviour, the object may have remained in the 1:1 mean motion resonance with Neptune for several 100 kyr at most, undergoing transitions between the various resonant states. Conclusions. (309239) 2007 RW 10 is currently a quasi-satellite, the first object of this dynamical class to be discovered around Neptune. With a diameter of about 250 km, it is the largest known co-orbital in the solar system. Although it is not a Centaur now, it may become one in the future as it appears to move in an unstable region. Its significant eccentricity (0.30) and inclination (36°), strongly suggest that it did not form in situ but was captured, likely from beyond Neptune. With an apparent magnitude of 21.1 at opposition (October), it is well suited for spectroscopic observations that may provide information on its composition and hence eventually its origin. © 2012 ESO.


De La Fuente Marcos C.,Complutense University of Madrid | De La Fuente Marcos R.,Complutense University of Madrid
Astronomy and Astrophysics | Year: 2012

Context. Numerical simulations suggest that Neptune primordial co-orbitals may significantly outnumber the equivalent population hosted by Jupiter, yet the objects remain elusive. Since the first discovery in 2001 just ten minor planets, including nine Trojans and one quasi-satellite, have been positively identified as Neptune co-orbitals. In contrast, Minor Planet Center (MPC) data indicate that more than 5000 objects are confirmed Jupiter co-orbitals. On the other hand, some simulations predict that a negligible fraction of passing bodies are captured into the 1:1 commensurability with Neptune today. Aims. Hundreds of objects have been discovered in the outer solar system during the various wide-field surveys carried out during the past decade, and many of them have been classified using cuts in the pericentre and other orbital elements. This leads to possible misclassifications of resonant objects. Here, we explore this possibility to uncover neglected Neptune co-orbitals. Methods. Using numerical analysis techniques, we singled out eleven candidates and used N-body calculations to either confirm or reject their co-orbital nature. Results. We confirm that four objects previously classified as Centaurs by the MPC currently are temporary Neptune co-orbitals. (148975) 2001 XA 255 is the most dynamically unstable of the four. It appears to be a relatively recent (50 kyr) visitor from the scattered disk on its way to the inner solar system. (310071) 2010 KR 59 is following a complex horseshoe orbit, (316179) 2010 EN 65 is in the process of switching from L 4 to L 5 Trojan, and 2012 GX 17 is a promising L 5 Trojan candidate in urgent need of follow-up. The four objects move in highly inclined orbits and have high eccentricities. These dynamically hot objects are not primordial 1:1 librators, but are captured and likely originated from beyond Neptune, having entered the region of the giant planets relatively recently. Conclusions. Casting doubt over claims by other authors, our results show that Neptune can still efficiently capture co-orbitals for short periods of time and that the cuts in the orbital elements are unreliable criteria to classify objects orbiting in the outer solar system. As in the case of Jupiter Trojans, our results suggests that Neptune's L 5 point is less stable than L 4, in this case perhaps due to the influence of Pluto. © 2012 ESO.


Bombin H.,Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics | Andrist R.S.,ETH Zurich | Ohzeki M.,Kyoto University | Ohzeki M.,University of Rome La Sapienza | And 3 more authors.
Physical Review X | Year: 2012

The inevitable presence of decoherence effects in systems suitable for quantum computation necessitates effective error-correction schemes to protect information from noise. We compute the stability of the toric code to depolarization by mapping the quantum problem onto a classical disordered eight-vertex Ising model. By studying the stability of the related ferromagnetic phase via both large-scale Monte Carlo simulations and the duality method, we are able to demonstrate an increased error threshold of 18.9(3)% when noise correlations are taken into account. Remarkably, this result agrees within error bars with the result for a different class of codes-topological color codes-where the mapping yields interesting new types of interacting eight-vertex models.


Gonzalez-Zorn B.,Complutense University of Madrid | Escudero J.A.,Institute Pasteur Paris
International Microbiology | Year: 2012

Antimicrobial resistance is a major health problem. After decades of research, numerous difficulties in tackling resistance have emerged, from the paucity of new antimicrobials to the inefficient contingency plans to reduce the use of antimicrobials; consequently, resistance to these drugs is out of control. Today we know that bacteria from the environment are often at the very origin of the acquired resistance determinants found in hospitals worldwide. Here we define the genetic components that flow from the environment to pathogenic bacteria and thereby confer a quantum increase in resistance levels, as resistance units (RU). Environmental bacteria as well as microbiomes from humans, animals, and food represent an infinite reservoir of RU, which are based on genes that have had, or not, a resistance function in their original bacterial hosts. This brief review presents our current knowledge of antimicrobial resistance and its consequences, with special focus on the importance of an ecologic perspective of antimicrobial resistance. This discipline encompasses the study of the relationships of entities and events in the framework of curing and preventing disease, a definition that takes into account both microbial ecology and antimicrobial resistance. Understanding the flux of RU throughout the diverse ecosystems is crucial to assess, prevent and eventually predict emerging scaffolds before they colonize health institutions. Collaborative horizontal research scenarios should be envisaged and involve all actors working with humans, animals, food and the environment.


Pardo Z.D.,Complutense University of Madrid | Olsen G.L.,Weizmann Institute of Science | Fernandez-Valle M.E.,Complutense University of Madrid | Frydman L.,Weizmann Institute of Science | And 2 more authors.
Journal of the American Chemical Society | Year: 2012

Recent years have witnessed unprecedented advances in the development of fast multidimensional NMR acquisition techniques. This progress could open valuable new opportunities for the elucidation of chemical and biochemical processes. This study demonstrates one such capability, with the first real-time Two-dimensional (2D) dynamic analysis of a complex organic reaction relying on unlabeled substrates. Implementing such measurements required the development of new ultrafast 2D methods, capable of monitoring multiple spectral regions of interest as the reaction progressed. The alternate application of these acquisitions in an interleaved, excitation-optimized fashion, allowed us to extract new structural and dynamic insight concerning the reaction between aliphatic ketones and triflic anhydride in the presence of nitriles to yield alkylpyrimidines. Up to 2500 2D NMR data sets were thus collected over the course of this nearly 100 min long reaction, in an approach resembling that used in functional magnetic resonance imaging. With the aid of these new frequency-selective low-gradient strength experiments, supplemented by chemical shift calculations of the spectral coordinates observed in the 2D heteronuclear correlations, previously postulated intermediates involved in the alkylpyrimidine formation process could be confirmed, and hitherto undetected ones were revealed. The potential and limitations of the resulting methods are discussed. © 2012 American Chemical Society.


Garcia-Perez M.A.,Complutense University of Madrid
Journal of Informetrics | Year: 2011

Accurate computation of h indices or other indicators of research impact requires access to databases supplying complete and accurate citation information. The Web of Science (WoS) database is widely used for this purpose and it is generally deemed error-free. This note describes an inaccuracy that seems to affect differentially non-English sources and targets in WoS, namely, " phantom citations" (i.e., papers reported by WoS to cite some article when they actually did not) and their concentration around particular articles that are thus dubbed " strange attractors" The analysis of references in (and citations to) papers in two English sources and two non-English sources reveals that phantom citations and other errors of indexing occur about twice as often with non-English items. These and other errors of commission affect about 1% of the cited references in the WoS database, and they may reveal large-scale problems in the reference matching algorithm in WoS. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Saenz-Perez F.,Complutense University of Madrid
Electronic Notes in Theoretical Computer Science | Year: 2011

This work describes a novel implementation of a deductive database system which fills some gaps other systems do not. In fact, this system was born to this end and since its inception, many new features have been added (null values, outer joins, aggregates, ...). In particular, it embodies both Datalog and SQL query languages, where the same database can be queried. It enjoys an actual interactive environment for any platform (Windows, Linux, Macintosh, ...) and it has been plugged to a Java GUI IDE for easing user interaction (syntax highlighting, projects, ...). The system is distributed under GPL license, hosted by sourceforge, and heavily used all around the world. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


de la Fuente Marcos C.,Complutense University of Madrid | de la Fuente Marcos R.,Complutense University of Madrid
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society | Year: 2014

Uranus has three known co-orbitals: 83982 Crantor (2002 GO9), 2010 EU65 and 2011 QF99. All of them were captured in their current resonant state relatively recently. Here, we perform a comparative analysis of the orbital evolution of these transient co-orbitals to understand better how they got captured in the first place and what makes them dynamically unstable. We also look for additional temporary Uranian co-orbital candidates among known objects. Our N-body simulations show that the long-term stability of 2011 QF99 is controlled by Jupiter and Neptune; it briefly enters the 1:7 mean motion resonance with Jupiter and the 2:1 with Neptune before becoming a Trojan and prior to leaving its tadpole orbit. During these ephemeral twobody mean motion resonance episodes, apsidal corotation resonances are also observed. For known co-orbitals, Saturn is the current source of the main destabilizing force but this is not enough to eject a minor body from the 1:1 commensurability with Uranus. These objects must enter mean motion resonances with Jupiter and Neptune in order to be captured or become passing Centaurs. Asteroid 2010 EU65, a probable visitor from the Oort cloud, may have been stable for several Myr due to its comparatively low eccentricity. Additionally, we propose 2002 VG131 as the first transient quasi-satellite candidate of Uranus. Asteroid 1999 HD12 may signal the edge of Uranus' co-orbital region. Transient Uranian co-orbitals are often submitted to complex multibody ephemeral mean motion resonances that trigger the switching between resonant co-orbital states, making them dynamically unstable. In addition, we show that the orbital properties and discovery circumstances of known objects can be used to outline a practical strategy by which additional Uranus' co-orbitals may be found. © 2014 The Authors. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society.


De La Fuente Marcos C.,Complutense University of Madrid | De La Fuente Marcos R.,Complutense University of Madrid
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society | Year: 2014

Venus has three known co-orbitals: (322756) 2001 CK32, 2002 VE68 and 2012 XE133. The first two have absolute magnitudes 18 < H < 21. The third one, significantly smaller at H = 23.4 mag, is a recent discovery that signals the probable presence of many other similar objects: small transient companions to Venus that are also potentially hazardous asteroids (PHAs). Here, we study the dynamical evolution of the recently discovered asteroid 2013 ND15. At H = 24.1 mag, this minor body is yet another small Venus co-orbital and PHA, currently close to the Lagrangian point L4 and following the most eccentric path found so far for objects in this group. This transient Trojan will leave the 1:1 mean motion resonance within a few hundred years although it could be a recurrent librator. Due to its high eccentricity (0.6), its dynamics is different from that of the other three known Venus co-orbitals even if they all are near-Earth objects (NEOs). A Monte Carlo simulation that uses the orbital data and discovery circumstances of the four objects as proxies to estimate the current size of this population, indicates that the number of high-eccentricity, low-inclination Venus co-orbital NEOs may have been greatly underestimated by current models. Three out of four known objects were discovered with solar elongation at perigee greater than 135° even if visibility estimates show that less than 4 per cent of these objects are expected to reach perigee at such large elongations. Our calculations suggest that the number of minor bodies with sizes above 150m currently engaged in co-orbital motion with Venus could be at least one order of magnitude larger than usually thought; the number of smaller bodies could easily be in many thousands. These figures have strong implications on the fraction of existing PHAs that can barely be detected by current surveys. Nearly 70 per cent of the objects discussed here have elongation at perigee <90° and 65 per cent are prospective PHAs. © 2014 The Authors Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society.


