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The Complutense University of Madrid is a public research university located in Madrid, and one of the oldest universities in the world. The university enrolls over 86,000 students, and consistently ranks as the top university in Spain. It is located on a sprawling campus that occupies the entirety of the Ciudad Universitaria district of Madrid, with annexes in the district of Somosaguas in the neighboring city of Pozuelo de Alarcón.In the course of over seven centuries, the University of Madrid has provided invaluable contributions in the science, fine arts, and political leadership. Alumni include renowned philosophers , writers , scientists , historians , military leaders , foreign leaders , and Prime Minister of Spain for Queen Isabella II Luis González Bravo. In the year 1785, the University of Madrid became one of the first Universities in the world to grant a Doctorate degree to a female student. By Royal Decree of 1857, the University of Madrid was the only institution in Spain authorized to grant doctorates throughout the Spanish Empire.In recent years, the roster of alumni comprises winners of the Nobel Prize , Prince of Asturias Awards , Miguel de Cervantes Prize , as well as European Commissioners, Presidents of the EU Parliament, European Council Secretary General, ECB Executive Board members, NATO Secretary General, UNESCO Director General, IMF Managing Director, and Heads of State. According to the Spanish newspaper El Mundo, the university is widely regarded as the most prestigious academic institution in Spain. Wikipedia.

Escobedo M.,University of the Basque Country | Velazquez J.J.L.,Complutense University of Madrid
Communications in Mathematical Physics | Year: 2010

We describe the fundamental solution of the equation that is obtained by linearization of the coagulation equation with kernel K(x, y) = (xy)λ/2, around the steady state f(x) = x-(3+λ)/2 with λ ε (1, 2). Detailed estimates on its asymptotics are obtained. Some consequences are deduced for the flux properties of the particles distributions described by such models. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

Henskens F.L.,Complutense University of Madrid
Annals of botany | Year: 2012

Cyanolichens are usually stated to be bipartite (mycobiont plus cyanobacterial photobiont). Analyses revealed green algal carbohydrates in supposedly cyanobacterial lichens (in the genera Pseudocyphellaria, Sticta and Peltigera). Investigations were carried out to determine if both cyanobacteria and green algae were present in these lichens and, if so, what were their roles. The types of photobiont present were determined by light and fluorescence microscopy. Small carbohydrates were analysed to detect the presence of green algal metabolites. Thalli were treated with selected strengths of Zn(2+) solutions that stop cyanobacterial but not green algal photosynthesis. CO(2) exchange was measured before and after treatment to determine the contribution of each photobiont to total thallus photosynthesis. Heterocyst frequencies were determined to clarify whether the cyanobacteria were modified for increased nitrogen fixation (high heterocyst frequencies) or were normal, vegetative cells. Several cyanobacterial lichens had green algae present in the photosynthetic layer of the thallus. The presence of the green algal transfer carbohydrate (ribitol) and the incomplete inhibition of thallus photosynthesis upon treatment with Zn(2+) solutions showed that both photobionts contributed to the photosynthesis of the lichen thallus. Low heterocyst frequencies showed that, despite the presence of adjacent green algae, the cyanobacteria were not altered to increase nitrogen fixation. These cyanobacterial lichens are a tripartite lichen symbiont combination in which the mycobiont has two primarily photosynthetic photobionts, 'co-primary photobionts', a cyanobacterium (dominant) and a green alga. This demonstrates high flexibility in photobiont choice by the mycobiont in the Peltigerales. Overall thallus appearance does not change whether one or two photobionts are present in the cyanobacterial thallus. This suggests that, if there is a photobiont effect on thallus structure, it is not specific to one or the other photobiont.

Emmi L.,Complutense University of Madrid
Sensors (Basel, Switzerland) | Year: 2014

In recent years, there have been major advances in the development of new and more powerful perception systems for agriculture, such as computer-vision and global positioning systems. Due to these advances, the automation of agricultural tasks has received an important stimulus, especially in the area of selective weed control where high precision is essential for the proper use of resources and the implementation of more efficient treatments. Such autonomous agricultural systems incorporate and integrate perception systems for acquiring information from the environment, decision-making systems for interpreting and analyzing such information, and actuation systems that are responsible for performing the agricultural operations. These systems consist of different sensors, actuators, and computers that work synchronously in a specific architecture for the intended purpose. The main contribution of this paper is the selection, arrangement, integration, and synchronization of these systems to form a whole autonomous vehicle for agricultural applications. This type of vehicle has attracted growing interest, not only for researchers but also for manufacturers and farmers. The experimental results demonstrate the success and performance of the integrated system in guidance and weed control tasks in a maize field, indicating its utility and efficiency. The whole system is sufficiently flexible for use in other agricultural tasks with little effort and is another important contribution in the field of autonomous agricultural vehicles.

Pina C.M.,Complutense University of Madrid
Surface Science | Year: 2011

Crystal growth inhibition by non-incorporating impurities has been described and quantified since 1958 by the so-called step pinning model by Cabrera and Vermilyea [1]. In the original model, as well as in its recent improvements by Weaver et al. in 2006 and 2007 [2,3], only the inhibition by the adsorption of impurities on crystal surfaces with fixed compositions is considered. However, most of the crystals found in nature are solid solutions with more or less wide chemical variability. Therefore, in order to provide more realistic models of crystal growth inhibition in natural systems, it is fundamental to study in detail the inhibition of surfaces of solid solutions by non-incorporating impurities. In this paper, the Cabrera-Vermilyea model has been generalised for the case of growth inhibition in solid solution-aqueous solution (SS-AS) systems. This generalisation was made by considering that supersaturation and the physicochemical properties of the solid solutions are functions of the solid composition. The main implication of the model is that a progressive inhibition of growth of a solid solution by increasing the concentration of an adsorbed impurity results in compositional changes on the growing surfaces. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Lopez J.C.,Institute Quimica Organica General | Plumet J.,Complutense University of Madrid
European Journal of Organic Chemistry | Year: 2011

Metathesis processes play a prominent role in the development of useful synthetic transformations because of their mildness and tolerance of functional groups. On the other hand, carbohydrates have gained well-deserved importance in the study of biological processes. This review summarizes a decade of research in the application of alkyne metathesis (AM) reactions in some of its variants to carbohydrates and carbohydrate-related compounds. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Pamplona R.,University of Lleida | Barja G.,Complutense University of Madrid
Biogerontology | Year: 2011

Key mechanisms relating oxidative stress to longevity from an interespecies comparative approach are reviewed. Long-lived animal species show low rates of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and oxidative damage at their mitochondria. Comparative physiology also shows that the specific compositional pattern of tissue macromolecules (proteins, lipids and nucleic acids) in long-lived animal species gives them an intrinsically high resistance to modification that likely contributes to their superior longevity. This is obtained in the case of lipids by decreasing the degree of fatty acid unsaturation, and in the case of proteins by lowering their methionine content. These findings are also substantiated from a phylogenomic approach. Nutritional or/and pharmacological interventions focused to modify some of these molecular traits were translated with modifications in animal longevity. It is proposed that natural selection tends to decrease the mitochondrial ROS generation and to increase the molecular resistance to the oxidative damage in longlived species. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011.

Malyshev A.V.,Complutense University of Madrid | Malyshev A.V.,Zernike Institute for Advanced Materials | Malyshev V.A.,Zernike Institute for Advanced Materials | Malyshev V.A.,Saint Petersburg State University
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2011

Optical response of an artificial composite nanodimer comprising a semiconductor quantum dot and a metal nanosphere is analyzed theoretically. We show that internal degrees of freedom of the system can manifest bistability and optical hysteresis as functions of the incident field intensity. We argue that these effects can be observed for real-world systems, such as a CdSe quantum dot and an Au nanoparticle hybrid. These properties can be revealed by measuring the optical hysteresis of Rayleigh scattering. We also show that the total dipole moment of the system can be switched abruptly between its two stable states by small changes in the excitation intensity. The latter promises various applications in the field of all-optical processing at the nanoscale, the most basic of them being the volatile optical memory. © 2011 American Physical Society.

Grushin A.G.,CSIC - Institute of Materials Science | Rodriguez-Lopez P.,Complutense University of Madrid | Cortijo A.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2011

In this work we study the Casimir effect with three-dimensional topological insulators including the effects of temperature and uniaxial anisotropy. Although precise experimental values for the optical properties of these materials are yet to be established, a qualitative analysis is still possible. We find qualitatively that the reported repulsive behavior and the equilibrium point are robust features of the system, and are favored by low temperatures and the enhancement of the optical response parallel to the optical axis. The dependence of the equilibrium point with temperature and with the topological magnetoelectric polarizability characteristic of three-dimensional topological insulators is also discussed. © 2011 American Physical Society.

Rodriguez-Lopez P.,Complutense University of Madrid
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2011

The pairwise summation approximation of Casimir energy is applied to a system of two dielectrics with magnetoelectric coupling. In particular, the case of topological insulators (TIs) is studied in detail. Depending on the the optical response of the TIs, we obtain a stable equilibrium distance, attraction for all distances, or repulsion for all distances at zero temperature. This equilibrium distance disappears in the high-temperature limit. These results are independent of the geometry of the TIs, but are only valid in the diluted approximation. © 2011 American Physical Society.

Palomino O.M.,Complutense University of Madrid
Archives of Dermatological Research | Year: 2015

This article provides an overview of pharmacology, toxicity, pharmacokinetics and clinical data of Polypodium leucotomos L. (PL). PL aerial part has proven to exert antioxidant, photoprotective and immunomodulatory activities; its mechanism of action is complex and includes several activities: (1) PL diminishes the production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS, RNS); (2) PL inhibits the photoisomerization of trans-urocanic acid (t-UCA); (3) PL inhibits apoptosis induced by ultraviolet radiation; (4) PL prevents damage to genetic material and (5) PL enhances DNA repair. PL is not mutagenic and does not induce acute or chronic toxicity. Its biological effects have been proved in cell cultures, animal models, murine models and in human beings. Photoprotective activity has been assessed in healthy volunteers as well as in patients suffering from several cutaneous diseases such as vitiligo, psoriasis, idiopathic photodermatosis or melasma. PL results to be an efficient treatment especially for sensitive cutaneous phototypes and adds extra protection when ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure cannot be avoided, such as wide or narrow band UVB phototherapy or treatment with psoralens plus UVA exposure radiation. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Speciale A.M.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Regidor E.,Complutense University of Madrid
Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health | Year: 2011

This study sought the existence of an immigrant health paradox by evaluating the relationship between region of origin and the perinatal indicators of low birth weight and preterm birth in Spain. The data consist of individual records from the 2006 National Birth Registry of Spain. Mother's origin was divided into eleven groups based on geographic region. We calculated the frequency of Low Birth Weight (LBW) and Prematurity. Logistic regressions were conducted evaluating relationship between origin and LBW and origin and prematurity. After adjusting for socio-demographic variables mothers from Sub-Saharan Africa had an increased probability of having a neonate of LBW over the Spanish mothers, whereas in the mothers of the rest of regions the probability was lower. No differences were found in prematurity in babies born to foreign mothers when compared to babies born to Spanish mothers. While our findings largely support an immigrant paradox with regard to low birth weight, they also suggest that region of origin may play an important role. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

A comprehensive quantum-chemical investigation of the conformational landscape of the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitor AZT (3′-azido-3′-deoxythymidine) nucleoside analogue was carried out. The whole conformational parameters (χ, γ, β, δ, φ, P, νmax) were analysed as well as the NBO charges. The search located at least 55 stable structures, 9 of which were by MP2 within a 1 kcal mol-1 electronic energy range of the global minimum. Most conformers were anti or high-anti around the glycoside bond and with North sugar ring puckering angles. The distribution of all the conformers according to the ranges of stability of the characteristic torsional angles was established. The results obtained were in accordance with those found in related anti-HIV nucleoside analogues. The best conformer in the anti form corresponded to the calculated values by MP2 of χ = -126.9°, β = 176.4° and γ = 49.1°. An analysis of the lowest vibrations in conformer C1 was carried out. The first hydration shell was simulated and the structural differences with the natural nucleoside deoxythymidine (dT) were determined. The first phosphorylation step was simulated by interacting ATP with the best hydrated clusters of AZT and dT. The Na cations act as a bridge between the phosphate moieties of ATP making it easy for -P3O3 to receive the H5′ proton from AZT or dT. A proton-transfer mechanism is proposed through the water molecules. When the number of the water molecules surrounding AZT is lower than 8, the first phosphorylation step of AZT can be carried out. However, the appropriate orientation of the O5′-H in dT avoids this limitation and it can be performed with large numbers of water molecules. © the Partner Organisations 2014.

Rodriguez-Lopez P.,Complutense University of Madrid
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2011

We calculate the Casimir energy and entropy for two spheres described by the perfect-metal model, plasma model, and Drude model in the large-separation limit. We obtain nonmonotonic behavior of the Helmholtz free energy as a function of separation and temperature for the perfect-metal and plasma models, leading to parameter ranges with negative entropy, and also we obtain nonmonotonic behavior of the entropy as a funtion of temperature and the separation between the spheres. This nonmonotonic behavior has not been found for the Drude model. The appearance of this anomalous behavior of the entropy as well as its thermodynamic consequences are discussed. © 2011 American Physical Society.

Bombin H.,Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics | Andrist R.S.,ETH Zurich | Ohzeki M.,Kyoto University | Ohzeki M.,University of Rome La Sapienza | And 3 more authors.
Physical Review X | Year: 2012

The inevitable presence of decoherence effects in systems suitable for quantum computation necessitates effective error-correction schemes to protect information from noise. We compute the stability of the toric code to depolarization by mapping the quantum problem onto a classical disordered eight-vertex Ising model. By studying the stability of the related ferromagnetic phase via both large-scale Monte Carlo simulations and the duality method, we are able to demonstrate an increased error threshold of 18.9(3)% when noise correlations are taken into account. Remarkably, this result agrees within error bars with the result for a different class of codes-topological color codes-where the mapping yields interesting new types of interacting eight-vertex models.