Rodrigo J.A.,Complutense University of Madrid | Alieva T.,Complutense University of Madrid
Optics Express | Year: 2014

Partially coherent light provides promising advantages for imaging applications. In contrast to its completely coherent counterpart, it prevents image degradation due to speckle noise and decreases cross-talk among the imaged objects. These facts make attractive the partially coherent illumination for accurate quantitative imaging in microscopy. In this work, we present a non-interferometric technique and system for quantitative phase imaging with simultaneous determination of the spatial coherence properties of the sample illumination. Its performance is experimentally demonstrated in several examples underlining the benefits of partial coherence for practical imagining applications. The programmable optical setup comprises an electrically tunable lens and sCMOS camera that allows for high-speed measurement in the millisecond range. © 2014 Optical Society of America.


Rosa-Velardo F.,Complutense University of Madrid | De Frutos-Escrig D.,Complutense University of Madrid
Theoretical Computer Science | Year: 2011

We prove several decidability and undecidability results for ν-PN, an extension of P/T nets with pure name creation and name management. We give a simple proof of undecidability of reachability, by reducing reachability in nets with inhibitor arcs to it. Thus, the expressive power of ν-PN strictly surpasses that of P/T nets. We encode ν-PN into Petri Data Nets, so that coverability, termination and boundedness are decidable. Moreover, we obtain Ackermann-hardness results for all our decidable decision problems. Then we consider two properties, width-boundedness and depth-boundedness, that factorize boundedness. Width-boundedness has already been proven to be decidable. Here we prove that its complexity is also non-primitive recursive. Then we prove undecidability of depth-boundedness. Finally, we prove that the corresponding "place version" of all the boundedness problems is undecidable for ν-PN. These results carry over to Petri Data Nets. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Baeza A.,CIBER ISCIII | Guisasola E.,Complutense University of Madrid | Guisasola E.,Technical University of Madrid | Ruiz-Hernandez E.,CIBER ISCIII | And 2 more authors.
Chemistry of Materials | Year: 2012

The treatment of complex diseases such as cancer pathologies requires the simultaneously administration of several drugs in order to improve the effectiveness of the therapy and overwhelm the defensive mechanisms of tumor cells, responsible of the apparition of multidrug resistance (MDR). In this manuscript, a novel nanodevice able to perform remotely controlled release of small molecules and proteins in response to an alternating magnetic field has been presented. This device is based on mesoporous silica nanoparticles with iron oxide nanocrystals encapsulated inside the silica matrix and decorated on the surface with a thermoresponsive copolymer of poly(ethyleneimine)-b-poly(N- isopropylacrylamide) (PEI/NIPAM). The polymer structure has been designed with a double purpose, to act as temperature-responsive gatekeeper for the drugs trapped inside the silica matrix and, on the other hand, to retain proteins into the polymer shell by electrostatic or hydrogen bonds interactions. The nanocarrier traps the different cargos at low temperatures (20 °C) and releases the retained molecules when the temperature exceeds 35-40 °C following different kinetics. The ability to remotely trigger the release of different therapeutic agents in a controlled manner in response to a nontoxic and highly penetrating external stimulus as alternating magnetic field, along with the synergic effect associated to hyperthermia and chemotherapy, and the possibility to use this nanocarrier as contrast agent in magnetic resonance imagining (MRI) convert this nanodevice in an excellent promising candidate for further studies for oncology therapy. © 2012 American Chemical Society.


Staderini M.,Complutense University of Madrid | Martin M.A.,Complutense University of Madrid | Bolognesi M.L.,University of Bologna | Menendez J.C.,Complutense University of Madrid
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2015

Brain amyloid depositions are the main hallmarks of Alzheimer's and other protein misfolding diseases. Since they are believed to precede clinical symptoms by several years, imaging of such fibrillar aggregates is particularly suitable to diagnose the onset of the disease in its early stage and monitor its progression. In this context, near infrared (NIR) imaging has been proposed as a promising and non-invasive method to visualize amyloid plaques in vivo because of its acceptable depth of penetration and minimal degree of tissue damage. In this tutorial review, we describe the main chemical and physicochemical features of probes associated with fluorescence emission in the NIR region. The review focuses on the recent progress and improvements in the development of small-molecule NIR fluorescent probes and their in vivo application in living animals. In addition, the possible therapeutic application of NIR probes to block the pathological aggregation process will be discussed, raising the fascinating possibility of their exploitation as theranostic agents. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Fernandez I.,Complutense University of Madrid | Frenking G.,University of Marburg
Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics | Year: 2012

The structure and stability towards decomposition of eight novel noble gas compounds having a Xe-Xe bond, which have not been experimentally observed so far, have been studied computationally. In addition, the nature of the Xe-Xe interaction has been analysed by a combination of the most popular methods to study the bonding situation of molecules, i.e. Natural Bond Orbital, Atom in Molecules and Energy Decomposition Analysis methods. Two related series of compounds have been considered: HXeXeX (X = F to I) and RXeXeR′ (R = halogen atom). Our calculations indicate that the replacement of the fluorine atom by a heavier group 17 congener in the HXeXeX series leads to a less stable compound, thus making more difficult its experimental observation. The same effect occurs in the RXeXeR′ series, but these species are more kinetically protected against the decomposition reaction and therefore, their experimental detection is more likely. This journal is © 2012 the Owner Societies.


Billen G.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Garnier J.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Lassaletta L.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Lassaletta L.,Complutense University of Madrid
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences | Year: 2013

The nitrogen cycle of pre-industrial ecosystems has long been remarkably closed, in spite of the high mobility of this element in the atmosphere and hydrosphere. Inter-regional and international commercial exchanges of agricultural goods, which considerably increased after the generalization of the use of synthetic nitrogen fertilizers, introduced an additional type of nitrogen mobility, which nowadays rivals the atmospheric and hydrological fluxes in intensity, and causes their enhancement at the local, regional and global scales. Eighty-five per cent of the net anthropogenic input of reactive nitrogen occurs on only 43 per cent of the land area. Modern agriculture based on the use of synthetic fertilizers and the decoupling of crop and animal production is responsible for the largest part of anthropogenic losses of reactive nitrogen to the environment. In terms of levers for better managing the nitrogen cascade, beyond technical improvement of agricultural practices tending to increase nitrogen use efficiency, or environmental engineering management measures to increase nitrogen sinks in the landscape, the need to better localize crop production and livestock breeding, on the one hand, and agriculture and food demand on the other hand, is put forward as a condition to being able to supply food to human populations while preserving environmental resources. © 2013 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.


Belinchon J.A.,Complutense University of Madrid
Astrophysics and Space Science | Year: 2012

We study how the constants G and Λ may vary in different theoretical models (general relativity with a perfect fluid, scalar cosmological models ("quintessence") with and without interacting scalar and matter fields and a scalar-tensor model with a dynamical Λ) in order to explain some observational results. We apply the program outlined in section II to study three different geometries which generalize the FRW ones, which are Bianchi V, VII 0 and IX, under the self-similarity hypothesis. We put special emphasis on calculating exact power-law solutions which allow us to compare the different models. In all the studied cases we arrive at the conclusion that the solutions are isotropic and noninflationary while the cosmological constant behaves as a positive decreasing time function (in agreement with the current observations) and the gravitational constant behaves as a growing time function. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Miguel M.,Complutense University of Madrid
Molecular nutrition & food research | Year: 2010

In this study we evaluated the short-term oral antihypertensive effect of several peptide sequences isolated from casein fractions, previously characterized as in vitro angiotensin-converting enzyme-inhibitors, in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and the diastolic blood pressure (DBP) of the rats were measured by the tail cuff method before administration and also 2, 4, 6, 8 and 24h post-administration. The sequences LVYPFTGPIPN, HLPLP, IAK, YAKPVA and WQVLPNAVPAK showed a clear decrease in SBP and DBP in SHR. HPHPHLSF caused a significant decrease of the DBP in the SHR, but this sequence did not modify the SBP of these animals in a significant manner. KKYNVPQL did not modify SBP in the SHR, and caused a slight, but significant and maintained, decrease in DBP in these animals. SBP and DBP returned to baseline values 24h post-administration of all peptides. In conclusion, these peptides are bioactive ingredients with potential benefit in the prevention and treatment of hypertension or other associated disorders.


Rosales N.,Observatorio Mexicano de la Crisis | Rosales N.,Complutense University of Madrid
Procedia Engineering | Year: 2011

During the process of building the sustainable development paradigm in the last four decades, the incorporation and integration of the urban dimension has been gaining importance, while it has been acknowledged that the majority of the most serious environmental threats are exacerbated by the high density and activity of urban life and its consumption patterns. Thus, different methods, techniques and instruments for urban sustainable assessment that seek to figure out how cities can become more sustainable have emerged. Among which, indicators are increasingly used as they provide a solid foundation for decision making, at all levels, and contributes to the building of sustainable self-regulated systems in which development and environment can be integrated. The present paper builds on the background of the recent movement towards the usage of indicators by introducing a carefully chosen set for quantifying sustainability performance at the urban level and into the planning process. By moving indicators from the ex-post evaluation of cities' problems to an ex-ante stage in which they can be operationalized as planning tools, this piece of work provides a contribution to traditional urban planning instruments and moves a step forward with regard to the construction of sustainability. In this framework indicators become key instruments in urban analysis, the design of policies, strategies, actions and programs for sustainable urban development. The paper starts by introducing the methodology and the urban sustainable indicators system for planning. This model then is tested and applied in a case study based on Mexico City's metabolism. Finally, the study provides a series of reflections on how successful strategies to enhance the long-term sustainability of cities can be developed by introducing sustainability indicators into the urban planning process. © 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd.


de la Fuente Marcos C.,Complutense University of Madrid | de la Fuente Marcos R.,Complutense University of Madrid
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society: Letters | Year: 2012

In the Solar system, quasi-satellites move in a 1:1 mean motion resonance going around their host body like a retrograde satellite but their mutual separation is well beyond the Hill radius and the trajectory is not closed as they orbit the Sun, not the host body. Although they share the semi-major axis and the mean longitude of their host body, their eccentricity and inclination may be very different. So far, minor bodies temporarily trapped in the quasi- satellite dynamical state have been identified around Venus, the Earth, the dwarf planet (1) Ceres, the large asteroid (4) Vesta, Jupiter and Saturn. Using computer simulations, Tiscareno & Malhotra have predicted the existence of a small but significant population of minor bodies moving in a 1:1 mean motion resonance with Pluto. Here we show using N-body calculations that the plutino (15810) 1994 JR 1 is currently an accidental quasi-satellite of Pluto and it will remain as such for nearly 350 000 years. By accidental we mean that the quasi-satellite phase is triggered (or terminated) not by a direct gravitational influence in the form of a discrete close encounter, but as a result of a resonance. The relative mean longitude of the plutino (15810) 1994 JR 1 circulates with a superimposed libration resulting from the oscillation of the orbital period induced by the 2:3 mean motion resonance with Neptune. These quasi-satellite episodes are recurrent with a periodicity of nearly 2 Myr. This makes the plutino (15810) 1994 JR 1 the first minor body moving in a 1:1 mean motion resonance with Pluto and the first quasi-satellite found in the trans-Neptunian region. It also makes Pluto the second dwarf planet, besides Ceres, to host a quasi-satellite. Our finding confirms that the quasi-satellite resonant phase is not restricted to small bodies orbiting major planets but is possible for dwarf planets/asteroids too. Moreover, the plutino (15810) 1994 JR 1 could be considered as a possible secondary target for NASA's Pluto-Kuiper Belt Mission New Horizons after the main Pluto flyby in 2015. This opens the possibility of studying at first hand and for the first time a minor body in the quasi-satellite dynamical state. © 2012 The Authors. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society © 2012 RAS.


Martin H. J.A.,Complutense University of Madrid
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Many practical problems in almost all scientific and technological disciplines have been classified as computationally hard (NP-hard or even NP-complete). In life sciences, combinatorial optimization problems frequently arise in molecular biology, e.g., genome sequencing; global alignment of multiple genomes; identifying siblings or discovery of dysregulated pathways. In almost all of these problems, there is the need for proving a hypothesis about certain property of an object that can be present if and only if it adopts some particular admissible structure (an NP-certificate) or be absent (no admissible structure), however, none of the standard approaches can discard the hypothesis when no solution can be found, since none can provide a proof that there is no admissible structure. This article presents an algorithm that introduces a novel type of solution method to "efficiently" solve the graph 3-coloring problem; an NP-complete problem. The proposed method provides certificates (proofs) in both cases: present or absent, so it is possible to accept or reject the hypothesis on the basis of a rigorous proof. It provides exact solutions and is polynomial-time (i.e., efficient) however parametric. The only requirement is sufficient computational power, which is controlled by the parameter α ε ℕ. Nevertheless, here it is proved that the probability of requiring a value of α>k to obtain a solution for a random graph decreases exponentially: P(α>k)≤2-(k+1), making tractable almost all problem instances. Thorough experimental analyses were performed. The algorithm was tested on random graphs, planar graphs and 4-regular planar graphs. The obtained experimental results are in accordance with the theoretical expected results. © 2013 José Antonio Martín H.


Vaveliuk P.,São Paulo State Technological College | Martinez-Matos O.,Complutense University of Madrid
Optics Express | Year: 2011

The limits of the paraxial approximation for a laser beam under ABCD transformations is established through the relationship between a parameter concerning the beam paraxiality, the paraxial estimator, and the beam second-order moments. The applicability of such an estimator is extended to an optical system composed by optical elements as mirrors and lenses and sections of free space, what completes the analysis early performed for free-space propagation solely. As an example, the paraxiality of a system composed by free space and a spherical thin lens under the propagation of Hermite-Gauss and Laguerre-Gauss modes is established. The results show that the the paraxial approximation fails for a certain feasible range of values of main parameters. In this sense, the paraxial estimator is an useful tool to monitor the limits of the paraxial optics theory under ABCD transformations. © 2011 Optical Society of America.


Ruiz-Labourdette D.,Complutense University of Madrid | Schmitz M.F.,Complutense University of Madrid | Pineda F.D.,Complutense University of Madrid
Ecological Indicators | Year: 2013

Since the last glacial-interglacial cycles, Mediterranean mountains in Southern Europe have constituted the southern refuge of numerous species of Eurosiberian and Boreal origin. Some vestiges of European Tertiary flora have also remained in this area. These mountains present one of the continent's highest plant diversity indices deriving from their geographic and historical circumstances throughout the Quaternary. Throughout this century, a change in the biogeographic characteristics of these mountains is to be expected as a result of climate change. Based on four Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) scenarios, we developed a multivariate analysis model for mountain ranges in Central Spain (Southern Europe), enabling us to adjust data on vegetation, climate, lithology and availability of soil water. With high-resolution data on species occurrences and abiotic characteristics for better accounting of micro-refugia and topographic complexity in mountain regions, we assess the future potential distribution of tree species and changes in plant communities under climate change. Our model provides the climate descriptors that most influence changes in species distribution and which lead us to consider the parameters of these changes as indicators for management. We project for this century a significant spread of Mediterranean tree communities in detriment to temperate or cold-adapted tree communities. In mountain forests in northern Europe, limitations on plant growth are mainly thermic, and the boreal and subalpine species in high- and mid-mountain regions are therefore the ones most threatened by the predicted global warming. To the contrary, our results show that in mountains in southern Europe, the formations that will undergo the greatest changes will be at piedmonts and low-mountain levels, due to increased hydric deficit. These results suggest that nature conservation strategies currently call for new approaches that take into account the fact that climate change is a driving force of species distribution. The results can be used at the landscape scale for management of forest species and for the design of protected areas. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Gomez-Campelo P.,Hospital Carlos III | Bragado-Alvarez C.,Complutense University of Madrid | Hernandez-Lloreda M.J.,Complutense University of Madrid
Psycho-Oncology | Year: 2014

Objectives The objective of this study is to compare psychological distress (body image disturbance, self-esteem, depression, and anxiety) in women with breast or gynecological cancer treated by radical surgery. Additionally, another objective is to analyze the association between psychological distress and sociodemographic characteristics, medical history, and social support to produce a prediction model for the outcome measures. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out with 100 women who had undergone radical surgery for breast or gynecological cancer. Both groups were divided into the following: younger than 50 years old and 50 years old or older. Body Image Scale, Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, and Beck Anxiety Inventory were used. Results Age had a significant main effect on psychological distress but the type of cancer did not. Younger women showed significantly greater distress than older women (p-values < 0.001). A significant interaction between age and type of cancer was found, indicating that older women with breast cancer had worse body image and more depression than those with gynecological cancer (p-values < 0.001); no significant differences were found between younger groups. The prediction model for increased body image disturbance and depression included the joint effect of the following variables: being younger, inactive occupational status, and post-adjuvant therapy side effects. For lower self-esteem, the variables were: being younger, post-adjuvant therapy side effects, and dissatisfaction with social support. And for higher anxiety, the sole variable included was post-adjuvant therapy side effects. Conclusions Both mastectomy and hysterectomy/oophorectomy cause similar psychological distress in younger women, but mastectomy causes greater distress in older women than hysterectomy/oophorectomy. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Fernandez I.,Complutense University of Madrid | Cossio F.P.,University of the Basque Country
Current Organic Chemistry | Year: 2010

In this article, recent computational studies focused on double group transfer reactions and related processes are summarized. The reported results clearly indicate that these transformations can be considered as a subclass of pericyclic reactions occurring concertedly, with high activation barriers and synchronicity values, and through highly symmetric transition states. Interestingly, the aromatic nature of the latter saddle points has been also studied and discussed showing that they can be viewed as the in-plane analogues of sixmembered hetero-aromatic rings. Finally, the application of the so-called "Strain Model" on these important processes has demonstrated that the strain (the energy required to deform the reactants to the geometry they present in the corresponding transition state) is the major factor controlling the high barrier heights in spite of the stabilizing contribution of the aromaticity. © 2010 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd.


Ausin M.C.,Complutense University of Madrid | Lopes H.F.,University of Chicago
Computational Statistics and Data Analysis | Year: 2010

The analysis of temporal dependence in multivariate time series is considered. The dependence structure between the marginal series is modelled through the use of copulas which, unlike the correlation matrix, give a complete description of the joint distribution. The parameters of the copula function vary through time, following certain evolution equations depending on their previous values and the historical data. The marginal time series follow standard univariate GARCH models. Full Bayesian inference is developed where the whole set of model parameters is estimated simultaneously. This represents an essential difference from previous approaches in the literature where the marginal and the copula parameters are estimated separately in two consecutive steps. Moreover, a Bayesian procedure is proposed for the estimation of several measures of risk, such as the variance, Value-at-Risk (VaR) and Conditional Value-at-Risk (CVaR) of a portfolio of assets, providing point estimates and predictive intervals. The proposed copula model enables to capture the dependence structure between the individual assets which strongly influences these risk measures. Finally, the problem of optimal portfolio selection based on the estimation of meanvariance, meanVaR and meanCVaR efficient frontiers is also addressed. The proposed approach is illustrated with simulated and real financial time series. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Aranaz I.,Complutense University of Madrid | Harris R.,Complutense University of Madrid | Heras A.,Complutense University of Madrid
Current Organic Chemistry | Year: 2010

Chitosan is a natural polymer composed of randomly distributed β-(1-4)-linked D-glucosamine (deacetylated unit) and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (acetylated unit). It has been described as a non-toxic, biodegradable and biocompatible polymer with very interesting biological properties, such as permeation-enhancing and mucoadhesive properties, anticoagulant and antimicrobial activity and so on. Chitosan has been used in several areas such as biomedical, pharmaceutical and biotechnological fields as well as in the food industry. Recently, there has been a growing interest in the modification of chitosan to improve its solubility in physiological conditions, to introduce new applications or to improve chitosan biological properties. Research and development on a variety of amphiphilic copolymers containing hydrophobic and hydrophilic segments, have been very active due to their spontaneous self-assembly behaviour in aqueous media These smart transitions often lead to diverse functional compartment structures like micelles, vesicles and gels, which represent promising applications in the field of biotechnology and pharmaceutics. The aim of the present paper is to review the latest advances in the synthesis of chitosan amphiphilic derivatives with a special emphasis in their applications. © 2010 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd.


Abrams D.I.,San Francisco General Hospital | Guzman M.,Complutense University of Madrid
Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics | Year: 2015

Cannabis has been used in medicine for thousands of years prior to achieving its current illicit substance status. Cannabinoids, the active components of Cannabis sativa, mimic the effects of the endogenous cannabinoids (endocannabinoids), activating specific cannabinoid receptors, particularly CB1 found predominantly in the central nervous system and CB2 found predominantly in cells involved with immune function. Delta- 9- tetrahydrocannabinol, the main bioactive cannabinoid in the plant, has been available as a prescription medication approved for treatment of cancer chemotherapy- induced nausea and vomiting and anorexia associated with the AIDS wasting syndrome. Cannabinoids may be of benefit in the treatment of cancer- related pain, possibly synergistic with opioid analgesics. Cannabinoids have been shown to be of benefit in the treatment of HIV- related peripheral neuropathy, suggesting that they may be worthy of study in patients with other neuropathic symptoms. Cannabinoids have a favorable drug safety profile, but their medical use is predominantly limited by their psychoactive effects and their limited bioavailability. © 2015 American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.