Liras A.,Complutense University of Madrid
Journal of Translational Medicine | Year: 2010

There is much to be investigated about the specific characteristics of stem cells and about the efficacy and safety of the new drugs based on this type of cells, both embryonic as adult stem cells, for several therapeutic indications (cardiovascular and ischemic diseases, diabetes, hematopoietic diseases, liver diseases). Along with recent progress in transference of nuclei from human somatic cells, as well as iPSC technology, has allowed availability of lineages of all three germ layers genetically identical to those of the donor patient, which permits safe transplantation of organ-tissue-specific adult stem cells with no immune rejection. The main objective is the need for expansion of stem cell characteristics to maximize stem cell efficacy (i.e. the proper selection of a stem cell) and the efficacy (maximum effect) and safety of stem cell derived drugs. Other considerations to take into account in cell therapy will be the suitability of infrastructure and technical staff, biomaterials, production costs, biobanks, biosecurity, and the biotechnological industry. The general objectives in the area of stem cell research in the next few years, are related to identification of therapeutic targets and potential therapeutic tests, studies of cell differentiation and physiological mechanisms, culture conditions of pluripotent stem cells and efficacy and safety tests for stem cell-based drugs or procedures to be performed in both animal and human models in the corresponding clinical trials. A regulatory framework will be required to ensure patient accessibility to products and governmental assistance for their regulation and control. Bioethical aspects will be required related to the scientific and therapeutic relevance and cost of cryopreservation over time, but specially with respect to embryos which may ultimately be used for scientific uses of research as source of embryonic stem cells, in which case the bioethical conflict may be further aggravated. © 2010 Liras; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Saenz-Perez F.,Complutense University of Madrid
Electronic Notes in Theoretical Computer Science | Year: 2011

This work describes a novel implementation of a deductive database system which fills some gaps other systems do not. In fact, this system was born to this end and since its inception, many new features have been added (null values, outer joins, aggregates, ...). In particular, it embodies both Datalog and SQL query languages, where the same database can be queried. It enjoys an actual interactive environment for any platform (Windows, Linux, Macintosh, ...) and it has been plugged to a Java GUI IDE for easing user interaction (syntax highlighting, projects, ...). The system is distributed under GPL license, hosted by sourceforge, and heavily used all around the world. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Garcia-Perez M.A.,Complutense University of Madrid
Journal of Informetrics | Year: 2011

Accurate computation of h indices or other indicators of research impact requires access to databases supplying complete and accurate citation information. The Web of Science (WoS) database is widely used for this purpose and it is generally deemed error-free. This note describes an inaccuracy that seems to affect differentially non-English sources and targets in WoS, namely, " phantom citations" (i.e., papers reported by WoS to cite some article when they actually did not) and their concentration around particular articles that are thus dubbed " strange attractors" The analysis of references in (and citations to) papers in two English sources and two non-English sources reveals that phantom citations and other errors of indexing occur about twice as often with non-English items. These and other errors of commission affect about 1% of the cited references in the WoS database, and they may reveal large-scale problems in the reference matching algorithm in WoS. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Romeo I.,Complutense University of Madrid | Turcotte D.L.,University of California at Davis
Planetary and Space Science | Year: 2010

The resurfacing evolution of Venus has been evaluated through Monte Carlo simulations. For the first time, the sizes of volcanic flows in the models were generated using the frequencysize distribution of volcanic units measured on Venus. A non-homogeneous spatial generation of volcanic units was included in the models reproducing the BetaAltaThemis volcanic anomaly. Crater modification is simulated using a 3D approach. The final number of modified craters and randomness of the crater population were used to evaluate the success of the models, comparing the results from our simulations with Venus observations. The randomness of the crater population is evaluated using pair-correlation statistics. On the one hand, a catastrophic resurfacing event followed by moderate volcanic activity covering ≈40% of the planetary surface can reproduce the number of modified craters and the pair-correlation statistics do not reject randomness. On the other hand, the pair-correlation test for equilibrium steady-state resurfacing models rejects the randomness of the crater population when reproducing the observed frequencysize distribution of the volcanic units with a non-homogeneous spatial generation of volcanic units. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Perez-Vizcaino F.,Complutense University of Madrid | Duarte J.,University of Granada
Molecular Aspects of Medicine | Year: 2010

Flavonols, and specially quercetin, are widely distributed in plants and are present in considerable amounts in fruits and vegetables. In addition to their anti-oxidant effect, flavonols interfere with a large number of biochemical signaling pathways and, therefore, physiological and pathological processes. There is solid evidence that, in vitro, quercetin and related flavonols exert endothelium-independent vasodilator effects, protective effect on nitric oxide and endothelial function under conditions of oxidative stress, platelet antiaggregant effects, inhibition of LDL oxidation, reduction of adhesion molecules and other inflammatory markers and prevention of neuronal oxidative and inflammatory damage. The metabolites of quercetin show partial protective effects on endothelial function and LDL oxidation. Quercetin produces undisputed antihypertensive and antiatherogenic effects, prevents endothelial dysfunction and protects the myocardium from ischemic damage. It has no clear effects on serum lipid profile and on insulin resistance. Human intervention trials with isolated flavonols demonstrate an antihypertensive effect. The meta-analysis of epidemiological studies show an inverse association between flavonol (together with flavone) intake and coronary heart disease and stroke. Therefore, although there is no solid proof yet, a substantial body of evidence suggests that quercetin may prevent the most common forms of cardiovascular disease contributing to the protective effects afforded by fruits and vegetables. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Langevin D.,University Paris - Sud | Monroy F.,Complutense University of Madrid
Current Opinion in Colloid and Interface Science | Year: 2010

In this review, we describe interfacial rheology studies of polymer monolayers at the air-water interface. Since polyelectrolytes are usually soluble in water, the formation of surface monolayers requires the presence of a surfactant of opposite charge. The first part of the review is dedicated to these mixed monolayers. The second part is related to neutral monolayers that can be either adsorbed or deposited at the interface. Interfacial rheology studies of these systems are still scarce, despite a considerable interest: insoluble polymer monolayers in two dimensions are suitable model systems for the tests of polymer theories in two dimensions, such as and glass transition. The rheology of soluble polymer monolayers has important connections with the dynamic properties of dispersions stabilized with these polymers. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Fernandez I.,Complutense University of Madrid | Bickelhaupt F.M.,VU University Amsterdam | Bickelhaupt F.M.,Radboud University Nijmegen
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2014

In this Tutorial Review, we make the point that a true understanding of trends in reactivity (as opposed to measuring or simply computing them) requires a causal reactivity model. To this end, we present and discuss the Activation Strain Model (ASM). The ASM establishes the desired causal relationship between reaction barriers, on one hand, and the properties of reactants and characteristics of reaction mechanisms, on the other hand. In the ASM, the potential energy surface ΔE(ζ) along the reaction coordinate ζ is decomposed into the strain ΔEstrain(ζ) of the reactants that become increasingly deformed as the reaction proceeds, plus the interaction ΔEint(ζ) between these deformed reactants, i.e., ΔE(ζ) = ΔEstrain(ζ) + ΔE int(ζ). The ASM can be used in conjunction with any quantum chemical program. An analysis of the method and its application to problems in organic and organometallic chemistry illustrate the power of the ASM as a unifying concept and a tool for rational design of reactants and catalysts. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014.

Santos M.,Complutense University of Madrid
RIAI - Revista Iberoamericana de Automatica e Informatica Industrial | Year: 2011

The purpose of this paper is to show how intelligent control can solve real control problems. Several complex control applications are described. Intelligent techniques, in some cases combined with classical controllers, are applied and have been proved successful for these applications. These developments have been carried out by the people of the ISCAR (System Engineering, Control, Automation and Robotics) Research Group, at the Complutense University of Madrid. © 2011 CEA.

Ceron I.,Technical University of Madrid | Neila J.,Technical University of Madrid | Khayet M.,Complutense University of Madrid
Energy and Buildings | Year: 2011

The use of phase change materials (PCM) and their possible architectural integration is a path in the search for optimizing energy efficiency in construction. As part of this path, a pavement has been designed which, in combination with the PCM, serves as a passive thermal conditioning system (new patent n°. ES2333092 A1) [1]. The prototype has been tested experimentally and the results proved that it is a viable constructive solution improving the energy performance of sunny locals. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Barge-Gil A.,Complutense University of Madrid | Modrego A.,Charles III University of Madrid
Journal of Technology Transfer | Year: 2011

The objective of this work is to evaluate the impact of research and technology organizations (RTO) on firm competitiveness. To this end, we develop a framework that includes strategies to deal with the methodological problems highlighted in the literature. The main features of this framework are the definition and classification of different types of impacts, the estimation of (rough) quantitative measures of them and the development of a multivariate model to explain the different impacts including the traditional indicators of firm characteristics and their relationships. The empirical work is based on a database constructed from information from the responses to a questionnaire designed specifically to estimate the impact of RTOs on Spanish firms, and information from the Spanish Innovation Survey. Our findings show that firms are able to recognize the influence of these relationships on different technical, economic, investment and intangible impacts and to roughly estimate their economic impact, and that several characteristics of these relationships affect the impact of RTOs. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Gomez-Corral A.,Complutense University of Madrid
Computers and Operations Research | Year: 2010

This paper presents some results on the number of collisions in p-persistent CSMA/CD protocols. Based on the time to reach the maximum number of blocked terminals, we derive iterative schemes for its mass function and moments. An important feature of the underlying Markovian framework is that the arrival pattern need not be a Poisson process. Packet transmission requirements and durations of collisions are both of phase-type. Numerical results are presented to illustrate the effects of the retransmission probability and the duration of one slot on the number of collisions. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Lopez-Herrero M.J.,Complutense University of Madrid
Computers and Operations Research | Year: 2010

In this paper we consider a continuous review inventory system in which unsatisfied demands, due to lack of stock, are sent to a pool and are repeated until being satisfied. The inventory is replenished according to an (s, S) policy and the replenishment times follow an exponential distribution. We concentrate on performance measures related to the waiting time and first-passage times of the system. More concretely, we study the waiting time of a demand, the time between replenishment orders and the orbit idle time or interval without pending demands. Several numerical examples are presented to illustrate the effect of the system parameters on these measures. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Soriano E.,Institute Quimica Organica General IQOG | Fernandez I.,Complutense University of Madrid
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2014

The present review is focused on the application of computational/ theoretical methods to the wide and rich chemistry of allenes. Special emphasis is made on the interplay and synergy between experimental and computational methodologies, rather than on recent developments in methods and algorithms. Therefore, this review covers the state-of-the-art applications of computational chemistry to understand and rationalize the bonding situation and vast reactivity of allenes. Thus, the contents of this review span from the most fundamental studies on the equilibrium structure and chirality of allenes to recent advances in the study of complex reaction mechanisms involving allene derivatives in organic and organometallic chemistry. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014.

Garcia-Bellido D.C.,Complutense University of Madrid | Garcia-Bellido D.C.,University of Adelaide | Paterson J.R.,University of New England of Australia | Edgecombe G.D.,Natural History Museum in London
Gondwana Research | Year: 2013

The discovery of new palaeoscolecid material (Cycloneuralia) from the Emu Bay Shale Konservat-Lagerstätte of Kangaroo Island, South Australia (Cambrian Series 2, Stage 4) and from the Murero biota of NE Spain (Cambrian Series 3, Stage 5-Drumian) has prompted a reappraisal of Palaeoscolex Whittard, 1953, the genus to which species from these, and other Cambrian localities, have most recently been assigned. Available data from scanning electron microscopy show the presence of Hadimopanella-type sclerites covering the surface of these taxa, permitting taxonomic schemes based on microfossils and whole-body compression fossils to be reconciled. The sclerite pattern, size and shape indicate that several of the Cambrian species assigned to Palaeoscolex need to be reassigned to Wronascolex Ivantsov and Zhuravlev, 2005, a genus originally described from Siberia. The studied material includes Wronascolex antiquus (. Glaessner, 1979) and Wronascolex iacoborum sp. nov. from Kangaroo Island (Australia) and two new specimens of Wronascolex? from the Iberian Ranges (Spain). SEM examination of the types of Palaeoscolex ratcliffei Robison, 1969, a Cambrian species from Utah to which Murero material has been compared, suggests that this species should possibly be assigned to Wronascolex. These taxa are also considered in a Cambrian palaeobiogeographic context, together with the presence of isolated Hadimopanella sclerites, showing a distribution of Wronascolex largely confined to palaeotropical environments. © 2012 International Association for Gondwana Research.

Garcia-Diez M.,Institute Fisica Of Cantabria | Garcia-Diez M.,University of Cantabria | Fernandez J.,University of Cantabria | Fita L.,University of Cantabria | And 2 more authors.
Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society | Year: 2013

The seasonal dependence of Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model surface temperature biases and sensitivity to planetary boundary layer (PBL) schemes are jointly explored. For this purpose, the year 2001 was simulated using three different PBL schemes in a domain covering all Europe. The simulations were compared with gridded observations, upper-air data and high-frequency station data. Seasonal and daily cycles were analysed, aimed at providing a link between long-term biases and restricted case studies. The results show that the model mean bias significantly depends on the season, being warm in winter and cold in summer. The winter warm bias is related to misrepresented cold extremes, while a systematic cold bias dominates the whole temperature range in summer. Regarding PBL schemes, an overall underestimation of the entrainment is found, with the non-local Yonsei University scheme producing systematically warmer temperatures. It is shown that the opposite seasonal biases and systematic behaviour of the PBL schemes during the year lead to a different best-performing scheme in winter and summer. Moreover, the best-performing PBL scheme in an average sense is a result of the compensation of errors. The average summer results can be partially explained by a detailed case study. It is concluded that short-term studies should be used with caution to decide on the parametrizations to be used in long-term simulations. © 2012 Royal Meteorological Society.

Munoz-Espin D.,Tumor Suppression Group | Canamero M.,Histopathology Unit | Maraver A.,Tumor Suppression Group | Gomez-Lopez G.,Bioinformatics Unit | And 12 more authors.
Cell | Year: 2013

Cellular senescence disables proliferation in damaged cells, and it is relevant for cancer and aging. Here, we show that senescence occurs during mammalian embryonic development at multiple locations, including the mesonephros and the endolymphatic sac of the inner ear, which we have analyzed in detail. Mechanistically, senescence in both structures is strictly dependent on p21, but independent of DNA damage, p53, or other cell-cycle inhibitors, and it is regulated by the TGF-β/SMAD and PI3K/FOXO pathways. Developmentally programmed senescence is followed by macrophage infiltration, clearance of senescent cells, and tissue remodeling. Loss of senescence due to the absence of p21 is partially compensated by apoptosis but still results in detectable developmental abnormalities. Importantly, the mesonephros and endolymphatic sac of human embryos also show evidence of senescence. We conclude that the role of developmentally programmed senescence is to promote tissue remodeling and propose that this is the evolutionary origin of damage-induced senescence. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

Summary. In recent years progress has been made in the development of pharmaceuticals based on the plant Cannabis sativa or on synthetic molecules with a similar action. Some of these pharmaceuticals, such as the mouth spray Sativex ®, have recently been approved for the treatment of spasticity in multiple sclerosis, but they are not the first and others, such as Marinol ® or Cesamet ® for the treatment of vomiting and nausea, and anorexia-cachexia syndrome, had already been approved. This incipient clinical use of cannabinoid drugs confirms something that was already known from fairly ancient times up to practically the last century, which is the potential use of this plant for medicinal applications - something which was brought to a standstill by the abusive use of preparations of the plant for recreational purposes. In any case, this incipient clinical use of cannabinoid drugs is not backed just by the anecdote of the medicinal use of cannabis since ancient times, but instead the boost it has been given by scientific research, which has made it possible to identify the target molecules that are activated or inhibited by these substances. These targets are part of a new system of intercellular communication that is especially active in the central nervous system, which is called the 'endogenous cannabinoid system' and, like many other systems, can be manipulated pharmacologically. The aim of this review is to probe further into the scientific knowledge about this system generated in the last few years, as a necessary step to justify the development of pharmaceuticals based on its activation or inhibition and which can be useful in different neurological diseases.

Martin-Villa J.M.,Complutense University of Madrid
Current Pharmaceutical Design | Year: 2014

Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are the major inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) in humans. With the incidence of increasing world-wide, it currently affects 4 million people in Europe and in the USA. It is an idiopathic, chronic relapsing intestinal disorder of complex pathogenesis. The etiology of both diseases remains unknown, but recent data suggest that they appear in genetically predisposed individuals, because of an exaggerated mucosal immune response to commensal microbiota present in the gut. There is increasing evidence for an alteration of the immune regulation mechanisms in patients, with mucosal T lymphocytes playing a crucial role in the pathogenic events leading to tissue damage. It is clear that the disease is the result of environmental factors acting on genetically predisposed individuals. In humans, psychological trauma, stress or depression, have been involved as precipitating or relapsing factors of the disease, although this link remains elusive. However, several published works using colitis animal models subjected to stress conditions, have given consistent proof as to the molecular link between emotional stress, increase in epithelial permeability, alteration of the gut microflora composition and activation of pre-sensitized T lymphocytes. Gaining knowledge of the cross talk between components of the brain - gut - immune system axis may be fruitful in the design of future therapeutic approaches, such as the use of vasointestinal peptide (VIP) in this pathology. © 2014 Bentham Science Publishers.