Background: Patients with acne vulgaris often have impaired quality of life (QOL). The fixed-dose combination of benzoyl peroxide 5%/clindamycin 1% gel (BPO/C) topical gel provides an earlier onset of action and is more effective against inflammatory and total facial lesions than adapalene (AP) 0.1% gel. Objective: To compare BPO/C and AP with regard to the early effect on QOL, efficacy, and tolerability in patients with mild to moderate acne vulgaris. Methods: Patients were randomized to BPO/C or AP once nightly for 12 weeks in a multicentre, single-blind trial. The primary efficacy endpoint was QOL at week 2, assessed using the Skindex-29 questionnaire. Secondary endpoints included grading and counting of acne lesions; investigator assessments of peeling, erythema, and dryness, and patient-reported burning or itching. Adverse events were monitored during the study and during the 14-day minimum follow-up period. Results: A total of 168 patients were enrolled, and 114 patients completed the study. In the intent-to-treat population, after 2 weeks of treatment, BPO/C was associated with a small but noticeably better improvement in global QOL compared with AP (-4.9 versus -1.1; P<0.001). A greater reduction in both total and inflammatory lesions was noted from week 1 onward (P<0.05) with BPO/C versus AP. At all time points, BPO/C was better tolerated than AP for all investigator-rated (dryness, peeling, erythema) and patient-rated (burning, itching) events (P<0.036). Conclusions: BPO/C is associated with early improvements in QOL compared with AP. These QOL improvements are likely to be the result of better efficacy and tolerability outcomes observed with BPO/C. Copyright © 2012 Journal of Drugs in Dermatology.


Alcaide B.,Complutense University of Madrid | Almendros P.,Institute Quimica Organica General | Quiros M.T.,Complutense University of Madrid
Advanced Synthesis and Catalysis | Year: 2011

2-Azetidinone-tethered alkynols and allen-Gols, readily prepared from a propanylidene β-lactam aldehyde, were used as starting materials for divergent ring expansion reactions catalyzed by iron(III) chloride. Worthy of note, in contrast to the iron-catalyzed reactions of β-lactam allenols which lead to γ-lactones, the reaction of β-lactam alkynols under identical conditions gives pyrroles. The gold-catalyzed 6-endo aminocyclization of these allenic γ-lactones formed fused dihydropyridines. The iron-catalyzed formation of pyrroles may proceed through a Meyer-Schuster rearrangement followed by β-lactam ring opening and cyclization by attack of the amino group to the ketone. © 2011 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.


Yanez-Sedeno P.,Complutense University of Madrid | Pingarron J.M.,Complutense University of Madrid | Riu J.,Rovira i Virgili University | Rius F.X.,Rovira i Virgili University
TrAC - Trends in Analytical Chemistry | Year: 2010

The singular chemical structure and the size of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) provide their extraordinary properties. Many researchers have used the electronic characteristics of CNTs to develop electrochemical analytical methods and sensing devices with improved characteristics. In this overview, we discuss the most significant innovations in electrochemical sensing based on CNTs, as reported in the past five years. We highlight the advantages of this type of nanostructured material and the main performance parameters achieved. We also discuss several problems that hinder the widespread use of these devices in practical applications and describe some possible future trends. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Martin-Hernandez F.,Complutense University of Madrid | Hirt A.M.,ETH Zurich
Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems | Year: 2013

Lowerature magnetization of hematite within the basal plane has been studied in a collection of natural crystals by means of torque magnetometry. Comparison between the torque curves at room temperature and at 77 K allows identification of a weak ferromagnetic moment constrained within the basal plane at temperatures well below the Morin transition. Annealing the samples produces the expected reduction of the weak ferromagnetic moment, but there is also a relationship between the ferromagnetic moment before and after annealing. Lowerature measurements after the annealing experiment reveal the presence of a weak ferromagnetic moment that survives the annealing. This observation suggests the magnetic structure of natural hematite crystals below the Morin transition can still be a carrier of magnetization. Key Points A weak ferromagnetic (WFM) moment is detected below the Morin transition The WFM lies within the basal plane Natural Hematite is not a pure AF below TM ©2013. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.


Vano E.,Complutense University of Madrid
Radiation Protection Dosimetry | Year: 2015

The purpose of this chapter is to describe work achieved recently by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and especially by Committee 3 (Protection in Medicine) and its use for standards. In March 1960, the Board of Governors of the International Atomic Energy Agency approved the Agency's 'Health and Safety Measures', stating that the Agency's 'Basic Safety Standards' (BSS) would be based, to the extent possible, on the recommendations of the ICRP. In a similar way, the Council of the European Union took into account the new recommendations of the ICRP when adopting the new Directive 2013/59/EURATOM that laid down BSS for protection against the dangers arising from exposure to ionising radiation. The new limit for the lens of the eyes for occupational exposures has been incorporated into these international standards and several articles dealing with medical exposures: justification, optimisation, recording patient doses, the use of diagnostic reference levels, training, accidental and unintended exposures, etc. have also been included in agreement with the ICRP recommendations. © The Author 2015.


Vano E.,Complutense University of Madrid
Radiation Protection Dosimetry | Year: 2015

Occupational radiological protection (RP) is still a challenge in several clinical practices. ICRP has included specific recommendations and advice for occupational protection in most of the documents published in recent years and its current programme of work includes the preparation of documents with specific contents on Occupational Protection. Different professional groups and different medical specialists need dedicated training, supervision and advice to optimise their practices. Many medical specialties outside the imaging departments are still using fluoroscopically guided procedures in surgical theatres without the appropriate RP tools. In addition to the stochastic radiation risks, the new thresholds for tissue reactions proposed by ICRP, and especially the ones for the lens of the eyes and the cerebrovascular system, are a matter of concern for some groups of health workers. More support from medical physics and radiation protection experts regarding occupational issues in the medical field will be needed in the coming years. © The Author 2014.


Finkel F.,Complutense University of Madrid | Gonzalez-Lopez A.,Complutense University of Madrid
Annals of Physics | Year: 2015

We study a wide class of finite-dimensional su. (. m|. n)-supersymmetric models closely related to the representations of the Yangian Y(gl. (. m|. n)) labeled by border strips. We quantitatively analyze the degree of degeneracy of these models arising from their Yangian invariance, measured by the average degeneracy of the spectrum. We compute in closed form the minimum average degeneracy of any such model, and show that in the non-supersymmetric case it can be expressed in terms of generalized Fibonacci numbers. Using several properties of these numbers, we show that (except in the simpler su. (1|1) case) the minimum average degeneracy grows exponentially with the number of spins. We apply our results to several well-known spin chains of Haldane-Shastry type, quantitatively showing that their degree of degeneracy is much higher than expected for a generic Yangian-invariant spin model. Finally, we show that the set of distinct levels of a Yangian-invariant spin model is described by an effective model of quasi-particles. We study this effective model, discussing its connections to one-dimensional anyons and properties of generalized Fibonacci numbers. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.


Rivas A.,Complutense University of Madrid | Muller M.,Complutense University of Madrid
New Journal of Physics | Year: 2015

Understanding the role of correlations in quantum systems is both a fundamental challenge as well as of high practical relevance for the control of multi-particle quantum systems. Whereas a lot of research has been devoted to study the various types of correlations that can be present in the states of quantum systems, in this work we introduce a general and rigorous method to quantify the amount of correlations in the dynamics of quantum systems. Using a resource-theoretical approach, we introduce a suitable quantifier and characterize the properties of correlated dynamics. Furthermore, we benchmark our method by applying it to the paradigmatic case of two atoms weakly coupled to the electromagnetic radiation field, and illustrate its potential use to detect and assess spatial noise correlations in quantum computing architectures. © 2015 IOP Publishing Ltd and Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft.


Luis A.,Complutense University of Madrid | Sanz T.S.,Institute Fisica Fundamental IFF CSIC
Annals of Physics | Year: 2015

Weak-measurement-based experiments (Kocsis etal., 2011) have shown that, at least for pure states, the average evolution of independent photons in Young's two-slit experiment is in compliance with the trajectories prescribed by the Bohmian formulation of quantum mechanics. But, what happens if the same experiment is repeated assuming that the wave function associated with each particle is different, i.e., in the case of mixed (incoherent) states? This question is investigated here by means of two alternative numerical simulations of Young's experiment, purposely devised to be easily implemented and tested in the laboratory. Contrary to what could be expected a priori, it is found that even for conditions of maximal mixedness or incoherence (total lack of interference fringes), experimental data will render a puzzling and challenging outcome: the average particle trajectories will still display features analogous to those for pure states, i.e., independently of how mixedness arises, the associated dynamics is influenced by both slits at the same time. Physically this simply means that weak measurements are not able to discriminate how mixedness arises in the experiment, since they only provide information about the averaged system dynamics. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.


Boto G.R.,Complutense University of Madrid
Neurocirugia | Year: 2010

Trigeminal neuralgia continues to be an illness poorly known for many general practitioners and what is even worse, badly handled by many of the specialists in charge of cephalic neuralgias. In this paper I resume the main knowledge about trigeminal neuralgia reviewing the clinical, physiopathological, and therapeutical aspects of this condition.


Liras A.,Complutense University of Madrid
Journal of Translational Medicine | Year: 2010

There is much to be investigated about the specific characteristics of stem cells and about the efficacy and safety of the new drugs based on this type of cells, both embryonic as adult stem cells, for several therapeutic indications (cardiovascular and ischemic diseases, diabetes, hematopoietic diseases, liver diseases). Along with recent progress in transference of nuclei from human somatic cells, as well as iPSC technology, has allowed availability of lineages of all three germ layers genetically identical to those of the donor patient, which permits safe transplantation of organ-tissue-specific adult stem cells with no immune rejection. The main objective is the need for expansion of stem cell characteristics to maximize stem cell efficacy (i.e. the proper selection of a stem cell) and the efficacy (maximum effect) and safety of stem cell derived drugs. Other considerations to take into account in cell therapy will be the suitability of infrastructure and technical staff, biomaterials, production costs, biobanks, biosecurity, and the biotechnological industry. The general objectives in the area of stem cell research in the next few years, are related to identification of therapeutic targets and potential therapeutic tests, studies of cell differentiation and physiological mechanisms, culture conditions of pluripotent stem cells and efficacy and safety tests for stem cell-based drugs or procedures to be performed in both animal and human models in the corresponding clinical trials. A regulatory framework will be required to ensure patient accessibility to products and governmental assistance for their regulation and control. Bioethical aspects will be required related to the scientific and therapeutic relevance and cost of cryopreservation over time, but specially with respect to embryos which may ultimately be used for scientific uses of research as source of embryonic stem cells, in which case the bioethical conflict may be further aggravated. © 2010 Liras; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Perez-Vizcaino F.,Complutense University of Madrid | Duarte J.,University of Granada
Molecular Aspects of Medicine | Year: 2010

Flavonols, and specially quercetin, are widely distributed in plants and are present in considerable amounts in fruits and vegetables. In addition to their anti-oxidant effect, flavonols interfere with a large number of biochemical signaling pathways and, therefore, physiological and pathological processes. There is solid evidence that, in vitro, quercetin and related flavonols exert endothelium-independent vasodilator effects, protective effect on nitric oxide and endothelial function under conditions of oxidative stress, platelet antiaggregant effects, inhibition of LDL oxidation, reduction of adhesion molecules and other inflammatory markers and prevention of neuronal oxidative and inflammatory damage. The metabolites of quercetin show partial protective effects on endothelial function and LDL oxidation. Quercetin produces undisputed antihypertensive and antiatherogenic effects, prevents endothelial dysfunction and protects the myocardium from ischemic damage. It has no clear effects on serum lipid profile and on insulin resistance. Human intervention trials with isolated flavonols demonstrate an antihypertensive effect. The meta-analysis of epidemiological studies show an inverse association between flavonol (together with flavone) intake and coronary heart disease and stroke. Therefore, although there is no solid proof yet, a substantial body of evidence suggests that quercetin may prevent the most common forms of cardiovascular disease contributing to the protective effects afforded by fruits and vegetables. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Martinez-Frias M.L.,Institute of Health Carlos III ISCIII | Martinez-Frias M.L.,CIBER ISCIII | Martinez-Frias M.L.,Complutense University of Madrid
Journal of Medical Genetics | Year: 2010

Having identified teratogenic factors, primary prevention of congenital defects is possible by the implementation of specific measures in pregnant women or those planning pregnancy. Our current understanding of the epigenetic processes acting during reproductive events raises new possibilities to prevent both heritable and sporadic congenital anomalies. Cell differentiation during embryonice - fetal development involves different epigenetic processes which, if altered, may affect either somatic or germ cells. Epigenetic alterations can occur in somatic cells at different stages of life, from fecundation to adulthood, and when germ cells are affected, such changes can even be passed on to future generations. This review summarises the main epigenetic processes that influence gene expression and cell specification at different stages of development. The experimental and epidemiological evidence of environmental agents that cause epigenetic alterations is evaluated, as well as their effects in males and females. As a result, new avenues for primary prevention are proposed.


Perez-Gil J.,Complutense University of Madrid | Weaver T.E.,University of Cincinnati
Physiology | Year: 2010

Pulmonary surfactant is an essential lipid-protein complex that stabilizes the respiratory units (alveoli) involved in gas exchange. Quantitative or qualitative derangements in surfactant are associated with severe respiratory pathologies. The integrated regulation of surfactant synthesis, secretion, and metabolism is critical for air breathing and, ultimately, survival. The goal of this review is to summarize our current understanding and highlight important knowledge gaps in surfactant homeostatic mechanisms. © 2010 Int. Union Physiol. Sci./Am. Physiol. Soc.


Campoamor-Stursberg R.,Complutense University of Madrid
Acta Mechanica | Year: 2016

Systems of second-order ordinary differential equations admitting a Lagrangian formulation are perturbed requiring that the extended Lagrangian preserves a fixed subalgebra of Noether symmetries of the original system. For the simple Lie algebra (Formula presented.), this provides nonlinear systems with two independent constants of the motion quadratic in the velocities. Pinney-type equations are characterized as the most general (Formula presented.)-preserving perturbation of the time-dependent (damped) harmonic oscillator. The procedure is generalized naturally to higher dimensions. In particular, it is shown that any perturbation of the time-dependent harmonic oscillator in two dimensions that preserves an (Formula presented.) subalgebra of Noether symmetries is equivalent to a generalized Ermakov–Ray–Reid system that satisfies the Helmholtz conditions of the Inverse Problem of Lagrangian Mechanics. Application of the method to determine perturbations of the free Lagrangian in (Formula presented.) is illustrated for the canonical chain of subalgebras of the Lie algebra (Formula presented.). © 2016 Springer-Verlag Wien


Cardozo O.D.,Northeast National University | Garcia-Palomares J.C.,Complutense University of Madrid | Gutierrez J.,Complutense University of Madrid
Applied Geography | Year: 2012

In recent years, station-level ridership forecasting models have been developed based on Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and multiple regression analysis. These models estimate the number of passengers boarding at each station as a function of the station characteristics and the areas that they serve. These models have considerable advantages over the traditional four-step model, including simplicity of use, easy interpretation of results, immediate response and low cost. Nevertheless, the models usually use traditional ordinary least squares (OLS) multiple regression, which assume parametric stability. This study proposes a direct model that uses geographically weighted regression (GWR) to forecast boarding at the Madrid Metro stations. Here, the results obtained using the OLS and GWR models are compared. The GWR model results in a better fit than the traditional one. In addition, the information supplied by the GWR model regarding the spatial variation of elasticities and their statistical significance provides more realistic and useful results. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Segura J.,Complutense University of Madrid | Lopez-Bote C.J.,Complutense University of Madrid
Food Chemistry | Year: 2014

A new procedure to extract intramuscular fat (IMF) was developed to minimize sample amount, solvent use and time of analysis. Lyophilised samples (200 mg) were accurately weighed in a safe-lock micro test tube, homogenized in 1.5 mL dichloromethane-methanol (8:2) and mixed in a mixer mill (MM400, Retsch technology). The final biphasic system was separated by centrifugation (8 min, 10,000 rpm). The extraction was repeated three times. Solvent was evaporated under nitrogen stream and lipid content was gravimetrically determined. Results from 64 determinations were compared to those obtained with other referred method and showed a linear response over the whole range of IMF content (1.6-6.9 g/100 g sample). Moreover, the analysis with different methodology of six replica from the same sample showed lowest variability (standard deviation intra-method) for the new methodology proposed over a wide range of IMF content. A cost and time efficient lipid extraction procedure was developed without loss of precision and accuracy and with a fatty acid profile comparable to other protocols. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Summary. In recent years progress has been made in the development of pharmaceuticals based on the plant Cannabis sativa or on synthetic molecules with a similar action. Some of these pharmaceuticals, such as the mouth spray Sativex ®, have recently been approved for the treatment of spasticity in multiple sclerosis, but they are not the first and others, such as Marinol ® or Cesamet ® for the treatment of vomiting and nausea, and anorexia-cachexia syndrome, had already been approved. This incipient clinical use of cannabinoid drugs confirms something that was already known from fairly ancient times up to practically the last century, which is the potential use of this plant for medicinal applications - something which was brought to a standstill by the abusive use of preparations of the plant for recreational purposes. In any case, this incipient clinical use of cannabinoid drugs is not backed just by the anecdote of the medicinal use of cannabis since ancient times, but instead the boost it has been given by scientific research, which has made it possible to identify the target molecules that are activated or inhibited by these substances. These targets are part of a new system of intercellular communication that is especially active in the central nervous system, which is called the 'endogenous cannabinoid system' and, like many other systems, can be manipulated pharmacologically. The aim of this review is to probe further into the scientific knowledge about this system generated in the last few years, as a necessary step to justify the development of pharmaceuticals based on its activation or inhibition and which can be useful in different neurological diseases.


Munoz-Espin D.,Tumor Suppression Group | Canamero M.,Histopathology Unit | Maraver A.,Tumor Suppression Group | Gomez-Lopez G.,Bioinformatics Unit | And 12 more authors.
Cell | Year: 2013

Cellular senescence disables proliferation in damaged cells, and it is relevant for cancer and aging. Here, we show that senescence occurs during mammalian embryonic development at multiple locations, including the mesonephros and the endolymphatic sac of the inner ear, which we have analyzed in detail. Mechanistically, senescence in both structures is strictly dependent on p21, but independent of DNA damage, p53, or other cell-cycle inhibitors, and it is regulated by the TGF-β/SMAD and PI3K/FOXO pathways. Developmentally programmed senescence is followed by macrophage infiltration, clearance of senescent cells, and tissue remodeling. Loss of senescence due to the absence of p21 is partially compensated by apoptosis but still results in detectable developmental abnormalities. Importantly, the mesonephros and endolymphatic sac of human embryos also show evidence of senescence. We conclude that the role of developmentally programmed senescence is to promote tissue remodeling and propose that this is the evolutionary origin of damage-induced senescence. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.


Martin-Villa J.M.,Complutense University of Madrid
Current Pharmaceutical Design | Year: 2014

Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are the major inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) in humans. With the incidence of increasing world-wide, it currently affects 4 million people in Europe and in the USA. It is an idiopathic, chronic relapsing intestinal disorder of complex pathogenesis. The etiology of both diseases remains unknown, but recent data suggest that they appear in genetically predisposed individuals, because of an exaggerated mucosal immune response to commensal microbiota present in the gut. There is increasing evidence for an alteration of the immune regulation mechanisms in patients, with mucosal T lymphocytes playing a crucial role in the pathogenic events leading to tissue damage. It is clear that the disease is the result of environmental factors acting on genetically predisposed individuals. In humans, psychological trauma, stress or depression, have been involved as precipitating or relapsing factors of the disease, although this link remains elusive. However, several published works using colitis animal models subjected to stress conditions, have given consistent proof as to the molecular link between emotional stress, increase in epithelial permeability, alteration of the gut microflora composition and activation of pre-sensitized T lymphocytes. Gaining knowledge of the cross talk between components of the brain - gut - immune system axis may be fruitful in the design of future therapeutic approaches, such as the use of vasointestinal peptide (VIP) in this pathology. © 2014 Bentham Science Publishers.


Bartolome J.,Complutense University of Madrid | Cremades A.,Complutense University of Madrid | Piqueras J.,Complutense University of Madrid
Journal of Materials Chemistry C | Year: 2013

Indium oxide microcrystals with shapes of truncated cubes and pyramids as well as microrods with square, triangular or hexagonal cross-sections are grown by a catalyst free evaporation deposition method. Size and shape control of the crystals as a function of the treatment parameters is discussed. Their luminescence properties are investigated and some features in the cathodoluminescence images are suggested to be related to the possible formation of a core dislocation. The waveguiding behaviour of the rods as well as whispering gallery resonances with improved Q-factor are demonstrated for hexagonal and square cross-section rods. The effect of tapering of the rods on the resonance wavelength is also studied and fitted to a theoretical model. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Blanco N.,Complutense University of Madrid | Reidy M.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Arroyo J.,Complutense University of Madrid | Cabib E.,U.S. National Institutes of Health
Journal of Cell Science | Year: 2012

Previous work has shown that, in cla4δ cells of budding yeast, where septin ring organization is compromised, the chitin ring at the mother-daughter neck becomes essential for prevention of neck widening and for cytokinesis. Here, we show that it is not the chitin ring per se, but its linkage to β(1-3)glucan that is required for control of neck growth. When in a cla4δ background, crh1δ crh2δ mutants, in which the chitin ring is not connected to β(1-3)glucan, grew very slowly and showed wide and growing necks, elongated buds and swollen cells with large vacuoles. A similar behavior was elicited by inhibition of the Crh proteins. This aberrant morphology matched that of cla4δ chs3δ cells, which have no chitin at the neck. Thus, this is a clear case in which a specific chemical bond between two substances, chitin and glucan, is essential for the control of morphogenesis. This defines a new paradigm, in which chemistry regulates growth.