Bombin H.,Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics | Martin-Delgado M.A.,Complutense University of Madrid
New Journal of Physics | Year: 2011

We introduce the concept of nested topological order in a class of exact quantum lattice Hamiltonian models with non-Abelian discrete gauge symmetry. The topological order present in the models can be partially destroyed by introducing a gauge symmetry reduction mechanism. When symmetry is reduced in several islands only, this imposes boundary conditions on the rest of the system, giving rise to topological ground-state degeneracy. This degeneracy is related to the existence of topological fluxes in between islands or, alternatively, hidden charges at islands. Additionally, island deformations give rise to extension of topological quantum computation beyond quasiparticles. © IOP Publishing Ltd and Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft.

Alcaide B.,Complutense University of Madrid | Almendros P.,Institute Quimica Organica General IQOG
Beilstein Journal of Organic Chemistry | Year: 2011

New gold-catalyzed methods using the β-lactam scaffold have been recently developed for the synthesis of different sized hetero-cycles. This overview focuses on heterocyclization reactions of allenic and alkynic β-lactams which rely on the activation of the allene and alkyne component. The mechanism as well as the regio- and stereoselectivity of the cyclizations are also discussed. © 2011 Alcaide and Almendros.

Dominguez-Rodrigo M.,IDEA Institute Evolucion en africa | Dominguez-Rodrigo M.,Complutense University of Madrid | Martinez-Navarro B.,Rovira i Virgili University
Journal of Human Evolution | Year: 2012

The A.L. 894 site (Hadar, Ethiopia) is, together with OGS 7 (Gona, Ethiopia), one of the oldest archaeological sites documenting a spatial association of stone tools and bones retrieved from an in situ excavation. In contrast with OGS 7, the better preservation of the bone assemblage at A.L. 894 allows the identification of taphonomic processes of bone breakage, thanks to abundant green bone fractures. The presence of tooth marks and the lack of hominin-produced bone modifications together argue against hominins as the responsible agents for bone accumulation and modification. This taphonomic study of A.L. 894 shows lack of evidence for functional associations between stone tools and bones, a pattern documented in several other early Pleistocene sites. Such a pattern underscores the complex phenomena involved in site formation processes, especially in the earliest archaeological assemblages. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Vano E.,Complutense University of Madrid
Radiation Protection Dosimetry | Year: 2015

The purpose of this chapter is to describe work achieved recently by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and especially by Committee 3 (Protection in Medicine) and its use for standards. In March 1960, the Board of Governors of the International Atomic Energy Agency approved the Agency's 'Health and Safety Measures', stating that the Agency's 'Basic Safety Standards' (BSS) would be based, to the extent possible, on the recommendations of the ICRP. In a similar way, the Council of the European Union took into account the new recommendations of the ICRP when adopting the new Directive 2013/59/EURATOM that laid down BSS for protection against the dangers arising from exposure to ionising radiation. The new limit for the lens of the eyes for occupational exposures has been incorporated into these international standards and several articles dealing with medical exposures: justification, optimisation, recording patient doses, the use of diagnostic reference levels, training, accidental and unintended exposures, etc. have also been included in agreement with the ICRP recommendations. © The Author 2015.

Martinez-Frias M.L.,Institute of Health Carlos III ISCIII | Martinez-Frias M.L.,CIBER ISCIII | Martinez-Frias M.L.,Complutense University of Madrid
Journal of Medical Genetics | Year: 2010

Having identified teratogenic factors, primary prevention of congenital defects is possible by the implementation of specific measures in pregnant women or those planning pregnancy. Our current understanding of the epigenetic processes acting during reproductive events raises new possibilities to prevent both heritable and sporadic congenital anomalies. Cell differentiation during embryonice - fetal development involves different epigenetic processes which, if altered, may affect either somatic or germ cells. Epigenetic alterations can occur in somatic cells at different stages of life, from fecundation to adulthood, and when germ cells are affected, such changes can even be passed on to future generations. This review summarises the main epigenetic processes that influence gene expression and cell specification at different stages of development. The experimental and epidemiological evidence of environmental agents that cause epigenetic alterations is evaluated, as well as their effects in males and females. As a result, new avenues for primary prevention are proposed.

Luis A.,Complutense University of Madrid
Optics Express | Year: 2012

We show that metrological resolution in the detection of small phase shifts provides a suitable generalization of the degrees of coherence and polarization. Resolution is estimated via Fisher information. Besides the standard two-beam Gaussian case, this approach provides also good results for multiple field components and non-Gaussian statistics. This works equally well in quantum and classical optics. © 2012 Optical Society of America.

Coumou D.,Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research | Robinson A.,Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research | Robinson A.,Complutense University of Madrid | Rahmstorf S.,Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research
Climatic Change | Year: 2013

The last decade has produced record-breaking heat waves in many parts of the world. At the same time, it was globally the warmest since sufficient measurements started in the 19th century. Here we show that, worldwide, the number of local record-breaking monthly temperature extremes is now on average five times larger than expected in a climate with no long-term warming. This implies that on average there is an 80 % chance that a new monthly heat record is due to climatic change. Large regional differences exist in the number of observed records. Summertime records, which are associated with prolonged heat waves, increased by more than a factor of ten in some continental regions including parts of Europe, Africa, southern Asia and Amazonia. Overall, these high record numbers are quantitatively consistent with those expected for the observed climatic warming trend with added stationary white noise. In addition, we find that the observed records cluster both in space and in time. Strong El Niño years see additional records superimposed on the expected long-term rise. Under a medium global warming scenario, by the 2040s we predict the number of monthly heat records globally to be more than 12 times as high as in a climate with no long-term warming. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Porras D.,Complutense University of Madrid | Garcia-Ripoll J.J.,Institute Fisica Fundamental
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2012

We show that inducing sidebands in the emission of a single emitter into a one-dimensional waveguide, together with a dissipative repumping process, a photon field is cooled down to a multimode squeezed vacuum. Our method does not require being in the strong coupling regime, works with a continuum of propagating field modes, and leads to sources of tunable multimode squeezed light in circuit-QED systems. © 2012 American Physical Society.

The joint consequences of inbreeding, natural selection, and deleterious mutation on mean fitness after population shrinkage are of great importance in evolution and can be critical to the conservation of endangered populations. I present simple analytical equations that predict these consequences, improving and extending a previous heuristic treatment. Purge is defined as the "extra" selection induced by inbreeding, due to the "extra" fitness disadvantage (2d) of homozygotes for (partially) recessive deleterious alleles. Its effect is accounted for by using, instead of the classical inbreeding coefficient f, a purged inbreeding coefficient g that is weighed by the reduction of the frequency of deleterious alleles caused by purging. When the effective size of a large population is reduced to a smaller stable value N (with Nd ≥ 1), the purged inbreeding coefficient after t generations can be predicted as g t≤≠[(1 - 1/2N) g t-1 + 1/2N](1 - 2d f t-1), showing how purging acts upon previously accumulated inbreeding and how its efficiency increases with N. This implies an early fitness decay, followed by some recovery. During this process, the inbreeding depression rate shifts from its ancestral value (d) to that of the mutation-selection-drift balance corresponding to N (δ*), and standard selection cancels out the inbreeding depression ascribed to d*. Therefore, purge and inbreeding operate only upon the remaining δ -δ*. The method is applied to the conservation strategy in which family contributions to the breeding pool are equal and is extended to make use of genealogical information. All these predictions are checked using computer simulation. © 2012 by the Genetics Society of America.

Background: Patients with acne vulgaris often have impaired quality of life (QOL). The fixed-dose combination of benzoyl peroxide 5%/clindamycin 1% gel (BPO/C) topical gel provides an earlier onset of action and is more effective against inflammatory and total facial lesions than adapalene (AP) 0.1% gel. Objective: To compare BPO/C and AP with regard to the early effect on QOL, efficacy, and tolerability in patients with mild to moderate acne vulgaris. Methods: Patients were randomized to BPO/C or AP once nightly for 12 weeks in a multicentre, single-blind trial. The primary efficacy endpoint was QOL at week 2, assessed using the Skindex-29 questionnaire. Secondary endpoints included grading and counting of acne lesions; investigator assessments of peeling, erythema, and dryness, and patient-reported burning or itching. Adverse events were monitored during the study and during the 14-day minimum follow-up period. Results: A total of 168 patients were enrolled, and 114 patients completed the study. In the intent-to-treat population, after 2 weeks of treatment, BPO/C was associated with a small but noticeably better improvement in global QOL compared with AP (-4.9 versus -1.1; P<0.001). A greater reduction in both total and inflammatory lesions was noted from week 1 onward (P<0.05) with BPO/C versus AP. At all time points, BPO/C was better tolerated than AP for all investigator-rated (dryness, peeling, erythema) and patient-rated (burning, itching) events (P<0.036). Conclusions: BPO/C is associated with early improvements in QOL compared with AP. These QOL improvements are likely to be the result of better efficacy and tolerability outcomes observed with BPO/C. Copyright © 2012 Journal of Drugs in Dermatology.

Sutter G.D.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Deschamps J.-P.,Rovira i Virgili University | Imana J.L.,Complutense University of Madrid
IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics | Year: 2011

Modular exponentiation with large modulus and exponent, which is usually accomplished by repeated modular multiplications, has been widely used in public key cryptosystems. Typically, the Montgomery's modular-multiplication algorithm is used since no trial division is necessary, and the carrysave addition (CSA) is employed to reduce the critical path. In this paper, we optimize the Montgomery's multiplication and propose architectures to perform the least significant bit first and the most significant bit first algorithms. The developed architecture has the following distinctive characteristics: 1) use of digit serial approach for Montgomery multiplication. 2) Conversion of the CSA representation of intermediate multiplication using carryskip addition. This allows the critical path to be reduced, albeit with a small-area speed penalty; and 3) precompute the quotient value in Montgomery's iteration in order to speed up the operating frequency. In this paper, we present results in Xilinx Virtex 5 and in 0.18-μm application-specified integrated circuit technologies. For fair comparison with previous works, Xilinx Virtex 2 results are reported. Experimental results show that the proposed modular exponentiation and modular-multiplication design obtain the best delay performance compared with the published works and outperform them in terms of areatime complexity as well. © 2006 IEEE.

Berzosa A.,Complutense University of Madrid
Integrated environmental assessment and management | Year: 2014

In recent years, several methodologies have been developed for the quantification of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, determining who is responsible for these emissions is also quite challenging. The most common approach is to assign emissions to the producer (based on the Kyoto Protocol), but proposals also exist for its allocation to the consumer (based on an ecological footprint perspective) and for a hybrid approach called shared responsibility. In this study, the existing proposals and standards regarding the allocation of GHG emissions responsibilities are analyzed, focusing on their main advantages and problems. A new model of shared responsibility that overcomes some of the existing problems is also proposed. This model is based on applying the best available technologies (BATs). This new approach allocates the responsibility between the producers and the final consumers based on the real capacity of each agent to reduce emissions. The proposed approach is demonstrated using a simple case study of a 4-step life cycle of ammonia nitrate (AN) fertilizer production. The proposed model has the characteristics that the standards and publications for assignment of GHG emissions responsibilities demand. This study presents a new way to assign responsibilities that pushes all the actors in the production chain, including consumers, to reduce pollution. © 2013 SETAC.

Vaveliuk P.,Sao Paulo State Technological College | Martinez-Matos O.,Complutense University of Madrid
Optics Express | Year: 2011

The limits of the paraxial approximation for a laser beam under ABCD transformations is established through the relationship between a parameter concerning the beam paraxiality, the paraxial estimator, and the beam second-order moments. The applicability of such an estimator is extended to an optical system composed by optical elements as mirrors and lenses and sections of free space, what completes the analysis early performed for free-space propagation solely. As an example, the paraxiality of a system composed by free space and a spherical thin lens under the propagation of Hermite-Gauss and Laguerre-Gauss modes is established. The results show that the the paraxial approximation fails for a certain feasible range of values of main parameters. In this sense, the paraxial estimator is an useful tool to monitor the limits of the paraxial optics theory under ABCD transformations. © 2011 Optical Society of America.

Dominguez-Rodrigo M.,Complutense University of Madrid | Dominguez-Rodrigo M.,Institute Evolucion en Africa | Pickering T.R.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Pickering T.R.,University of Witwatersrand | Bunn H.T.,University of Wisconsin - Madison
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | Year: 2010

The announcement of two approximately 3.4-million-y-old purportedly butchered fossil bones from the Dikika paleoanthropological research area (Lower Awash Valley, Ethiopia) could profoundly alter our understanding of human evolution. Butchering damage on the Dikika bones would imply that tool-assisted meat-eating began approximately 800,000 y before previously thought, based on butchered bones from 2.6- to 2.5-million-y-old sites at the Ethiopian Gona and Bouri localities. Further, the only hominin currently known from Dikika at approximately 3.4 Ma is Australopithecus afarensis, a temporally and geographically widespread species unassociated previously with any archaeological evidence of butchering. Our taphonomic configurational approach to assess the claims of A. afarensis butchery at Dikika suggests the claims of unexpectedly early butchering at the site are not warranted. The Dikika research group focused its analysis on the morphology of the marks in question but failed to demonstrate, through recovery of similarly marked in situ fossils, the exact provenience of the published fossils, and failed to note occurrences of random striae on the cortices of the published fossils (incurred through incidental movementof the defleshed specimens across and/or within their abrasive encasing sediments). The occurrence of such random striae (sometimes called collectively "trampling" damage) on the two fossils provide the configurational context for rejection of the claimed butchery marks. The earliest best evidence for hominin butchery thus remains at 2.6 to 2.5 Ma, presumably associated with more derived species than A. afarensis.

Jimenez-Colmenero F.,CSIC - Institute of Refrigeration | Sanchez-Muniz F.J.,Complutense University of Madrid | Olmedilla-Alonso B.,CSIC - Institute of Refrigeration
Food Chemistry | Year: 2010

With growing understanding of the relationship between diet and health has come the emergence of so-called functional foods. The idea of using food for health purposes and not merely as a source of nutrients opens up a whole new field in the meat industry. In addition to traditional presentations, there a number of ways in which the meat sector can modify the qualitative and quantitative composition of meat and meat product components and produce designer foods with specific properties. This entails addressing quality factors associated with different product properties (sensory and technological properties, hygiene, convenience, stability, etc.), nutritional value (balanced composition and bioactive substances) and their effects on physiological function and health. This article reviews a comprehensive model for the development of meat-based functional foods based on a presentation of the research achieved in terms of the design and development of qualitatively and quantitatively modified meat products (through reformulation) in nutrients associated with cardiovascular risk (walnut as a source of bioactive substances). It also discusses their bioavailability and the effect of their consumption on intermediate cardiovascular risk markers in humans. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Fernandez I.,Complutense University of Madrid | Frenking G.,University of Marburg
Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics | Year: 2012

The structure and stability towards decomposition of eight novel noble gas compounds having a Xe-Xe bond, which have not been experimentally observed so far, have been studied computationally. In addition, the nature of the Xe-Xe interaction has been analysed by a combination of the most popular methods to study the bonding situation of molecules, i.e. Natural Bond Orbital, Atom in Molecules and Energy Decomposition Analysis methods. Two related series of compounds have been considered: HXeXeX (X = F to I) and RXeXeR′ (R = halogen atom). Our calculations indicate that the replacement of the fluorine atom by a heavier group 17 congener in the HXeXeX series leads to a less stable compound, thus making more difficult its experimental observation. The same effect occurs in the RXeXeR′ series, but these species are more kinetically protected against the decomposition reaction and therefore, their experimental detection is more likely. This journal is © 2012 the Owner Societies.

Quiroga J.A.,Complutense University of Madrid
Optics Express | Year: 2010

In Phase Stepping Interferometry (PSI) an interferogram sequence having a known, and constant phase shift between the interferograms is required. Here we take the case where this constant phase shift is unknown and the only assumption is that the interferograms do have a temporal carrier. To recover the modulating phase from the interferograms, we propose a self-tuning phase-shifting algorithm. Our algorithm estimates the temporal frequency first, and then this knowledge is used to estimate the interesting modulating phase. There are several well known iterative schemes published before, but our approach has the unique advantage of being very fast. Our new temporal carrier, and phase estimator is capable of obtaining a very good approximation of their temporal carrier in a single iteration. Numerical experiments are given to show the performance of this simple yet powerful self-tuning phase shifting algorithm. © 2009 Optical Society of America.

Mirabal N.,Complutense University of Madrid
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society | Year: 2013

Evidence of excess GeV emission nearly coinciding with the Galactic Centre has been interpreted as a possible signature of annihilating dark matter. In this paper, we argue that it seems too early to discard pulsars as a viable explanation for the observed excess. On the heels of the recently released Second Fermi LAT Pulsar Catalogue (2FPC), it is still possible that a population of hard (Γ<1) millisecond pulsars (MSPs) either endemic to the innermost region or part of a larger nascent collection of hard MSPs that appears to be emerging in the 2FPC could explain the GeV excess near theGalactic Centre. © 2013 The Author Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society.

The non-isothermal membrane distillation (MD) separation process is known for about 50. years and very few studies are reported on its economics, energy analysis and costs evaluations. Dispersed and confusing water production costs (WPC) and specific energy consumption (EC) analysis were reported. Most of them are simulated and others are based on various costs assumptions. At present, the common asked questions about the published papers in MD including EC and WPC are: how these reported calculations on WPC and EC were made?, what is the current WPC of MD?, and how WPC of MD can be improved?. An overview of most studies carried out on these issues is presented and some useful equations and information in this context are reported. Comparison to other separation processes used in desalination is made. At present, the main challenge for large-scale MD is EC and WPC. New directions on MD should be raised. More rigorous investigations and focused directions on economical analysis of MD systems should be conducted. A unified standard method for analysis and calculations should be followed to determine WPC. For the benefit of MD process, one should be cautious when reporting simulated, non-realistic and non-contrasted WPC. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Fernandez I.,Complutense University of Madrid | Cossio F.P.,University of the Basque Country
Current Organic Chemistry | Year: 2010

In this article, recent computational studies focused on double group transfer reactions and related processes are summarized. The reported results clearly indicate that these transformations can be considered as a subclass of pericyclic reactions occurring concertedly, with high activation barriers and synchronicity values, and through highly symmetric transition states. Interestingly, the aromatic nature of the latter saddle points has been also studied and discussed showing that they can be viewed as the in-plane analogues of sixmembered hetero-aromatic rings. Finally, the application of the so-called "Strain Model" on these important processes has demonstrated that the strain (the energy required to deform the reactants to the geometry they present in the corresponding transition state) is the major factor controlling the high barrier heights in spite of the stabilizing contribution of the aromaticity. © 2010 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd.

Sanchez A.,Complutense University of Madrid
The Spanish journal of psychology | Year: 2013

Emotional faces are commonly used as stimuli in a wide number of research fields. The present study provides values of 198 pictures from one of the amplest available face databases, the Karolinska Directed Emotional Faces (KDEF). We used a new validation strategy that consisted of presenting pairs of faces which included an emotional face (i.e., angry, happy, sad) and its corresponding neutral face from the same model. This design allowed participants to keep a comparison face (i.e., neutral) as a constant anchor point to evaluate parameters on each emotional expression presented. Raters were asked to judge both the prototypicality of the emotional expressions (i.e., the degree to which they represent their corresponding emotional prototypes) as well as their emotional intensity. We finally discuss the potential advantages of this anchor-point method as a system to elicit judgments on facial emotional expressions.

OBJECTIVE:: To evaluate the efficacy of a cleansing eyelid wipe in reducing the microbiota present on the ocular surface before cataract surgery. METHODS:: A single-center, prospective, single-blind phase IV study was conducted at the University Complutense of Madrid. Forty-five adult patients who were scheduled for ocular surgery after treatment with commercially available eyelid wipes were consecutively enrolled. The study lasted 5 days and the patients were examined at day 0 (D0), day 3 (D3), and day 5 (D5). They received instructions to apply the eyelid wipe only to the eye subject to surgery, using the other eye as a control with no treatment. Lid and conjunctival swabs were taken on each day and microbes identified. Ocular surface microbiota was estimated by measuring the area of the agar plate occupied by the grown colonies with respect to the total available area. RESULTS:: Measurements at D3 and D5 showed a percent reduction of 58% and 63%, respectively, in the microbial load on the eyelid in the treated eyes (P=0.0011). There was also a reduction, although nonsignificant, in the microbiota of the conjunctiva of 72% and 69% on D3 and D5, respectively. CONCLUSIONS:: The degree of microbiota reduction was comparable with that obtained after topical application of antibiotics in other studies. The results suggest the use of these eyelid wipes as a complementary prophylactic method before any ocular surgery.This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives License 4.0 (CC BY-NC-ND), which permits downloading and sharing the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially. © 2015 Contact Lens Association of Ophthalmologists, Inc.

Parra A.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Reboredo S.,Complutense University of Madrid | Martin Castro A.M.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Aleman J.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry | Year: 2012

This perspective article provides a general overview of the most relevant topics in the applications of chiral metallic organophosphates. A brief introduction along with a historic comparative profile of the BINOL and phosphoric acid analogues are given. Next, a selection of the most outstanding uses of the catalysts according to the employed metal is presented. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Poch C.,Complutense University of Madrid | Campo P.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Campo P.,Polytechnic University of Mozambique
Frontiers in Human Neuroscience | Year: 2012

Working memory (WM) is the ability to transiently maintain and manipulate internal representations beyond its external availability to the senses. This process is thought to support high level cognitive abilities and been shown to be strongly predictive of individual intelligence and reasoning abilities. While early models of WM have relied on a modular perspective of brain functioning, more recent evidence suggests that cognitive functions emerge from the interactions of multiple brain regions to generate large-scale networks. Here we will review the current research on functional connectivity of WM processes to highlight the critical role played by neural interactions in healthy and pathological brain states. Recent findings demonstrate that WM abilities are not determined solely by local brain activity, but also rely on the functional coupling of neocortical-hippocampal regions to support WM processes. Although the hippocampus has long been held to be important for long-term declarative memory, recent evidence suggests that the hippocampus may also be necessary to coordinate disparate cortical regions supporting the periodic reactivation of internal representations in WM. Furthermore, recent brain imaging studies using connectivity measures, have shown that changes in cortico-limbic interactions can be useful to characterize WM impairments observed in different neuropathological conditions. Recent advances in electrophysiological and neuroimaging techniques to model network activity has led to important insights into how neocortical and hippocampal regions support WM processes and how disruptions along this network can lead to the memory impairments commonly reported in many neuropathological populations. ©2012 Pochand Campo.

Gervas P.,Complutense University of Madrid
Literary and Linguistic Computing | Year: 2014

Stories of several characters, where different characters may engage in separate activities at different locations over the same period, are produced by humans as linear discourses with no difficulty. The present article addresses this issue by engineering a computational model of the relevant task understood as that of composing a narrative discourse for the events in a chess game. The task of narrative composition is modelled as a set of operations that need to be carried out to obtain a span of narrative discourse from a set of events that inspire the narration. The model explores a set of intermediate representations required to capture the structure that is progressively imposed on the material, and connects this content planning task with a classic pipeline for natural language generation. Several strategies are explored for the linearization procedure and for the evaluation of its results. Additionally, the article considers this productive task immersed in a self-evaluation cycle where the produced discourse is validated via the construction of a possible interpretation (based exclusively on the information available in the discourse itself) and a comparison between this interpretation and the original source material. © The Author 2014.

Garcia-Perez M.A.,Complutense University of Madrid
Scientometrics | Year: 2014

Journals are increasingly making use of online supplemental information (OSI) as a means to convey part of the material previously included in the papers themselves. Quite often, material displaced to OSI is accompanied by references that, with rare exceptions, are not incorporated into citation databases. An analysis of OSI in a random sample of papers published in 2013 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA revealed that unique references only listed in OSI amount to more than 10 % of the number of references included in the papers themselves. Obliteration of these references in citation databases contributes to substantial inaccuracies in citation counts, with a bias against papers that are cited only in the methods sections usually displaced to OSI. © 2014, Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary.

The central role of carbohydrates in medicinal chemistry has stimulated intensive research in the last few years to develop simpler and more efficient routes for their preparation. Among them, routes starting from simple and achiral building blocks have received particular attention considering their efficiency in terms of cost process and atom economy. Recent developments in the field of biocatalytic asymmetric aldol reactions have allowed the preparation of complex carbohydrate derivatives with high degrees of sophistication (up to five chiral centers). Starting from simple and achiral building blocks, such as dihydroxyacetone, glycolaldehyde, and formaldehyde, the reactions were found to proceed under complete stereocontrol. The aim of this review is to cover the most significant advances in the preparation of carbohydrate derivatives through asymmetric aldol reactions within the last five years. Selected examples include the preparation of rare natural d-sugars such as d-psicose, non-natural l-sugars and azasugars, as well as iminocyclitols or homo(iminocyclitols), C-arylcarbohydrates, etc. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Martin-Hernandez F.,Complutense University of Madrid | Garcia-Hernandez M.M.,CSIC - Institute of Materials Science
Geophysical Journal International | Year: 2010

The applied fields in previous studies of goethite's magnetic properties were often not sufficiently high to reach reversible magnetization behaviour of the hard magnetic iron oxide (α-FeOOH). Existing data of its magnetic anisotropy constant are fairly scattered that hampers the further development of more elaborate models of remanence acquisition, magnetic susceptibility behaviour or trends in microcoercivity. Classic rock magnetic properties (magnetization of remanence Mr, saturation magnetization Ms and coercive force Bc) and the first anisotropy constant K on six goethite natural crystals have been determined at room and low temperature using hysteresis up to 9 T. After a detailed analysis of the magnetic properties of the samples, a mean value of K = 90 ± 20 Jm-3 has been evaluated at room temperature and K = 210 ± 40 Jm-3 at 5 K for pure goethite. © 2010 The Authors Journal compilation © 2010 RAS.

This communication displays some of our on-going research on the incompleteness of China's advances toward "best practice" in policy-making and institution-building for renewables. In particular, this paper: (1) summarizes how Chinese policies and institutions for the deployment of renewable electricity are only partially compliant with what is internationally recognized as "best practice"; and (2) contextualizes Chinese policies and institutions for renewables in the broader picture of China's political economy. Much as a political economy perspective has aided the understanding of why Chinese economic reforms were partial and unique, the said contextualization might help explain why China's policies and institutions for renewables diverge from "best practice". Further, given that China proved successful in promoting its economic growth with partial and unique reforms, the partiality and uniqueness of its renewables policies and institutions need not impede the rapid development of renewable electricity. This on-going research has so far combined a review of specialized literature and the business press with semi-structured interviews held with relevant actors in policy, business, and research related to renewable energies. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Arevalo M.-A.,Instituto Cajal | Azcoitia I.,Complutense University of Madrid | Garcia-Segura L.M.,Instituto Cajal
Nature Reviews Neuroscience | Year: 2015

Hormones regulate homeostasis by communicating through the bloodstream to the body's organs, including the brain. As homeostatic regulators of brain function, some hormones exert neuroprotective actions. This is the case for the ovarian hormone 17β-oestradiol, which signals through oestrogen receptors (ERs) that are widely distributed in the male and female brain. Recent discoveries have shown that oestradiol is not only a reproductive hormone but also a brain-derived neuroprotective factor in males and females and that ERs coordinate multiple signalling mechanisms that protect the brain from neurodegenerative diseases, affective disorders and cognitive decline. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Alonso Zotes F.,Technical University of Madrid | Santos Penas M.,Complutense University of Madrid
Information Sciences | Year: 2010

The aim of this paper is to study the use of a genetic algorithm (GA) to optimise the ascent trajectory of a conventional two-stage launcher. The equations of motion of this system lack analytical solutions, and the number of adjustable parameters is large enough that the use of some non-traditional optimisation method becomes necessary. Two different missions are considered: first, to reach the highest possible stable, circular Low Earth Orbit (LEO); and second, to maximise the speed of a tangential escape trajectory. In this study, three variables are tuned and optimised by the GA in order to satisfy mission constraints while maximising the target function. The technical characteristics and limitations of the launcher are taken into account in the mission model, and a fixed payload weight is assumed. A variable mutation rate helps expand the search area whenever the population of solutions becomes uniform, and is shown to accelerate convergence of the GA in both cases. The obtained results are in agreement with technical specifications and solutions obtained in the past. © 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Garcia-Vela A.,Institute Fisica Fundamental | Banares L.,Complutense University of Madrid
Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics | Year: 2011

The effect of changing the temporal width of the pump and probe pulses in the time-resolved photodissociation of CH3I in the A-band has been investigated using multisurface nonadiabatic wave packet calculations. The effect is analyzed by examining properties like the photodissociation reaction times and the CH3 fragment vibrational and rotational distributions, by using four different widths of the pump and probe pulses, namely pulses with full-width-at-half-maximum of 100, 50, 20, and 10 fs. Simulations are carried out for two different excitation wavelengths, 295 and 230 nm, located to the red and to the blue of the maximum of the absorption spectrum, in order to explore possible effects of the excitation wavelength. The reaction times are found to decrease significantly with decreasing pulse temporal width. The times associated with the CH3 + I*(2P1/2) dissociation channels decrease more remarkably than those of the CH3 + I(2P3/2) channels. The results indicate that for excitation wavelengths located to the blue of the absorption spectrum maximum the effect of changing the pulse width is less pronounced than for wavelengths to the red of the spectrum maximum. On the contrary, the CH3 vibrational and rotational distributions show little variation upon large changes in the pulse width. The trends found are explained in terms of the changes in the spectral bandwidth of the pulses and of the shape and slope of the absorption spectrum at the different excitation wavelengths. © the Owner Societies.