Vila M.,Complutense University of Madrid | Diaz-Guerra C.,Complutense University of Madrid | Piqueras J.,Complutense University of Madrid
Applied Physics Letters | Year: 2012

The α-Bi 2O 3 to δ-Bi 2O 3 phase transformation has been locally induced by laser irradiation in ceramic samples and single-crystal nanowires of this oxide. The threshold power densities necessary to induce this transformation, as well as the corresponding transformation kinetics and its temporal stability, have been investigated in both kinds of samples by micro-Raman spectroscopy. The appearance of the δ phase was also monitored by spatially resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy. An emission band peaked near 1.67 eV, not observed in α-Bi 2O 3, is tentatively attributed to δ-Bi 2O 3 near band gap transitions. © 2012 American Institute of Physics.


Cuadrado A.,Complutense University of Madrid | Briones E.,Autonomous University of San Luis Potosi | Gonzalez F.J.,Autonomous University of San Luis Potosi | Alda J.,Complutense University of Madrid
Optics Express | Year: 2014

Optical nanoantennas made of two metals are proposed to produce a Seebeck voltage proportional to the Stokes parameters of a light beam. The analysis is made using simulations in the electromagnetic and thermal domains. Each Stokes parameter is independently obtained from a dedicated nanoantenna configuration. S1 and S2 rely on the combination of two orthogonal dipoles. S3 is given by arranging two Archimedian spirals with opposite orientations. The analysis also includes an evaluation of the error associated with the Seebeck voltage, and the crosstalk between Stokes parameters. The results could lead to the conception of polarization sensors having a receiving area smaller than 10λ2. We illustrate these findings with a design of a polarimetric pixel. © 2014 Optical Society of America.


Garcia-Perez M.A.,Complutense University of Madrid | Alcala-Quintana R.,Complutense University of Madrid
Attention, Perception, and Psychophysics | Year: 2015

Perception of simultaneity and temporal order is studied with simultaneity judgment (SJ) and temporal-order judgment (TOJ) tasks. In the former, observers report whether presentation of two stimuli was subjectively simultaneous; in the latter, they report which stimulus was subjectively presented first. SJ and TOJ tasks typically give discrepant results, which has prompted the view that performance is mediated by different processes in each task. We looked at these discrepancies from a model that yields psychometric functions whose parameters characterize the timing, decisional, and response processes involved in SJ and TOJ tasks. We analyzed 12 data sets from published studies in which both tasks had been used in within-subjects designs, all of which had reported differences in performance across tasks. Fitting the model jointly to data from both tasks, we tested the hypothesis that common timing processes sustain simultaneity and temporal-order judgments, with differences in performance arising from task-dependent decisional and response processes. The results supported this hypothesis, also showing that model psychometric functions account for aspects of SJ and TOJ data that classical analyses overlook. Implications for research on perception of simultaneity and temporal order are discussed. © 2015, The Psychonomic Society, Inc.


Gonzalez-Miquel M.,Complutense University of Madrid | Palomar J.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Rodriguez F.,Complutense University of Madrid
Journal of Physical Chemistry B | Year: 2013

A systematic thermodynamic analysis has been carried out for selecting cations and anions to enhance the absorption of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at low concentration in gaseous streams by ionic liquids (ILs), using COSMO-RS methodology. The predictability of computational procedure was validated by comparing experimental and COSMO-RS calculated Henry's law constant data over a sample of 125 gaseous solute-IL systems. For more than 2400 solute-IL mixtures evaluated, including 9 solutes and 270 ILs, it was found that the lower the activity coefficient at infinite dilution (γ ∞) of solutes in the ILs, the more the exothermic excess enthalpy (HE) of the equimolar IL-solute mixtures. Then, the solubility of a representative sample of VOC solutes, with very different chemical nature, was screened in a wide number of ILs using COSMO-RS methodology by means of γ∞ and HE parameters, establishing criteria to select the IL structures that promote favorable solute-solvent intermolecular interactions. As a result of this analysis, an attempt of classification of VOCs respect to their potential solubility in ILs was proposed, providing insights to rationally select the cationic and anionic species for a possible development of absorption treatments of VOC pollutants based on IL systems. © 2012 American Chemical Society.


Pamplona R.,University of Lleida | Barja G.,Complutense University of Madrid
Biogerontology | Year: 2011

Key mechanisms relating oxidative stress to longevity from an interespecies comparative approach are reviewed. Long-lived animal species show low rates of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and oxidative damage at their mitochondria. Comparative physiology also shows that the specific compositional pattern of tissue macromolecules (proteins, lipids and nucleic acids) in long-lived animal species gives them an intrinsically high resistance to modification that likely contributes to their superior longevity. This is obtained in the case of lipids by decreasing the degree of fatty acid unsaturation, and in the case of proteins by lowering their methionine content. These findings are also substantiated from a phylogenomic approach. Nutritional or/and pharmacological interventions focused to modify some of these molecular traits were translated with modifications in animal longevity. It is proposed that natural selection tends to decrease the mitochondrial ROS generation and to increase the molecular resistance to the oxidative damage in longlived species. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011.


Bombin H.,Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics | Martin-Delgado M.A.,Complutense University of Madrid
New Journal of Physics | Year: 2011

We introduce the concept of nested topological order in a class of exact quantum lattice Hamiltonian models with non-Abelian discrete gauge symmetry. The topological order present in the models can be partially destroyed by introducing a gauge symmetry reduction mechanism. When symmetry is reduced in several islands only, this imposes boundary conditions on the rest of the system, giving rise to topological ground-state degeneracy. This degeneracy is related to the existence of topological fluxes in between islands or, alternatively, hidden charges at islands. Additionally, island deformations give rise to extension of topological quantum computation beyond quasiparticles. © IOP Publishing Ltd and Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft.


Schmidt R.,Complutense University of Madrid | Schmidt R.,University of Sheffield | Sinclair D.C.,Complutense University of Madrid
Chemistry of Materials | Year: 2010

An abnormal increase of dielectric permittivity in Sr-doped CaCu 3Ti4O12 (CCTO) ceramics Ca1-xSr xCu3Ti4O12 (CSCTO) was analyzed. A small amount of single-phase powder was heated at 1000°C for 12 h to obtain the lattice parameter of the sintered pellets. The pellets were covered on both sides with Au electrodes using dc sputtering for dielectric characterization. The impedance spectroscopy (IS) was carried out at 10 and 100 K between 10 Hz and 2 MHz on 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.2 single-phase samples within the solid-solution limit. The capacitance at 1 MHz was determined, converted to relative dielectric permittivity values (εr), which were then corrected for the GB capacitance and εr was corrected for the pellet density of each sample. The tests revealed that Ca substitution by Sr was responsible for an anomalous increase in dielectric permittivity beyond the atomic polarizabilities and unit-cell volume of CSCTO ceramics.


Almodovar A.,Complutense University of Madrid | Nicola G.G.,University of Castilla - La Mancha | Ayllon D.,Complutense University of Madrid | Elvira B.,Complutense University of Madrid
Global Change Biology | Year: 2012

Current climate change exacerbates the environmental restrictions on temperate species inhabiting low latitude edges of their geographical ranges. We examined how temperature variations due to current and future climate change are likely to affect populations' persistence of stream-dwelling brown trout Salmo trutta at the vulnerable southern periphery of its range. Analysis of 33 years of air temperature data (1975-2007) by time-series models indicated a significant upward trend and a pronounced shift in air temperature around 1986-1987. This warming is associated with an ongoing population decline of brown trout, most likely caused by a loss of suitable thermal habitat in lower latitudes since the 1980s. Population decrease may not be attributed to physical habitat modification or angler pressure, as carrying capacity remained stable and populations were not overexploited. We developed regional temperature models, which predicted that unsuitable thermal habitat for brown trout increased by 93% when comparing climate conditions between 1975-1986 and 1993-2004. Predictions from climate envelope models showed that current climate change may be rendering unsuitable 12% of suitable thermal habitat each decade, resulting in an overall population decrease in the lower reaches of around 6% per year. Furthermore, brown trout catches markedly decreased 20% per year. Projections of thermal habitat loss under the ecologically friendly B2 SRES scenario showed that brown trout may lose half of their current suitable habitat within the study area by 2040 and become almost extinct by 2100. In parallel to the upstream movement of brown trout thermal habitat, warm water species are increasing their relative abundance in salmonid waters. Empirical evidence was provided of how current climate change threatens some of the most healthy native brown trout populations in Southern Europe and how forthcoming climate change is expected to further decrease the conservation status of the species. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.


Perez-Gonzalez S.,Complutense University of Madrid | Zaballos J.P.,Complutense University of Madrid
Systematic Entomology | Year: 2013

Four new species of Typhlocharis (Carabidae: Anillini) are described from the southwest of the Iberian Peninsula, assigned to the baetica species group. T. primasp.n., T. secundasp.n. and T. tertiasp.n. (from La Palma del Condado, Huelva, Spain) are syntopic, and T. quartasp.n. (from Barrancos, Beja, Portugal) is the first species of the group with umbilicate series 4 + 4. They represent, respectively, the southernmost and westernmost distribution data for the group. The baetica group remains well defined and includes ten species. The diagnosis is simplified, with the confirmation that many morphological features characteristic of this group are widespread within the genus. The defining character is the presence of denticles in apical margin of elytra, not associated to the seventh stria or to the elytral suture. The new species provide morphological data that suggest the baetica and silvanoides groups are closely related. Distribution of both groups in the south of the Iberian Peninsula and the presence of morphological characters that are considered plesiomorphic are coherent with the hypothesis of betic-riffain origin of the genus. They also support the hypothesis of easy alteration of the umbilicate pattern between closely related species and the independent origin of apical denticles in the group compared with those present in other species of the genus. The presence of three well-differentiated size ranges in syntopic populations suggest ecological diversification to avoid interspecific competition. © 2013 The Royal Entomological Society.