Garcia-Villamisar D.A.,Complutense University of Madrid | Dattilo J.,Pennsylvania State University
Journal of Intellectual Disability Research | Year: 2010

Background: Even though there is research demonstrating a positive relationship between leisure participation and the two constructs of quality of life and stress reduction, current conceptualisation of leisure as a contributor to quality of life is limited. In addition, in spite of improvements in accurate diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) at increasingly earlier ages and proliferation of interventions, research associated with leisure and quality of life for people with ASD is lacking. Methods: Therefore, a study using a repeated measures design was used to measure effects of a 1-year group leisure programme intended to facilitate interaction with media, engagement in exercise, playing games and doing crafts, attending events, and participating in other recreation activities on quality of life and stress of 37 participants (22 male, 15 female), ages 17-39 (M = 31.49) years at the beginning of the programme) diagnosed with an ASD and a group of 34 adults with ASD as control group (waiting list) (19 male, 15 female), ages 24-38 (M = 30 at programme initiation) years. Results: There was a significant decrease in overall scores of stress levels for participants over the course of the study and there was a significant increase in the four factors of quality of life that were measured (satisfaction, independence, competence and social interaction) as well as the total score for quality of life from baseline to the end of the intervention 12 months later. In contrast, the control group demonstrated no significant improvements related to stress or quality of life. Implications of these findings to leisure services and the quality of life of individuals with ASD are discussed. Conclusion: Findings support the contention that participation in recreation activities positively influenced the stress and quality of life of adults with ASD. © 2010 The Authors. Journal Compilation © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Guo Z.-H.,Hebei Normal University | Guo Z.-H.,University of Murcia | Oller J.A.,University of Murcia | De Elvira J.R.,Complutense University of Madrid
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2012

In this work, we perform the one-loop calculation of the scalar and pseudoscalar form factors in the framework of U(3) chiral perturbation theory with explicit tree level exchanges of resonances. The meson-meson scattering calculation from Guo and Oller is extended as well. The spectral functions of the nonet scalar-scalar (SS) and pseudoscalar-pseudoscalar (PP) correlators are constructed by using the corresponding form factors. After fitting the unknown parameters to the scattering data, we discuss the resonance content of the resulting scattering amplitudes. We also study spectral-function sum rules in the SS-SS, PP-PP, and SS-PP sectors as well as semilocal duality from scattering. The former relate the scalar and pseudoscalar spectra between themselves while the latter mainly connects the scalar spectrum with the vector one. Finally we investigate these items as a function of N C for N C>3. All these results pose strong constraints on the scalar dynamics and spectroscopy that are discussed. They are successfully fulfilled by our meson-meson scattering amplitudes and spectral functions. © 2012 American Physical Society.

Calatayud J.O.,Complutense University of Madrid
The European journal of esthetic dentistry : official journal of the European Academy of Esthetic Dentistry | Year: 2010

The objective of the present study was to assess the clinical efficacy of a dental bleaching system based on hydrogen peroxide with or without light activation. This randomized controlled trial evaluated the effect of the light when applied to the hydrogen peroxide by using a split-mouth design with 21 patients, with light activation in one hemi-arch but not in the other. The bleaching agent was QuickWhite 35% hydrogen peroxide and activation was conducted with a diode lamp (Luma Cool). The Classic Vita Guide was used to score tooth shades. Two consecutive applications of hydrogen peroxide were made to one hemi-arch, each light-activated for 10 min. The other hemi-arch was then identically treated but without light activation. After removal of the bleaching agent, the shade was re-scored and the Wilcoxon signed ranks test was used to compare differences in tooth shade values. The bleaching treatment produced significant shade changes (P < 0.01) in both hemi-arches. After treatment, there were no statistically significant differences between light-treated and non-light-treated tooth types (central incisors, lateral incisors, and canines). However, taking central incisor, lateral incisor, and canine as a group, comparison between each hemi-arch showed a significant effect in the hemi-arch with light activation (P < 0.05). The use of diode light with a 35% hydrogen peroxide gel slightly improved the dental bleaching.

Sanchez-Ramos C.,Complutense University of Madrid
Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology | Year: 2010

Introduction: An essential role for metalloproteases (MMPs) has been described in blood vessel neoformation and the removal of cell debris. MMPs also play a key role in degenerative processes and in tumors. The participation of these enzymes in light-induced phototoxic processes is supported by both experimental and clinical data. Given that patients with age-related macular degeneration often show deposits, or drusen, these deposits could be the consequence of deficient MMP production by the pigment epithelium. Objective: To gain insight into the regulation of metalloproteases in the pathogenia of retinal degeneration induced by light. Materials and Methods: We examined the eyes of experimental rabbits exposed for 2 years to circadian cycles of white light, blue light and white light lacking short wavelengths. For the trial the animals had been implanted with a transparent intraocular lens (IOL) and a yellow AcrySof® IOL, one in each eye. After sacrificing the animals, the retinal layer was dissected from the eye and processed for gene expression analyses in which we examined the behavior of MMP-2, MMP-3 and MMP-9. Results: MMP-2 expression was unaffected by the light received and type of IOL. However, animals exposed to white light devoid of short wavelengths or those fitted with a yellow IOL showed 2.9- and 3.6-fold increases in MMP-3 expression, respectively compared to controls. MMP-9 expression levels were also 3.1 times higher following exposure to blue light and 4.6 times higher following exposure to white light lacking short wavelengths or 4.2 times higher in eyes implanted with a yellow IOL. Conclusion: Exposure to long periods of light irrespective of its characteristics leads to the increased expression of some MMPs. This alteration could indicate damage to the extracellular matrix and have detrimental effects on the retina. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010.

Carmona P.,CSIC - Institute for the Structure of Matter | Molina M.,Complutense University of Madrid | Toledano A.,Instituto Cajal
Current Alzheimer Research | Year: 2016

New concepts about Alzheimer’s disease (AD), considered as a clinical-biological entity, make essential the definition of biomarkers that could be used for the in vivo diagnosis of the disorder before dementia develops. Different types of genetic, biochemical and neuroimaging markers have been described, highlighting some of the changes that occur in the brain during the course of the disease, yet there is little proof of their pathognomonic and diagnostic value. Furthermore, many of the assays used are difficult to perform, the equipment/reagents are expensive or potentially hazardous (e.g.; use of radioactive compounds, CSF extraction). Thus, there is a need to define more suitable and convenient approaches, such as the determination of blood parameters that are easy to obtain and that can be repeated as necessary without contraindications. These data can be used by algorithms that combine specific and non-specific changes to classify patients at different stages of AD and/or distinguish AD from other related diseases with a greater specificity and reliability (> 80%). The blood parameters considered in this review are varied, including: β-amyloid, tau, apolipoproteins and proteins, as well as the metabolic behavior of blood cells, etc. Among the proteins, cytokines/chemokines and other cell factors related to both neuro-inflammatory and peripheral-inflammatory processes in AD are of prime importance. New technologies to detect and quantify these substances, reasonably priced such as the vibrational spectroscopy, panels of parameters and algorithms to assess the results, would be fundamental for the early AD diagnosis and to define new potential therapies. © 2016 Bentham Science Publishers.

Emotional disorders (ED), including anxiety, mood and adaptive disorders, and somatization share common pathways with psychosocial factors, such as stress, high levels of anxiety or negative emotionality, and are very common in primary care (PC). The frequency of PC visits made by these patients and the low efficacy of non-established evidencebased usual treatments have promoted the implementation of psychological intervention programmes of a cognitive-behavioural type to help improve the effectiveness and efficiency rates, following the recommendations of high-quality clinical guidelines. This paper proposes an integrative approach for ED and somatization based on emotional regulation problems (elevated cognitive biases and unadaptive emotional learning) that defends the possibility of reversing the cognitive-emotional processes involved in the onset of these disorders, using cognitive-behavioural techniques, especially cognitive restructuring and exposure. In addition, we analyse and discuss the theoretical foundations of these techniques (which can act as the psychological support of collaborative programmes), according to the principles of proper emotion regulation (cognitive bias reduction and adaptive emotional learning). Finally, the dissemination of these effective psychological treatments is recommended, with a transdiagnostic focus and Internetbased homework, through the implementation of collaborative stepped programmes in PC. © Copyright 2011: de los Editores de Ansiedad y Estrés.

Iglesias M.E.L.,Rey Juan Carlos University | De Bengoa Vallejo R.B.,Complutense University of Madrid
Dimensions of Critical Care Nursing | Year: 2013

Stress, burnout, and job satisfaction have become increasingly important in nursing environments over the last 20 years. For critical care nurses, the work environment is extremely stressful, even for the best-prepared professional. The aims of this study were to measure the prevalence of burnout syndrome, job satisfaction, job stress, and clinical manifestations of stress and to demonstrate the relationship between these variables among Spanish critical care nurses with a convenience sample of 74. Results showed a moderate frequency of nursing stress, high frequency of emotional exhaustion, and negative evaluation of career accompanied by moderate development of negative attitudes toward patients (depersonalization). Other findings are also presented. Copyright © 2013 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Banares R.,Complutense University of Madrid
Current gastroenterology reports | Year: 2013

Liver support systems aim to provide temporary support of liver function while maintaining extra-hepatic function in patients with liver failure. Important advances have been achieved in the design of artificial and bio-artificial devices, but the current systems are far from meeting the ideal. Artificial devices provide detoxification through different dialysis procedures, whereas bio-artificial devices add synthetic functions by incorporating a cellular component into the system. Overall, liver support systems have consistently shown beneficial effects on the pathophysiology of liver failure, especially in acute-on-chronic liver failure. However, these beneficial effects have not been translated into an improvement of survival. Our review discusses the current evidence, paying special attention to the clinical aspects of (bio)-artificial liver support devices.

Rey A.A.,Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz | Purrio M.,Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz | Viveros M.-P.,Complutense University of Madrid | Lutz B.,Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz
Neuropsychopharmacology | Year: 2012

Biphasic effects of cannabinoids have been shown in processes such as feeding behavior, motor activity, motivational processes and anxiety responses. Using two different tests for the characterization of anxiety-related behavior (elevated plus-maze and holeboard), we first identified in wild-type C57BL/6N mice, two doses of the synthetic CB1 cannabinoid receptor agonist CP-55,940 with anxiolytic (1 μg/kg) and anxiogenic properties (50 μg/kg), respectively. To clarify the role of CB1 receptors in this biphasic effect, both doses were applied to two different conditional CB1 receptor knockout (KO) mouse lines, GABA-CB1-KO (CB1 receptor inactivation in forebrain GABAergic neurons) and Glu-CB1-KO (CB1 receptor inactivation in cortical glutamatergic neurons). We found that the anxiolytic-like effects of the low dose of cannabinoids are mediated via the CB1 receptor on cortical glutamatergic terminals, because this anxiolytic-like response was abrogated only in Glu-CB1-KO mice. On the contrary, the CB1 receptor on the GABAergic terminals is required to induce an anxiogenic-like effect under a high-dose treatment because of the fact that this effect was abolished specifically in GABA-CB1-KO mice. These experiments were carried out in both sexes, and no differences occurred with the doses tested in the mutant mice. Interestingly, the positive allosteric modulation of GABA B receptor with GS-39783 was found to largely abrogate the anxiogenic-like effect of the high dose of CP-55,940. Our results shed new light in further understanding the biphasic effects of cannabinoids at the molecular level and, importantly, pave the way for the development of novel anxiolytic cannabinoid drugs, which may have favorable effect profiles targeting the CB1 receptor on glutamatergic terminals. © 2012 American College of Neuropsychopharmacology.

Sanz-Bravo A.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Campos J.,Hospital Universitario Puerta Of Hierro Majadahonda | Mazariegos M.S.,Complutense University of Madrid | Lopez De Castro J.A.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Arthritis and Rheumatology | Year: 2015

Objective To characterize the alterations, as well as their mechanisms, induced in the HLA-B27-bound peptidome expressed in live cells by the natural ERAP1 polymorphisms predisposing to ankylosing spondylitis (AS): R528K and N575D/Q725R. Methods HLA-B27:05-bound peptides were isolated from 3 human lymphoid cell lines expressing distinct ERAP1 variants differing at residues 528 and/or 575/725. The high-performance liquid chromatography-fractionated peptide pools were compared by mass spectrometry based on identity of molecular mass and chromatographic retention time. The relative amount of each shared peptide in any given cell line pair was estimated from the respective ion peak intensities. Peptide sequencing was also carried out by mass spectrometry. Results HLA-B27-bound ligands predominant in the context of the ERAP1 variant with K528 collectively showed higher molecular mass, higher frequency of N-terminal residues resistant to ERAP1, and bulkier residues downstream of the N-terminus, relative to peptides predominant in the R528 context. None of these differences were observed with ERAP1 variants differing at positions 575/725, but not at residue 528. Neither R528K nor N575D/Q725R altered the mean length of B27:05-bound ligands. Conclusion The R528K, but not the N575D/Q725R, polymorphism alters the expression levels of many HLA-B27:05-bound peptides, depending on the susceptibility of their N-terminal residues to trimming and depending on the size of the amino acid side chains at multiple positions downstream of the N-terminus. The significant alterations in the B27:05 peptidome and the structural features of the peptides that determine their differential expression in distinct ERAP1 contexts account for the association of the R528K polymorphism with AS. Copyright © 2015 by the American College of Rheumatology.

Martinon-Torres M.,National Research Center on Human Evolution | Bermudez De Castro J.M.,National Research Center on Human Evolution | Gomez-Robles A.,National Research Center on Human Evolution | Prado-Simon L.,National Research Center on Human Evolution | Arsuaga J.L.,Complutense University of Madrid
Journal of Human Evolution | Year: 2012

The systematic excavation of the Sima de los Huesos (SH) site in Sierra de Atapuerca (Burgos, Spain) has yielded the largest hominin collection worldwide for the Middle Pleistocene. The dental sample now consists of more than 500 teeth that provide exceptional opportunities to define the dental morphological pattern of a Middle Pleistocene population as well as develop hypotheses about the origins of the Neanderthals. The dental collection has now increased to over 533 specimens (525 permanent and 8 deciduous teeth), necessitating new morphological assessments. Thus, we present a detailed morphological description of the SH permanent dentition recovered up to 2007, accomplishing comparisons with European Middle Pleistocene hominins, Neanderthals, and early and contemporary Homo sapiens. We find that SH dentitions present all the morphological traits that, either in their degree of expression, frequency, or particular combination, are usually considered as typical of Homo neanderthalensis. This study ratifies the deep roots of the Neanderthal lineage in the Middle Pleistocene of Europe. In addition, SH teeth are morphologically " more Neanderthal" than other penecontemporaneous Middle Pleistocene samples such as Mauer or Arago, and even more derived than some classic Neanderthal samples. Thus, our study would not sustain the linearity of the accretion process hypothesized for the origins of the Neanderthals, and we suggest that other evolutionary models and scenarios should be explored for the Middle and Upper Pleistocene of Europe. We propose that more than one hominin lineage may have coexisted during the Middle Pleistocene in Europe. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Cubitt T.S.,Complutense University of Madrid | Chen J.,University of Guelph | Chen J.,University of Waterloo | Harrow A.W.,University of Washington
IEEE Transactions on Information Theory | Year: 2011

The zero-error classical capacity of a quantum channel is the asymptotic rate at which it can be used to send classical bits perfectly so that they can be decoded with zero probability of error. We show that there exist pairs of quantum channels, neither of which individually have any zero-error capacity whatsoever (even if arbitrarily many uses of the channels are available), but such that access to even a single copy of both channels allows classical information to be sent perfectly reliably. In other words, we prove that the zero-error classical capacity can be superactivated. This result is the first example of superactivation of a classical capacity of a quantum channel. © 2006 IEEE.

Herrero J.,University of Alcala | Esteban-Carrasco A.,Complutense University of Madrid | Zapata J.M.,University of Alcala
Plant Physiology and Biochemistry | Year: 2013

Monolignol polymerization into lignin is catalyzed by peroxidases or laccases. Recently, a Zinnia elegans peroxidase (ZePrx) that is considered responsible for monolignol polymerization in this plant has been molecularly and functionally characterized. Nevertheless, Arabidopsis thaliana has become an alternative model plant for studies of lignification, filling the gaps that may occur with Z.elegans. The arabidopsis genome offers the possibility of performing bioinformatic analyses and data mining that are not yet feasible with other plant species, in order to obtain preliminary evidence on the role of genes and proteins.In our search for arabidopsis homologs to the ZePrx, we performed an exhaustive in silico characterization of everything from the protein to the transcript of Arabidopsis thaliana peroxidases (AtPrxs) homologous to ZePrx, with the aim of identifying one or more peroxidases that may be involved in monolignol polymerization.Nine peroxidases (AtPrx 4, 5, 52, 68, 67, 36, 14, 49 and 72) with an E-value greater than 1e-80 with ZePrx were selected for this study. The results demonstrate that a high level of 1D, 2D and 3D homology between these AtPrxs and ZePrx are not always accompanied by the presence of the same electrostatic and mRNA properties that indicate a peroxidase is involved in lignin biosynthesis.In summary, we can confirm that the peroxidases involved in lignification are among AtPrx 4, 52, 49 and 72. Their structural and mRNA features indicate that exert their action in the cell wall similar to ZePrx. © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS.

Vargas J.,CSIC - National Center for Biotechnology | Antonio Quiroga J.,Complutense University of Madrid | Sorzano C.O.S.,CSIC - National Center for Biotechnology | Carazo J.M.,CSIC - National Center for Biotechnology
Optics Letters | Year: 2012

This Letter presents an efficient, fast, and straightforward two-step demodulating method based on a Gram-Schmidt (GS) orthonormalization approach. The phase-shift value has not to be known and can take any value inside the range (0.2π), excluding the singular case, where it corresponds to π. The proposed method is based on determining an orthonormalized interferogram basis from the two supplied interferograms using the GS method. We have applied the proposed method to simulated and experimental interferograms, obtaining satisfactory results. A complete MATLAB software package is provided at http://goo.gl/IZKF3. © 2012 Optical Society of America.

Schaffner-Barbero C.,CSIC - Biological Research Center | Martin-Fontecha M.,Complutense University of Madrid | Chacon P.,CSIC - Institute of Physical Chemistry "Rocasolano" | Andreu J.M.,CSIC - Biological Research Center
ACS Chemical Biology | Year: 2012

FtsZ is the key protein of bacterial cell division and an emergent target for new antibiotics. It is a filament-forming GTPase and a structural homologue of eukaryotic tubulin. A number of FtsZ-interacting compounds have been reported, some of which have powerful antibacterial activity. Here we review recent advances and new approaches in modulating FtsZ assembly with small molecules. This includes analyzing their chemical features, binding sites, mechanisms of action, the methods employed, and computational insights, aimed at a better understanding of their molecular recognition by FtsZ and at rational antibiotic design. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

Hein J.E.,Scripps Research Institute | Hein J.E.,University of California at Merced | Huynh Cao B.,University of California at Merced | Viedma C.,Complutense University of Madrid | And 2 more authors.
Journal of the American Chemical Society | Year: 2012

Insights into the mechanism of attrition-enhanced deracemization and resolution of solid enantiomorphic chiral compounds are obtained by crystal size and solubility measurements and by isotopic labeling experiments. Together these results help to deconvolute the various chemical and physical rate processes contributing to the phenomenon. Crystal size measurements highlight a distinct correlation between the stochastic, transient growth of crystals and the emergence of a single solid enantiomorph under attrition conditions. The rapid mass transfer of molecules between the solution and solid phases under attrition is demonstrated, and the concept of a crystal-size-induced solubility driving force is exploited to overcome the stochastic nature of the crystal growth and dissolution processes. Extension to non-racemizing conditions provides a novel methodology for chiral resolution. Implications both for practical chiral separations and for the origin of biological homochirality are discussed. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

Tamargo J.,Complutense University of Madrid | Solini A.,University of Pisa | Ruilope L.M.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Seminars in Nephrology | Year: 2014

The first aldosterone blocker, spironolactone, initially was used as a diuretic but was accompanied by a significant amount of side effects that necessitated the withdrawal of the drug in a relevant number of patients. The discovery of the many receptor-mediated actions of aldosterone in several different organs greatly contributed to expand the indications of aldosterone blockers. Eplerenone was the second component of this class of drugs and differed from spironolactone because of its significantly better safety, albeit this was accompanied by a lower potency when used at equinumeric doses. Although these two drugs were being used in clinical practice, the epithelial sodium channel blockers, amiloride and triamterene, with a similar antialdosterone action, continued to be used in clinical practice in combination with thiazides and loop diuretics. New members of the third and fourth generation of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists and aldosterone synthase inhibitors are in development. These new compounds, which include the new nonsteroidal mineralocorticoid-receptor antagonists and aldosterone synthase inhibitors, try to maintain adequate efficacy, avoiding the drawbacks of spironolactone and eplerenone. Ongoing studies will show the certainty of the capacities of these new compounds to override the virtues of the first mineralocorticoid-receptor spironolactone while avoiding the side effects leading so frequently to the withdrawal of the drug, including a significantly lower prevalence of hyperkalemia when chronic kidney disease is present. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

Schleyer P.V.R.,University of Georgia | Wu J.I.,University of Georgia | Cossio F.P.,University of the Basque Country | Fernandez I.,Complutense University of Madrid
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2014

Aromaticity is an essential concept in chemistry, employed to account for the unusual stability, reactivity, molecular structures, and other properties of many unsaturated organic compounds. This concept was later extended to inorganic molecules and to saturated systems with mobile electrons, as well as to transition structures, the focus of the present review. Although transition structures are inherently delocalized, not all exhibit aromaticity. We contrast here examples of pericyclic reaction transition structures (where aromaticity is significant) with those for illustrative pseudo-pericyclic reactions (where aromaticity is less or not important). Non-pericyclic reactions may also have aromatic transition structures. State-of-the-art computational methods to evaluate the aromaticity of transition structures are described briefly. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014.

Mottaghy D.,Geophysica Beratungsgesellschaft GmbH | Schwamborn G.,Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research | Rath V.,Complutense University of Madrid
Climate of the Past | Year: 2013

This study focuses on the temperature field observed in boreholes drilled as part of interdisciplinary scientific campaign targeting the El'gygytgyn Crater Lake in NE Russia. Temperature data are available from two sites: the lake borehole 5011-1 located near the center of the lake reaching 400 m depth, and the land borehole 5011-3 at the rim of the lake, with a depth of 140 m. Constraints on permafrost depth and past climate changes are derived from numerical simulation of the thermal regime associated with the lake-related talik structure. The thermal properties of the subsurface needed for these simulations are based on laboratory measurements of representative cores from the quaternary sediments and the underlying impact-affected rock, complemented by further information from geophysical logs and data from published literature.

The temperature observations in the lake borehole 5011-1 are dominated by thermal perturbations related to the drilling process, and thus only give reliable values for the lowermost value in the borehole. Undisturbed temperature data recorded over more than two years are available in the 140 m deep land-based borehole 5011-3. The analysis of these observations allows determination of not only the recent mean annual ground surface temperature, but also the ground surface temperature history, though with large uncertainties. Although the depth of this borehole is by far too insufficient for a complete reconstruction of past temperatures back to the Last Glacial Maximum, it still affects the thermal regime, and thus permafrost depth. This effect is constrained by numerical modeling: assuming that the lake borehole observations are hardly influenced by the past changes in surface air temperature, an estimate of steady-state conditions is possible, leading to a meaningful value of 14 ± 5 K for the post-glacial warming. The strong curvature of the temperature data in shallower depths around 60 m can be explained by a comparatively large amplitude of the Little Ice Age (up to 4 K), with low temperatures prevailing far into the 20th century. Other mechanisms, like varying porosity, may also have an influence on the temperature profile, however, our modeling studies imply a major contribution from recent climate changes. © Author(s) 2013.

Peropadre B.,Institute Fisica Fundamental IFF CSIC | Zueco D.,University of Zaragoza | Porras D.,Complutense University of Madrid | Porras D.,University of Sussex | Garcia-Ripoll J.J.,Institute Fisica Fundamental IFF CSIC
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2013

The time and space resolved dynamics of a qubit with an Ohmic coupling to propagating 1D photons is studied, from weak coupling to the ultrastrong coupling regime. A nonperturbative study based on matrix product states shows the following results, (i) The ground state of the combined systems contains excitations of both the qubit and the surrounding bosonic field. (ii) An initially excited qubit equilibrates through spontaneous emission to a state, which under certain conditions is locally close to that ground state, both in the qubit and the field. (iii) The resonances of the combined qubit-photon system match those of the spontaneous emission process and also the predictions of the adiabatic renormalization [A. J. Leggett et al., Rev. Mod. Phys. 59, 1 (1987)]. Finally, nonperturbative ab initio calculations show that this physics can be studied using a flux qubit galvanically coupled to a superconducting transmission line. © 2013 American Physical Society.

Rey J.-M.,Complutense University of Madrid
PLoS ONE | Year: 2010

Background: Marital dissolution is ubiquitous in western societies. It poses major scientific and sociological problems both in theoretical and therapeutic terms. Scholars and therapists agree on the existence of a sort of second law of thermodynamics for sentimental relationships. Effort is required to sustain them. Love is not enough. Methodology/Principal Findings: Building on a simple version of the second law we use optimal control theory as a novel approach to model sentimental dynamics. Our analysis is consistent with sociological data. We show that, when both partners have similar emotional attributes, there is an optimal effort policy yielding a durable happy union. This policy is prey to structural destabilization resulting from a combination of two factors: there is an effort gap because the optimal policy always entails discomfort and there is a tendency to lower effort to non-sustaining levels due to the instability of the dynamics. Conclusions/Significance: These mathematical facts implied by the model unveil an underlying mechanism that may explain couple disruption in real scenarios. Within this framework the apparent paradox that a union consistently planned to last forever will probably break up is explained as a mechanistic consequence of the second law. Copyright: © 2010 Rey et al.

Luis A.,Complutense University of Madrid
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2011

We show within a very simple framework that different measures of fluctuations lead to uncertainty relations resulting in contradictory conclusions. More specifically we focus on Tsallis and Rényi entropic uncertainty relations and we get that the minimum joint uncertainty states for some fluctuation measures are the maximum joint uncertainty states of other fluctuation measures, and vice versa. © 2011 American Physical Society.

Telleria J.L.,Complutense University of Madrid
Journal of Avian Biology | Year: 2015

This paper examines the potential effect of some factors involved in the decline of a winter population of the European robin Erithacus rubecula in southern Spain. The area receives extra-Iberian immigrants that come into contact with resident conspecifics. Given this interspersed distribution, three hypotheses were tested to explain the decline: a) the depletion of the carrying capacity of the area during winter, b) the decline of the resident population, and c) the reduction of foreign individuals in this wintering area. Winter robin and fruit (a main winter food) abundances were assessed at 43 sites from 1999 to 2014, and the abundance of breeding robins was evaluated from 1998 to 2012. Rainfall and temperatures were recorded throughout this period and changes in forests occupied by breeding robins were assessed in 1999 and 2013. Results showed a decline in winter temperatures and an increase in fruit availability. Given that food increases could buffer the thermoregulatory costs of colder conditions, the depletion of the carrying capacity of the area was discarded as a main driver of robin decline. Spring counts showed a reduction of 45% in the breeding population that was not explained by changes in forest management. However, a significant increase in summer temperatures could boost the pervasive effect of drought on robins inhabiting this marginal area of the species' range. Foreign immigrants, despite the increase in breeding populations in most of Europe, did not buffer the decline caused by the reduction of residents. In fact, an analysis of ring recoveries reported in this area depicted a sharp decrease in extra-Iberian wintering individuals. These results may be related to the effect of global warming on migratory schedules (the northwards retreat of wintering areas) and on the suitability for robins of local habitats in this peripheral region of the Palaearctic. © 2014 The Author.

Martin H. J.A.,Complutense University of Madrid
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Many practical problems in almost all scientific and technological disciplines have been classified as computationally hard (NP-hard or even NP-complete). In life sciences, combinatorial optimization problems frequently arise in molecular biology, e.g., genome sequencing; global alignment of multiple genomes; identifying siblings or discovery of dysregulated pathways. In almost all of these problems, there is the need for proving a hypothesis about certain property of an object that can be present if and only if it adopts some particular admissible structure (an NP-certificate) or be absent (no admissible structure), however, none of the standard approaches can discard the hypothesis when no solution can be found, since none can provide a proof that there is no admissible structure. This article presents an algorithm that introduces a novel type of solution method to "efficiently" solve the graph 3-coloring problem; an NP-complete problem. The proposed method provides certificates (proofs) in both cases: present or absent, so it is possible to accept or reject the hypothesis on the basis of a rigorous proof. It provides exact solutions and is polynomial-time (i.e., efficient) however parametric. The only requirement is sufficient computational power, which is controlled by the parameter α ε ℕ. Nevertheless, here it is proved that the probability of requiring a value of α>k to obtain a solution for a random graph decreases exponentially: P(α>k)≤2-(k+1), making tractable almost all problem instances. Thorough experimental analyses were performed. The algorithm was tested on random graphs, planar graphs and 4-regular planar graphs. The obtained experimental results are in accordance with the theoretical expected results. © 2013 José Antonio Martín H.

Belinchon J.A.,Complutense University of Madrid
Astrophysics and Space Science | Year: 2012

We study how the constants G and Λ may vary in different theoretical models (general relativity with a perfect fluid, scalar cosmological models ("quintessence") with and without interacting scalar and matter fields and a scalar-tensor model with a dynamical Λ) in order to explain some observational results. We apply the program outlined in section II to study three different geometries which generalize the FRW ones, which are Bianchi V, VII 0 and IX, under the self-similarity hypothesis. We put special emphasis on calculating exact power-law solutions which allow us to compare the different models. In all the studied cases we arrive at the conclusion that the solutions are isotropic and noninflationary while the cosmological constant behaves as a positive decreasing time function (in agreement with the current observations) and the gravitational constant behaves as a growing time function. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Miguel M.,Complutense University of Madrid
Molecular nutrition & food research | Year: 2010

In this study we evaluated the short-term oral antihypertensive effect of several peptide sequences isolated from casein fractions, previously characterized as in vitro angiotensin-converting enzyme-inhibitors, in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and the diastolic blood pressure (DBP) of the rats were measured by the tail cuff method before administration and also 2, 4, 6, 8 and 24h post-administration. The sequences LVYPFTGPIPN, HLPLP, IAK, YAKPVA and WQVLPNAVPAK showed a clear decrease in SBP and DBP in SHR. HPHPHLSF caused a significant decrease of the DBP in the SHR, but this sequence did not modify the SBP of these animals in a significant manner. KKYNVPQL did not modify SBP in the SHR, and caused a slight, but significant and maintained, decrease in DBP in these animals. SBP and DBP returned to baseline values 24h post-administration of all peptides. In conclusion, these peptides are bioactive ingredients with potential benefit in the prevention and treatment of hypertension or other associated disorders.