Jimenez-Colmenero F.,CSIC - Institute of Refrigeration | Sanchez-Muniz F.J.,Complutense University of Madrid | Olmedilla-Alonso B.,CSIC - Institute of Refrigeration
Food Chemistry | Year: 2010

With growing understanding of the relationship between diet and health has come the emergence of so-called functional foods. The idea of using food for health purposes and not merely as a source of nutrients opens up a whole new field in the meat industry. In addition to traditional presentations, there a number of ways in which the meat sector can modify the qualitative and quantitative composition of meat and meat product components and produce designer foods with specific properties. This entails addressing quality factors associated with different product properties (sensory and technological properties, hygiene, convenience, stability, etc.), nutritional value (balanced composition and bioactive substances) and their effects on physiological function and health. This article reviews a comprehensive model for the development of meat-based functional foods based on a presentation of the research achieved in terms of the design and development of qualitatively and quantitatively modified meat products (through reformulation) in nutrients associated with cardiovascular risk (walnut as a source of bioactive substances). It also discusses their bioavailability and the effect of their consumption on intermediate cardiovascular risk markers in humans. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Luis A.,Complutense University of Madrid
Optics Express | Year: 2012

We show that metrological resolution in the detection of small phase shifts provides a suitable generalization of the degrees of coherence and polarization. Resolution is estimated via Fisher information. Besides the standard two-beam Gaussian case, this approach provides also good results for multiple field components and non-Gaussian statistics. This works equally well in quantum and classical optics. © 2012 Optical Society of America.


Rey J.-M.,Complutense University of Madrid
PLoS ONE | Year: 2010

Background: Marital dissolution is ubiquitous in western societies. It poses major scientific and sociological problems both in theoretical and therapeutic terms. Scholars and therapists agree on the existence of a sort of second law of thermodynamics for sentimental relationships. Effort is required to sustain them. Love is not enough. Methodology/Principal Findings: Building on a simple version of the second law we use optimal control theory as a novel approach to model sentimental dynamics. Our analysis is consistent with sociological data. We show that, when both partners have similar emotional attributes, there is an optimal effort policy yielding a durable happy union. This policy is prey to structural destabilization resulting from a combination of two factors: there is an effort gap because the optimal policy always entails discomfort and there is a tendency to lower effort to non-sustaining levels due to the instability of the dynamics. Conclusions/Significance: These mathematical facts implied by the model unveil an underlying mechanism that may explain couple disruption in real scenarios. Within this framework the apparent paradox that a union consistently planned to last forever will probably break up is explained as a mechanistic consequence of the second law. Copyright: © 2010 Rey et al.


Dominguez-Rodrigo M.,Complutense University of Madrid | Dominguez-Rodrigo M.,Institute Evolucion en Africa | Pickering T.R.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Pickering T.R.,University of Witwatersrand | Bunn H.T.,University of Wisconsin - Madison
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | Year: 2010

The announcement of two approximately 3.4-million-y-old purportedly butchered fossil bones from the Dikika paleoanthropological research area (Lower Awash Valley, Ethiopia) could profoundly alter our understanding of human evolution. Butchering damage on the Dikika bones would imply that tool-assisted meat-eating began approximately 800,000 y before previously thought, based on butchered bones from 2.6- to 2.5-million-y-old sites at the Ethiopian Gona and Bouri localities. Further, the only hominin currently known from Dikika at approximately 3.4 Ma is Australopithecus afarensis, a temporally and geographically widespread species unassociated previously with any archaeological evidence of butchering. Our taphonomic configurational approach to assess the claims of A. afarensis butchery at Dikika suggests the claims of unexpectedly early butchering at the site are not warranted. The Dikika research group focused its analysis on the morphology of the marks in question but failed to demonstrate, through recovery of similarly marked in situ fossils, the exact provenience of the published fossils, and failed to note occurrences of random striae on the cortices of the published fossils (incurred through incidental movementof the defleshed specimens across and/or within their abrasive encasing sediments). The occurrence of such random striae (sometimes called collectively "trampling" damage) on the two fossils provide the configurational context for rejection of the claimed butchery marks. The earliest best evidence for hominin butchery thus remains at 2.6 to 2.5 Ma, presumably associated with more derived species than A. afarensis.


Arsuaga J.L.,Complutense University of Madrid
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | Year: 2010

The image that best expresses Darwin's thinking is the tree of life. However, Darwin's human evolutionary tree lacked almost everything because only the Neanderthals were known at the time and they were considered one extreme expression of our own species. Darwin believed that the root of the human tree was very deep and in Africa. It was not until 1962 that the root was shown to be much more recent in time and definitively in Africa. On the other hand, some neo-Darwinians believed that our family tree was not a tree, because there were no branches, but, rather, a straight stem. The recent years have witnessed spectacular discoveries in Africa that take us close to the origin of the human tree and in Spain at Atapuerca that help us better understand the origin of the Neanderthals as well as our own species. The final form of the tree, and the number of branches, remains an object of passionate debate.


Porras D.,Complutense University of Madrid | Garcia-Ripoll J.J.,Institute Fisica Fundamental
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2012

We show that inducing sidebands in the emission of a single emitter into a one-dimensional waveguide, together with a dissipative repumping process, a photon field is cooled down to a multimode squeezed vacuum. Our method does not require being in the strong coupling regime, works with a continuum of propagating field modes, and leads to sources of tunable multimode squeezed light in circuit-QED systems. © 2012 American Physical Society.


Arcos D.,Complutense University of Madrid | Vallet-Regi M.,Complutense University of Madrid
Acta Biomaterialia | Year: 2010

The impact of bone diseases and trauma in developed and developing countries has increased significantly in the last decades. Bioactive glasses, especially silica-based materials, are called to play a fundamental role in this field due to their osteoconductive, osteoproductive and osteoinductive properties. In the last years, sol-gel processes and supramolecular chemistry of surfactants have been incorporated to the bioceramics field, allowing the porosity of bioglasses to be controlled at the nanometric scale. This advance has promoted a new generation of sol-gel bioactive glasses with applications such as drug delivery systems, as well as regenerative grafts with improved bioactive behaviour. Besides, the combination of silica-based glasses with organic components led to new organic-inorganic hybrid materials with improved mechanical properties. Finally, an effort has been made to organize at the macroscopic level the sol-gel glass preparation. This effort has resulted in new three-dimensional macroporous scaffolds, suitable to be used in tissue engineering techniques or as porous pieces to be implanted in situ. This review collects the most important advances in the field of silica glasses occurring in the last decade, which are called to play a lead role in the future of bone regenerative therapies. © 2010 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Dauphin A.,Free University of Colombia | Dauphin A.,Complutense University of Madrid | Goldman N.,Kastler-Brossel Laboratory
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2013

We propose a scheme to measure the quantized Hall conductivity of an ultracold Fermi gas initially prepared in a topological Chern insulating phase and driven by a constant force. We show that the time evolution of the center of mass, after releasing the cloud, provides a direct and clear signature of the topologically invariant Chern number. We discuss the validity of this scheme, highlighting the importance of driving the system with a sufficiently strong force to displace the cloud over measurable distances while avoiding band-mixing effects. The unusual shapes of the driven atomic cloud are qualitatively discussed in terms of a semiclassical approach. © 2013 American Physical Society.


Serafin V.,Complutense University of Madrid | Agui L.,Complutense University of Madrid | Yanez-Sedeno P.,Complutense University of Madrid | Pingarron J.M.,Complutense University of Madrid
Biosensors and Bioelectronics | Year: 2014

An amperometric immunosensor for the determination of the hormone insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) is reported for the first time in this work. As electrochemical transducer, a multiwalled carbon nanotubes-modified glassy carbon electrode on which poly(pyrrole propionic acid) was electropolymerized was prepared. This approach provided a high content of surface confined carboxyl groups suitable for direct covalent binding of anti-IGF1 monoclonal antibody. A sandwich-type immunoassay using a polyclonal antibody labeled with peroxidase, hydrogen peroxide as the enzyme substrate and catechol as redox mediator was employed to monitor the affinity reaction. All the variables involved in the preparation of the modified electrode were optimized and the electrodes were characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. Moreover, the different experimental variables affecting the amperometric response of the immunosensor were also optimized. The calibration graph for IGF1 showed a range of linearity extending from 0.5 to 1000. pg/mL, with a detection limit, 0.25. pg/mL, more than 100 times lower than the lowest values reported for the ELISA immunoassays available for IGF1 (30. pg/mL, approximately). Excellent reproducibility for the measurements carried out with different immunosensors and selectivity against other hormones were also evidenced. A commercial human serum spiked with IGF1 at different levels between 0.01 and 10.0. ng/mL was analyzed with good results. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Berzosa A.,Complutense University of Madrid
Integrated environmental assessment and management | Year: 2014

In recent years, several methodologies have been developed for the quantification of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, determining who is responsible for these emissions is also quite challenging. The most common approach is to assign emissions to the producer (based on the Kyoto Protocol), but proposals also exist for its allocation to the consumer (based on an ecological footprint perspective) and for a hybrid approach called shared responsibility. In this study, the existing proposals and standards regarding the allocation of GHG emissions responsibilities are analyzed, focusing on their main advantages and problems. A new model of shared responsibility that overcomes some of the existing problems is also proposed. This model is based on applying the best available technologies (BATs). This new approach allocates the responsibility between the producers and the final consumers based on the real capacity of each agent to reduce emissions. The proposed approach is demonstrated using a simple case study of a 4-step life cycle of ammonia nitrate (AN) fertilizer production. The proposed model has the characteristics that the standards and publications for assignment of GHG emissions responsibilities demand. This study presents a new way to assign responsibilities that pushes all the actors in the production chain, including consumers, to reduce pollution. © 2013 SETAC.


Rodrigo J.A.,Complutense University of Madrid | Alieva T.,Complutense University of Madrid
Optics Letters | Year: 2014

Partially coherent light is often preferable to its completely coherent counterpart in applications such as imaging, sensing, and free-space optical communications. To fully exploit its advantages, techniques able to retrieve information carried by the beam are required. Here, we develop and experimentally demonstrate a phase-space optics technique for complete spatial analysis of widely used Schell-model beams. It allows for fast information recovery and can be applied for quantitative phase imaging of objects under partially coherent illumination. © 2014 Optical Society of America.


Fytas N.G.,Complutense University of Madrid | Fytas N.G.,Coventry University | Martin-Mayor V.,Complutense University of Madrid | Martin-Mayor V.,Institute Biocomputacion And Fisica Of Sistemas Complejos Bifi
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2013

We solve a long-standing puzzle in statistical mechanics of disordered systems. By performing a high-statistics simulation of the D=3 random-field Ising model at zero temperature for different shapes of the random-field distribution, we show that the model is ruled by a single universality class. We compute the complete set of critical exponents for this class, including the correction-to-scaling exponent, and we show, to high numerical accuracy, that scaling is described by two independent exponents. Discrepancies with previous works are explained in terms of strong scaling corrections. © 2013 American Physical Society.


Peropadre B.,Institute Fisica Fundamental IFF CSIC | Zueco D.,University of Zaragoza | Porras D.,Complutense University of Madrid | Porras D.,University of Sussex | Garcia-Ripoll J.J.,Institute Fisica Fundamental IFF CSIC
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2013

The time and space resolved dynamics of a qubit with an Ohmic coupling to propagating 1D photons is studied, from weak coupling to the ultrastrong coupling regime. A nonperturbative study based on matrix product states shows the following results, (i) The ground state of the combined systems contains excitations of both the qubit and the surrounding bosonic field. (ii) An initially excited qubit equilibrates through spontaneous emission to a state, which under certain conditions is locally close to that ground state, both in the qubit and the field. (iii) The resonances of the combined qubit-photon system match those of the spontaneous emission process and also the predictions of the adiabatic renormalization [A. J. Leggett et al., Rev. Mod. Phys. 59, 1 (1987)]. Finally, nonperturbative ab initio calculations show that this physics can be studied using a flux qubit galvanically coupled to a superconducting transmission line. © 2013 American Physical Society.


Brouard M.,University of Oxford | Hornung B.,University of Oxford | Aoiz F.J.,Complutense University of Madrid
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2013

Collision-induced rotational angular momentum orientation is a fundamental property of molecular scattering, which is sensitive to the balance between attractive and repulsive forces at play during collision. Here, we quantify a new mechanism leading to orientation, which is purely quantum mechanical in origin. Although the new mechanism is quite general, and will operate more widely in atomic and molecular scattering, it is observed here for impulsive hard shell collisions, for which the orientation vanishes classically. The quantum mechanism can thus be studied in isolation from other processes. The orientation is proposed to originate from the nonlocal nature of the quantum mechanical collision encounter. © 2013 American Physical Society.


Rodrigo J.A.,Complutense University of Madrid | Alieva T.,Complutense University of Madrid
Optics Letters | Year: 2014

Partially coherent illumination provides significant advantages such as speckle-free imaging and enhanced optical sectioning in optical microscopy. The knowledge of the spatial and temporal coherence is crucial to obtain accurate quantitative phase imaging (QPI) of specimens such as live cells, micrometer-sized particles, etc. In this Letter, we propose a novel technique for illumination coherence engineering. It is based on a DMD projector providing fast switchable both multi-wavelength and spatial coherence design. Its performance is experimentally demonstrated for QPI with different spatial coherence states. © 2014 Optical Society of America.


Luis A.,Complutense University of Madrid | Rodil A.,Complutense University of Madrid
Optics Express | Year: 2014

We examine whether the Stokes parameters of a two-mode electromagnetic field results from the superposition of the spins of the photons it contains. To this end we express any n-photon state as the result of the action on the vacuum of n creation operators generating photons which can have may different polarization states in general. We find that the macroscopic polarization holds as sum of the single-photon Stokes parameters only for the SU(2) orbits of photon-number states. The states that lack this property are entangled in every basis of independent field modes, so this is a class of entanglement beyond the reach of SU(2) transformations.©2014 Optical Society of America.


Emmi L.,Complutense University of Madrid
Sensors (Basel, Switzerland) | Year: 2014

In recent years, there have been major advances in the development of new and more powerful perception systems for agriculture, such as computer-vision and global positioning systems. Due to these advances, the automation of agricultural tasks has received an important stimulus, especially in the area of selective weed control where high precision is essential for the proper use of resources and the implementation of more efficient treatments. Such autonomous agricultural systems incorporate and integrate perception systems for acquiring information from the environment, decision-making systems for interpreting and analyzing such information, and actuation systems that are responsible for performing the agricultural operations. These systems consist of different sensors, actuators, and computers that work synchronously in a specific architecture for the intended purpose. The main contribution of this paper is the selection, arrangement, integration, and synchronization of these systems to form a whole autonomous vehicle for agricultural applications. This type of vehicle has attracted growing interest, not only for researchers but also for manufacturers and farmers. The experimental results demonstrate the success and performance of the integrated system in guidance and weed control tasks in a maize field, indicating its utility and efficiency. The whole system is sufficiently flexible for use in other agricultural tasks with little effort and is another important contribution in the field of autonomous agricultural vehicles.


Gonzalez-Santander C.,Complutense University of Madrid | Dominguez-Adame F.,Complutense University of Madrid | Romer R.A.,University of Warwick
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2011

We study theoretically the optical properties of an exciton in a two-dimensional ring threaded by a magnetic flux. We model the quantum ring by a confining potential that can be continuously tuned from strictly one-dimensional to truly two-dimensional with finite radius-to-width ratio. We present an analytic solution of the problem when the electron-hole interaction is short ranged. The oscillatory dependence of the oscillator strength as a function of the magnetic flux is attributed to the Aharonov-Bohm effect. The amplitude of the oscillations changes upon increasing the width of the quantum ring. We find that the Aharonov-Bohm oscillations of the ground state of the exciton decrease with increasing the width, but, remarkably, the amplitude remains finite down to radius-to-width ratios less than unity. We attribute this resilience of the excitonic oscillations to the nonsimple connectedness of our chosen confinement potential with its centrifugal core at the origin. © 2011 American Physical Society.


Contreras G.A.,Michigan State University | Rodriguez J.M.,Complutense University of Madrid
Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia | Year: 2011

Mastitis is broadly defined as the inflammation of the mammary gland; however, the concept of mastitis is customized to address its social and clinical impact in the case of humans and the health, welfare, and economic consequences for other mammals. There are many microbial, host, and environmental factors that influence the development of mastitis. Some are common to all mammals as well as inherent to each species. Together these factors influence the most prevalent etiological agents for each species and might determine the possibility of interspecies transmission with its consequences to public health. The present review will summarize and compare reports on mastitis etiology and its epidemiology in humans and food animal species. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011.


Schuch N.,California Institute of Technology | Perez-Garcia D.,Complutense University of Madrid | Cirac I.,Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2011

We give a classification of gapped quantum phases of one-dimensional systems in the framework of matrix product states (MPS) and their associated parent Hamiltonians, for systems with unique as well as degenerate ground states and in both the absence and the presence of symmetries. We find that without symmetries, all systems are in the same phase, up to accidental ground-state degeneracies. If symmetries are imposed, phases without symmetry breaking (i.e., with unique ground states) are classified by the cohomology classes of the symmetry group, that is, the equivalence classes of its projective representations, a result first derived by Chen, Gu, and Wen. For phases with symmetry breaking (i.e., degenerate ground states), we find that the symmetry consists of two parts, one of which acts by permuting the ground states, while the other acts on individual ground states, and phases are labeled by both the permutation action of the former and the cohomology class of the latter. Using projected entangled pair states (PEPS), we subsequently extend our framework to the classification of two-dimensional phases in the neighborhood of a number of important cases, in particular, systems with unique ground states, degenerate ground states with a local order parameter, and topological order. We also show that in two dimensions, imposing symmetries does not constrain the phase diagram in the same way it does in one dimension. As a central tool, we introduce the isometric form, a normal form for MPS and PEPS, which is a renormalization fixed point. Transforming a state to its isometric form does not change the phase, and thus we can focus on to the classification of isometric forms. © 2011 American Physical Society.


Palomino O.M.,Complutense University of Madrid
Archives of Dermatological Research | Year: 2015

This article provides an overview of pharmacology, toxicity, pharmacokinetics and clinical data of Polypodium leucotomos L. (PL). PL aerial part has proven to exert antioxidant, photoprotective and immunomodulatory activities; its mechanism of action is complex and includes several activities: (1) PL diminishes the production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS, RNS); (2) PL inhibits the photoisomerization of trans-urocanic acid (t-UCA); (3) PL inhibits apoptosis induced by ultraviolet radiation; (4) PL prevents damage to genetic material and (5) PL enhances DNA repair. PL is not mutagenic and does not induce acute or chronic toxicity. Its biological effects have been proved in cell cultures, animal models, murine models and in human beings. Photoprotective activity has been assessed in healthy volunteers as well as in patients suffering from several cutaneous diseases such as vitiligo, psoriasis, idiopathic photodermatosis or melasma. PL results to be an efficient treatment especially for sensitive cutaneous phototypes and adds extra protection when ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure cannot be avoided, such as wide or narrow band UVB phototherapy or treatment with psoralens plus UVA exposure radiation. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


De Marina H.G.,GNC Group at Deimos Space | Pereda F.J.,Complutense University of Madrid | Giron-Sierra J.M.,Complutense University of Madrid | Espinosa F.,University of Alcalá
IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics | Year: 2012

A main problem in autonomous vehicles in general, and in unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in particular, is the determination of the attitude angles. A novel method to estimate these angles using off-the-shelf components is presented. This paper introduces an attitude heading reference system (AHRS) based on the unscented Kalman filter (UKF) using the three-axis attitude determination (TRIAD) algorithm as the observation model. The performance of the method is assessed through simulations and compared to an AHRS based on the extended Kalman filter (EKF). The paper presents field experiment results using a real fixed-wing UAV. The results show good real-time performance with low computational cost in a microcontroller. © 2011 IEEE.


Malyshev A.V.,Complutense University of Madrid | Malyshev A.V.,Zernike Institute for Advanced Materials | Malyshev V.A.,Zernike Institute for Advanced Materials | Malyshev V.A.,Saint Petersburg State University
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2011

Optical response of an artificial composite nanodimer comprising a semiconductor quantum dot and a metal nanosphere is analyzed theoretically. We show that internal degrees of freedom of the system can manifest bistability and optical hysteresis as functions of the incident field intensity. We argue that these effects can be observed for real-world systems, such as a CdSe quantum dot and an Au nanoparticle hybrid. These properties can be revealed by measuring the optical hysteresis of Rayleigh scattering. We also show that the total dipole moment of the system can be switched abruptly between its two stable states by small changes in the excitation intensity. The latter promises various applications in the field of all-optical processing at the nanoscale, the most basic of them being the volatile optical memory. © 2011 American Physical Society.


Rodriguez-Lopez P.,Complutense University of Madrid
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2011

We calculate the Casimir energy and entropy for two spheres described by the perfect-metal model, plasma model, and Drude model in the large-separation limit. We obtain nonmonotonic behavior of the Helmholtz free energy as a function of separation and temperature for the perfect-metal and plasma models, leading to parameter ranges with negative entropy, and also we obtain nonmonotonic behavior of the entropy as a funtion of temperature and the separation between the spheres. This nonmonotonic behavior has not been found for the Drude model. The appearance of this anomalous behavior of the entropy as well as its thermodynamic consequences are discussed. © 2011 American Physical Society.


Grushin A.G.,CSIC - Institute of Materials Science | Rodriguez-Lopez P.,Complutense University of Madrid | Cortijo A.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2011

In this work we study the Casimir effect with three-dimensional t