Ausin M.C.,Complutense University of Madrid | Lopes H.F.,University of Chicago
Computational Statistics and Data Analysis | Year: 2010

The analysis of temporal dependence in multivariate time series is considered. The dependence structure between the marginal series is modelled through the use of copulas which, unlike the correlation matrix, give a complete description of the joint distribution. The parameters of the copula function vary through time, following certain evolution equations depending on their previous values and the historical data. The marginal time series follow standard univariate GARCH models. Full Bayesian inference is developed where the whole set of model parameters is estimated simultaneously. This represents an essential difference from previous approaches in the literature where the marginal and the copula parameters are estimated separately in two consecutive steps. Moreover, a Bayesian procedure is proposed for the estimation of several measures of risk, such as the variance, Value-at-Risk (VaR) and Conditional Value-at-Risk (CVaR) of a portfolio of assets, providing point estimates and predictive intervals. The proposed copula model enables to capture the dependence structure between the individual assets which strongly influences these risk measures. Finally, the problem of optimal portfolio selection based on the estimation of meanvariance, meanVaR and meanCVaR efficient frontiers is also addressed. The proposed approach is illustrated with simulated and real financial time series. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Vidorreta M.,University of Navarra | Wang Z.,University of Pennsylvania | Rodriguez I.,Complutense University of Madrid | Rodriguez I.,CIBER ISCIII | And 3 more authors.
NeuroImage | Year: 2013

Arterial spin labeling (ASL) can be implemented by combining different labeling schemes and readout sequences. In this study, the performance of 2D and 3D single-shot pulsed-continuous ASL (pCASL) sequences was assessed in a group of young healthy volunteers undergoing a baseline perfusion and a functional study with a sensory-motor activation paradigm. The evaluated sequences were 2D echo-planar imaging (2D EPI), 3D single-shot fast spin-echo with in-plane spiral readout (3D FSE spiral), and 3D single-shot gradient-and-spin-echo (3D GRASE). The 3D sequences were implemented with and without the addition of an optimized background suppression (BS) scheme. Labeling efficiency, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and gray matter (GM) to white matter (WM) contrast ratio were assessed in baseline perfusion measurements. 3D acquisitions without BS yielded 2-fold increments in spatial SNR, but no change in temporal SNR. The addition of BS to the 3D sequences yielded a 3-fold temporal SNR increase compared to the unsuppressed sequences. 2D EPI provided better GM-to-WM contrast ratio than the 3D sequences. The analysis of functional data at the subject level showed a 3-fold increase in statistical power for the BS 3D sequences, although the improvement was attenuated at the group level. 3D without BS did not increase the maximum t-values, however, it yielded larger activation clusters than 2D. These results demonstrate that BS 3D single-shot imaging sequences improve the performance of pCASL in baseline and activation studies, particularly for individual subject analyses where the improvement in temporal SNR translates into markedly enhanced power for task activation detection. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

Bouza E.,Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon | Bouza E.,Complutense University of Madrid
Clinical Microbiology and Infection | Year: 2012

Clostridium difficile is the leading cause of infectious nosocomial diarrhoea in developed countries, with a measured incidence of approximately five episodes per 10 000 days of hospital stay in Europe. Accurate diagnosis of C. difficile infection (CDI) is a prerequisite for obtaining reliable epidemiological data, but in many European countries diagnosis is probably suboptimal. A significant percentage of CDI cases are missed because clinicians often fail to request tests for C. difficile toxins in cases of unexplained diarrhoea. In addition, some laboratories continue to use tests of low sensitivity or apply them inappropriately. In one study in Spain, failure to request CDI testing in more than two-thirds of patients with unexplained diarrhoea led to significant underdiagnosis of cases. A recent pan-European survey revealed huge discrepancies in the rate of CDI testing across Europe, which suggests that epidemiological reports underestimate the true incidence of CDI in many parts of Europe. This is important because, as this review of the clinical and economic burden of CDI illustrates, infection with C. difficile imposes a significant burden not only on patients, owing to increased morbidity and mortality, but also on healthcare systems and society in general. On the basis of current incidence rates, annual costs for management of CDI amount to approximately $800 million in the USA and €3000 million in Europe. Moreover, estimates suggest that costs associated with recurrent CDI can exceed those of primary CDI. Measures to more effectively prevent CDI and reduce CDI recurrence rates may help to reduce this burden. © 2012 The Author Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2012 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

El-Abbassi A.,Laboratory of Food Science | Khayet M.,Complutense University of Madrid | Hafidi A.,Laboratory of Food Science
Water Research | Year: 2011

Olive mill wastewater (OMW) is an important environmental pollution problem, especially in the Mediterranean, which is the main olive oil production region worldwide. Environmental impact of OMW is related to its high organic load and particularly to the phytotoxic and antibacterial action of its phenolic content. In fact, polyphenols are known as powerful antioxidants with interesting nutritional and pharmaceutical properties. In the present work, the efficiency of OMW Micellar Enhanced Ultrafiltration (MEUF) treatment for removal and concentration of polyphenols was investigated, using an anionic surfactant (Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate salt, SDS) and a hydrophobic poly(vinyldene fluoride) (PVDF) membrane. The effects of the process experimental conditions on the permeate flux were investigated, and the secondary membrane resistance created by SDS molecules was evaluated. The initial fluxes of OMW processing by MEUF using SDS were 25.7 and 44.5 l/m 2 h under transmembrane pressures of 3.5 and 4.5 bar, respectively. The rejection rate of polyphenols without using any surfactant ranged from 5 to 28%, whereas, it reached 74% when SDS was used under optimum pH (pH 2). The MEUF provides a slightly colored permeate (about 88% less dark), which requires clearly less chemical oxygen demand (COD) for its oxidation (4.33% of the initial COD). These results showed that MEUF process can efficiently be applied to the treatment of OMW and for the concentration and recovery of polyphenols. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Faza O.N.,University of Vigo | Fernandez I.,Complutense University of Madrid | Lopez C.S.,University of Vigo
Chemical Communications | Year: 2013

In this work we show that a base is needed to generate the active catalyst through any of three different paths close in energy. The facial differentiation arises from steric interactions that induce a very asynchronous, non-pericyclic disfavored transition state. Catalyst regeneration takes place through two steps that avoid a forbidden pericyclic mechanism. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Tamargo J.,Complutense University of Madrid
Discovery medicine | Year: 2012

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a major cause of hospitalization, morbidity, and mortality. Clinical reports indicate that an increasing number of cardiovascular (adenosine, positive inotropics) and non-cardiovascular (cancer chemotherapy, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents, high-dose methylprednisolone, and several respiratory medications) drugs can induce AF, increasing the number of hospitalizations. The risk of drug-induced AF (DIAF) would be expected to increase in the elderly, as they present a high incidence of AF and are treated with multiple drugs, and in patients with comorbidities frequently associated with AF. However, because of its short duration and the physicians are not aware about this side-effect, DIAF has received little attention when patients present a new-onset AF and epidemiologic studies to quantify the relation between certain drugs and AF have not yet been performed. Thus, further research is needed to obtain more insight into DIAF, to determine the incidence and risk factors, and whether it can increase the risk of thromboembolism or mortality. Meanwhile, when a patient presents a new-onset AF, it is recommended to review his/her medical and pharmacological history to identify whether any of the prescribed drugs may be responsible for the episode.

Meucci A.,University of Pavia | Barbaro M.B.,University of Turin | Caballero J.A.,University of Seville | Giusti C.,University of Pavia | Udias J.M.,Complutense University of Madrid
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2011

The results of two relativistic models with different descriptions of the final-state interactions are compared with the MiniBooNE data of charged-current quasielastic cross sections. The relativistic mean field model uses the same potential for the bound and ejected nucleon wave functions. In the relativistic Green's function model, the final-state interactions are described in the inclusive scattering consistently with the exclusive scattering using the same complex optical potential. The relativistic Green's function results describe the experimental data for total cross sections without the need to modify the nucleon axial mass. © 2011 American Physical Society.

Kirkpatrick T.R.,University of Maryland University College | Ortiz De Zarate J.M.,Complutense University of Madrid | Sengers J.V.,University of Maryland University College
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2013

In this Letter, we consider the fluctuation-induced force exerted between two plates separated by a distance L in a fluid with a temperature gradient. We predict that for a range of distances L, this nonequilibrium force is anomalously large compared to other Casimir forces. The physical reason is that correlations in a nonequilibrium fluid are generally of longer range than other correlations, even than those near an equilibrium critical point. This giant Casimir force is related to a divergent Burnett coefficient that characterizes an Onsager cross effect between the pressure and the temperature gradient. The predicted Casimir force should be detectable with currently available experimental techniques. © 2013 American Physical Society.

Fernandez I.,Complutense University of Madrid | Mascarenas J.L.,University of Santiago de Compostela
Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry | Year: 2012

In this emerging area article, we focus on novel intramolecular transition metal catalysed (4 + 3)-cycloaddition reactions of allenedienes in which the allene acts as an allylic-cation surrogate. This process has emerged as a powerful tool for the construction not only of complex seven-membered rings containing compounds but also different types of useful molecular skeletons by the proper selection of the catalyst. The transformation proceeds with high chemo- and stereoselectivity mainly because it occurs through an exo-like concerted transition state which exhibits a clear in-plane aromatic character. Despite that, different reaction mechanisms (i.e. stepwise processes) are also possible depending on the nucleophilicity of the diene moiety. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Martin N.,Complutense University of Madrid | Martin N.,IMDEA Madrid Institute for Advanced Studies
Chemical Communications | Year: 2013

In this viewpoint, the first separation, isolation and characterization of C60 and C70 molecules carried out by Kroto as well as their separation by using non-covalent interactions involving the host-guest concept with cyclodextrins by Wennerstrom are discussed; whereas the first paper described fullerenes as a huge family of new nanoforms of carbon, the second one paved the way to the supramolecular chemistry of fullerenes. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Fernandez I.,Complutense University of Madrid | Lugan N.,CNRS Coordination Chemistry | Lavigne G.,CNRS Coordination Chemistry
Organometallics | Year: 2012

On the basis of theoretical calculations, the present work suggests that Grubbs II-type complexes are stabilized by a weak π-π* interaction involving an electronic donation from the aryl group of the NHC ligand to the π* (Ru=C) molecular orbital, which is mainly centered on the carbenic carbon center (p z atomic orbital). This interaction, which could persist in the active catalytic species throughout a metathesis reaction, can be tuned by modulating the electron density in the aryl group. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

Navascues M.,Complutense University of Madrid | Vertesi T.,Hungarian Academy of Sciences
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2011

We find two two-qubit bipartite states ρ1,ρ2 such that arbitrarily many copies of one or the other cannot exhibit nonlocal correlations in a two-setting-two-outcome Bell scenario. However, the bipartite state ρ1-ρ2 violates the Clauser-Horne-Shimony- Holt (CHSH) Bell inequality by an amount of 2.023. We also identify a CHSH-local state ρ such that ρ-2 is CHSH inequality-violating. The tools employed can be easily adapted to find instances of nonlocality activation in arbitrary Bell scenarios.© 2011 American Physical Society.

Perez R.F.,Complutense University of Madrid
Classical and Quantum Gravity | Year: 2010

The Chern-Simons Lagrangian density in the space of metrics of a three-dimensional manifold M is not invariant under the action of diffeomorphisms on M. However, its Euler-Lagrange operator can be identified with the Cotton tensor, which is invariant under diffeomorphims. As the Lagrangian is not invariant, the Noether theorem cannot be applied to obtain conserved currents. We show that it is possible to obtain an equivariant conserved current for the Cotton tensor by using the first equivariant Pontryagin form on the bundle of metrics. Finally we define a Hamiltonian current which gives the contribution of the Chern-Simons term to the black hole entropy, energy and angular momentum. © 2010 IOP Publishing Ltd.

Quijandria F.,University of Zaragoza | Porras D.,Complutense University of Madrid | Garcia-Ripoll J.J.,Institute Fisica Fundamental | Zueco D.,University of Zaragoza
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2013

We present a scalable and tunable framework for the quantum simulation of critical dissipative models based on a circuit QED cavity array interacting with driven superconducting qubits. We will show that the strongly correlated many-body state of the cavities can be mapped into the state of propagating photons in a transmission line. This allows not only for an efficient way of accessing the correlations in the many-body system, but also provides a bright source of chiral entangled light where directionality and entanglement are assisted by collective phenomena and breaking of reflection symmetry. © 2013 American Physical Society.

Armand M.,University of Picardie Jules Verne | Arroyo Y De Dompablo M.E.,Complutense University of Madrid
Journal of Materials Chemistry | Year: 2011

First principles calculations have been used to investigate the effect of N for O substitution on the electrochemical properties of Li 2FeSiO4. Within the Li2FeSiO4 structure, hypothetical models of the N-substituted Li2FeSiO 3N and Li2FeSiO3.5N0.5 have been analyzed. The computational results indicate that the lithium deinsertion voltage associated to the Fe3+/Fe4+ redox couple can be decreased by N substitution (4.86 V in Li2FeSiO4, 4.7 V in Li2FeSiO3.5N0.5 and 4.1 V in Li 2FeSiO3N). The high theoretical specific capacity of Li2FeSiO4 (330 mA h g-1) could be retained in N-substituted silicates thanks to the oxidation of N3- anions. The redox activity of N ions is observed in a voltage range of ca. 3.5-4.2 V. In the light of the potential benefits of N substitution for O experimental work is encouraged, in particular to investigate the reversibility and overpotential of the N redox reaction. © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Chico D.,Technical University of Madrid | Aldaya M.M.,Complutense University of Madrid | Garrido A.,Technical University of Madrid
Journal of Cleaner Production | Year: 2013

This study reports the results of a water footprint (WF) assessment of five types of textiles commonly used for the production of jeans, including two different fibres (cotton and Lyocell fibre) and five corresponding production methods for spinning, dyeing and weaving. The results show that the fibre production is the stage with the highest water consumption, being cotton production particularly relevant. Therefore, the study pays particular attention to the water footprint of cotton production and analyses the effects of external factors influencing the water footprint of a product, in this case, the incentives provided by the EU Common Agricultural Policy (CAP), and the relevance of agricultural practices to the water footprint of a product is emphasised. An extensification of the crop production led to higher WF per unit, but a lower overall pressure on the basins' water resources. This study performs a sustainability assessment of the estimated cotton WFs with the water scarcity index, as proposed by Hoekstra et al. (2011), and shows their variations in different years as a result of different water consumption by crops in the rest of the river basin. In our case, we applied the assessment to the Guadalquivir, Guadalete and Barbate river basins, three semi-arid rivers in South Spain. Because they are found to be relevant, the available water stored in dams and the outflow are also incorporated as reference points for the sustainability assessment. The study concludes that, in the case of Spanish cotton production, the situation of the basin and the policy impact are more relevant for the status of the basin's water resources than the actual WF of cotton production. Therefore, strategies aimed at reducing the impact of the water footprint of a product need to analyse both the WF along the value chain and within the local context.

Coronado P.J.,Complutense University of Madrid | Fasero M.,Service of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation | Year: 2014

Background/Aims: To assess the performance of colposcopists and correlate it with their experience when diagnosing cervical pathology by reviewing conventional colposcopy (CC) digital images and the Dynamic Spectral Imaging System (DySIS) cervical map. Methods: Images from 50 women with normal and abnormal cervix collected during CC and the corresponding DySIS maps were projected consecutively to 63 participating colposcopists. Participants were asked for their diagnosis (normal, abnormal findings or cancer). The clinical experience of the participants was divided into low (n = 27), medium (n = 18) and high (n = 18), considering the number of colposcopies each one performed routinely. Results: The mean of overall correct diagnoses was significantly higher with DySIS than CC for the low and medium experience group (20.4 vs. 24.4, and 21.9 vs. 26.0, respectively; p < 0.001), but not in the high experience group. The correct diagnosis was significantly higher with DySIS than CC for all experience groups in cases with a normal cervix and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2+ (CIN2+), but not for those with CIN1. All groups agreed that DySIS guides biopsies better, offers more information and allows performing colposcopy even without extensive experience. Conclusions: The results of evaluating projected colposcopy images were more successful with DySIS than with CC in the diagnosis of cervical pathology, especially among less experienced colposcopists. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Benito M.,Complutense University of Madrid | Benito M.,CIBER ISCIII
Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry | Year: 2011

Insulin resistance is the most important pathophysiological feature in many pre-diabetic states. Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a complex metabolic disease and its pathogenesis involves abnormalities in both peripheral insulin action and insulin secretion by pancreatic beta cells. The creation of monogenic or polygenic genetically manipulated mice models in a tissue-specific manner was of great help to elucidate the tissue-specificity of insulin action and its contribution to the overall insulin resistance. However, complete understanding of the molecular bases of the insulin action and resistance requires the identification of the intracellular pathways that regulate insulin-stimulated proliferation, differentiation and metabolism. Accordingly, cell lines derived from insulin target tissues such as brown adipose tissue, liver and beta islets lacking insulin receptors or sensitive candidate genes such as IRS-1, IRS-2, IRS-3, IR and PTP1B were developed. Indeed, these cell lines have been also very useful to understand the tissue-specificity of insulin action and inaction. © 2011 Informa UK, Ltd.

Fernandez I.,Complutense University of Madrid | Bickelhaupt F.M.,VU University Amsterdam
Journal of Computational Chemistry | Year: 2012

We have computationally explored the trend in reactivity of the Alder-ene reactions between propene and a series of seven enophiles using density functional theory at M06-2X/def2-TZVPP. The reaction barrier decreases along the enophiles in the order H 2C=CH 2 > HC≡CH > H 2C=NH > H 2C=CH(COOCH 3) > H 2C=O > H 2C=PH > H 2C=S. Thus, barriers drop in particular, if third-period atoms become involved in the double bond of the enophile. Activation-strain analyses show that this trend in reactivity correlates with the activation strain associated with deforming reactants from their equilibrium structure to the geometry they adopt in the transition state. We discuss the origin of this trend and its relationship with the extent of synchronicity between H transfer from ene to enophile and the formation of the new C-C bond. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Cubitt T.S.,Complutense University of Madrid | Smith G.,IBM
IEEE Transactions on Information Theory | Year: 2012

The zero-error capacity of a channel is the rate at which it can send information perfectly, with zero probability of error, and has long been studied in classical information theory. We show that the zero-error capacity of quantum channels exhibits an extreme form of nonadditivity, one which is not possible for classical channels, or even for the usual capacities of quantum channels. By combining probabilistic arguments with algebraic geometry, we prove that there exist channels ε E 1 and ε 2 with no zero-error classical capacity whatsoever, C 0(ε1) = C 0(ε 2) = 0, but whose joint zero-error quantum capacity is positive, Q 0 (ε 1⊗ ε 2) ≥ 1. This striking effect is an extreme form of the superactivation phenomenon, as it implies that both the classical and quantum zero-error capacities of these channels can be superactivated simultaneously, while being a strictly stronger property of capacities. Superactivation of the quantum zero-error capacity was not previously known. © 2012 IEEE.

Quinones M.,Complutense University of Madrid
Nutrición hospitalaria : organo oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral | Year: 2012

In recent years, a number of studies have endorsed the beneficial effects of polyphenols intake on health, especially on the cardiovascular system. This is important since cardiovascular diseases are the main death cause worldwide. The effects of polyphenols are mainly due to their antioxidant properties. These compounds present vasodilating effects, and they can improve the lipid profile and lessen the oxidation of low-density lipoproteins (LDL). They show clear antiinflammatory effects and they can modulate the apoptotic pathways in the vascular endothelium. This review defines from the structural viewpoint the different groups of polyphenols that may occur in vegetables, and updates the knowledge on their bioavailability. Some of the recent studies establishing their beneficial properties at a cardiovascular level are also included.

Hawksworth D.L.,Complutense University of Madrid | Hawksworth D.L.,Natural History Museum in London
Biodiversity and Conservation | Year: 2012

Recent estimates of the global species numbers of fungi suggest that the much-used figure of 1. 5 million is low, and figures up to 5. 1 million have been proposed in the last few years. Data emerging from tropical studies, and from large-scale sequencing of environmental samples, have the potential to contribute towards a more robust figure. Additional evidence of species richness is coming from long-term studies of particular non-tropical sites, and also from molecular phylogenetic studies revealing extensive cryptic speciation. However, uncertainties remain over fungus:plant species ratios and how they should be extrapolated to the global scale, and also as to the geographical distribution of fungi known only as sequences. Also unclear is the extent to which figures should be modified to allow for insect-associated fungi. The need for comprehensive studies, especially in the tropics, to address the uncertainties used in past extrapolations, is stressed. For the present, it is recommended that the phrase "at least 1. 5, but probably as many as 3 million" be adopted for general use until some of the current uncertainties are resolved. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Martinez-Santos P.,Complutense University of Madrid | Andreu J.M.,University of Alicante
Journal of Hydrology | Year: 2010

Recharge is a key component of the hydrological balance in groundwater systems. Particularly in arid and semiarid settings recharge often takes place during isolated rainfall episodes. As a result pumping might cause groundwater levels to fall continuously for long periods of time, even if yearly abstractions remain below the average replenishment rate. Recharge is naturally difficult to quantify, as it depends on a complex variety of factors. Indirect techniques based on mathematical models have long since been advocated as valuable means to estimate recharge. This paper presents a methodology to estimate groundwater recharge in quick-response semiarid karst aquifers. Lumped and distributed models are used to evaluate the fraction of rainfall that ultimately results in aquifer recharge, as well as the correlation between the magnitude of rainfall events and infiltration rates. Modelling results are then compared with direct observations of the recharge processes and discussed to evaluate the implications of time scales. This study is demonstrated through a case-specific application to the Ventós aquifer, an intensively exploited carbonate system located in one of the driest areas of peninsular Spain. Overall, both approaches perform similarly, although the lumped model exhibits a better agreement with field records. Results reflect the nonlinear nature of the rainfall/recharge ratio. The fraction of rainfall that ultimately recharges the aquifer seems to increase exponentially with the magnitude of the event. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Campoamor-Stursberg R.,Complutense University of Madrid
Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical | Year: 2010

The class of solvable Lie algebras with an N-graded nilradical of maximal nilpotency index is classified. It is shown that such solvable extensions are unique up to isomorphism. The generalized Casimir invariants for the N-graded nilradicals and their associated solvable extensions are computed by the method of moving frames. © 2010 IOP Publishing Ltd.

Gomez-Ullate D.,Complutense University of Madrid | Kamran N.,McGill University | Milson R.,Dalhousie University
Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical | Year: 2010

We adapt the notion of the Darboux transformation to the context of polynomial Sturm-Liouville problems. As an application, we characterize the recently described Xm Laguerre polynomials in terms of an isospectral Darboux transformation. We also show that the shape invariance of these new polynomial families is a direct consequence of the permutability property of the Darboux-Crum transformation. © 2010 IOP Publishing Ltd.

Michael Rajesh S.,Madurai Kamaraj University | Bala B.D.,Madurai Kamaraj University | Perumal S.,Madurai Kamaraj University | Menendez J.C.,Complutense University of Madrid
Green Chemistry | Year: 2011

The l-proline-catalyzed synthesis of 7-(aryl)-8-methyl-10-phenyl-5H- benzo[h]pyrazolo-[3,4-b]quinoline-5,6(10H)-diones via the four-component sequential reaction of phenylhydrazine, 3-aminocrotononitrile, substituted benzaldehydes and 2-hydroxynaphthalene-1,4-dione is described. This "on water" protocol proceeds in high atom economy and leads to the generation of two rings, together with two C-C, one C-N and two CN bonds in a single operation. The environmental advantages of the method include short reaction time, excellent yield, easy work-up, and the absence of extraction and chromatographic purification steps. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Prasanna P.,Madurai Kamaraj University | Balamurugan K.,Madurai Kamaraj University | Perumal S.,Madurai Kamaraj University | Menendez J.C.,Complutense University of Madrid
Green Chemistry | Year: 2011

A three-component domino reaction of 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone, aromatic aldehydes and a pyridinium salt in the presence of ammonium acetate, under microwave irradiation and using water as solvent, furnished a library of novel 2-arylcarbonyl-3-aryl-4,9-dihydronaphtho[2,3-b]furan-4,9-diones in good yields, in a transformation that presumably proceeds via an α,β-unsaturated triketone generation/Michael addition/intramolecular cyclisation/air oxidation one-pot sequence. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Alcaide B.,Complutense University of Madrid | Almendros P.,Institute Quimica Organica General
Accounts of Chemical Research | Year: 2014

Although gold is chemically inert as a bulk metal, the landmark discovery that gold nanoparticles can be effective catalysts has opened up new and exciting research opportunities in the field. In recent years, there has been growth in the number of reactions catalyzed by gold complexes [gold(I) and gold(III)], usually as homogeneous catalysts, because they are soft Lewis acids. In addition, alkynes and allenes have interesting reactivities and selectivities, notably their ability to produce complex structures in very few steps. In this Account, we describe our work in gold catalysis with a focus on the formation of C-C and C-O bonds using allenes and alkynes as starting materials. Of these, oxa- and carbo-cyclizations are perhaps the best known and most frequently studied. We have divided those contributions into sections arranged according to the nature of the starting material (allene versus alkyne).Gold-catalyzed carbocyclizations in allenyl C2-linked indoles, allenyl-β-lactams, and allenyl sugars follow different mechanistic pathways. The cyclization of indole-tethered allenols results in the efficient synthesis of carbazole derivatives, for example. However, the compound produced from gold-catalyzed 9-endo carbocyclization of (aryloxy)allenyl-tethered 2-azetidinones is in noticeable contrast to the 5-exo hydroalkylation product that results from allenyl sugars.We have illustrated the unusual preference for the 4-exo-dig cyclization in allene chemistry, as well as the rare β-hydride elimination reaction, in gold catalysis from readily available α-allenols. We have also observed in γ-allenols that a (methoxymethyl)oxy protecting group not only masks a hydroxyl functionality but also exerts directing effects as a controlling unit in a gold-catalyzed regioselectivity reversal. Our recent work has also led to a combined experimental and computational study on regioselective gold-catalyzed synthetic routes to 1,3-oxazinan-2-ones (kinetically controlled products) and 1,3-oxazin-2-one derivatives (thermodynamically favored) from easily accessible allenic carbamates.In addition, we discuss the direct gold-catalyzed cycloketalization of alkynyldioxolanes, as well as aminoketalization of alkynyloxazolidines. We performed labeling studies and density functional calculations to gain insight into the mechanisms of the bis-heterocyclization reactions. We also describe the controlled gold-catalyzed reactions of primary and secondary propargylic hydroperoxides with a variety of nucleophiles including alcohols and phenols, allowing the direct synthesis of β-functionalized ketones. Through computations and 18O-labeling experiments, we discovered various aspects of the controlled reactivity of propargylic hydroperoxides with external nucleophiles under gold catalysis. The mechanism resembles a Meyer-Schuster rearrangement, but notably, the presence and geometry characteristics of the OOH functional group allow a new pathway to happen, which cannot apply to propargylic alcohols. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

Caballero J.A.,Complutense University of Madrid
Astronomy and Astrophysics | Year: 2010

Aims. I attempt to fully understand the origin of the stellar and substellar populations in the young σ Orionis open cluster, which is a benchmark for star-forming studies. Because of the very low proper motion of the cluster, late-type dwarfs with appreciable proper motion in the foreground of σ Orionis can be easily discarded as targets from expensive spectroscopic follow-up studies. Methods. I use the Aladin sky atlas, USNO-B1, public astrometric catalogues, and photographic plate digitisations to identify stars with proper motions that are inconsistent with cluster membership in a circular area of radius 30 arcmin centred on the early-type multiple system σ Ori. Primarily because of the long time baseline of more than half a century, the errors in the measured proper motions are lower than 2 mas a-1. Results. Of the 42 stars selected for astrometric follow-up, 37 of them are proper-motion cluster interlopers. Some USNO-B1 measurements were affected by partially resolved (visual) multiplicity and target faintness. Because of their late spectral types and, hence, red colours, 24 contaminants had been considered at some point as σ Orionis members. I discuss how contamination may have affected previous work (especially related to disc frequencies) and the curious presence of lithium absorption in three M-dwarf proper motion contaminants. Finally, I classify the bright star HD 294297 as a late-F field dwarf unrelated to the cluster based on a new proper motion measurement. Conclusions. Although proper motions cannot be used to confirm membership in σ Orionis, they can be instead used to discard a number of cluster member candidates without spectroscopy. © ESO 2010.

Gonzalez-Vera J.A.,Complutense University of Madrid
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2012

Protein phosphorylation is the most frequent post-translational modification used to regulate protein activity. Protein kinases, the enzymes that catalyze the phosphoryl transfer, are implicated in practically every aspect of normal as well as abnormal cell functions. Consequently, sensitive, selective, high-throughput and widely applicable methods for monitoring protein kinase activity will provide valuable tools to screen inhibitor candidates for therapeutics and chemical biology, and to unravel the diverse signaling cascades in which these enzymes are pivotal. Peptide-based chemosensors that rely on fluorescence changes upon phosphorylation are highly desirable, because these systems allow a continuous readout offering an excellent spatial and temporal resolution to observe in real time the kinase activity. This tutorial review briefly summarizes the different fluorescent continuous peptide-based strategies that are being commonly employed to sense protein phosphorylation, introduces a few novel and attractive emerging assays, discusses their advantages and limitations, and highlights possible future directions. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Castellote M.,Complutense University of Madrid | Clark C.W.,Cornell University | Lammers M.O.,Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology
Biological Conservation | Year: 2012

Non-lethal behavioural effects of underwater noise in marine mammals are difficult to measure. Here we report acoustic and behavioural changes by fin whales in response to two different types of anthropogenic noise: shipping and airgun noise. Acoustic features of fin whale 20-Hz song notes recorded in the Mediterranean Sea and Northeast Atlantic Ocean were compared for areas with different shipping noise levels, different traffic intensities in the Strait of Gibraltar and during a seismic airgun array survey. In high noise conditions 20-Hz note duration shortened, bandwidth decreased, centre frequency decreased and peak frequency decreased. Similar results were obtained in 20-Hz song notes recorded during a 10-day seismic survey. During the first 72. h of the survey, a steady decrease in song received levels and bearings to singers indicated that whales moved away from the airgun array source and out of our detection area, and this displacement persisted for a time period well beyond the 10-day duration of seismic airgun activity. This study provides evidence that male fin whales from two different subpopulations modify song characteristics under increased background noise conditions, and that under seismic airgun activity conditions they leave an area for an extended period. We hypothesize that fin whale acoustic communication is modified to compensate for increased background noise and that a sensitization process may play a role in the observed temporary displacement. The observed acoustic and behavioural changes of this endangered species are discussed in the context of reproduction success and population survival. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Sole D.,University of Barcelona | Fernandez I.,Complutense University of Madrid
Accounts of Chemical Research | Year: 2014

The reactivity of main group organometallics, such as organolithium compounds (RLi) and Grignard reagents (RMgX), is quite straightforward. In these species the R group usually exhibits nucleophilic reactivity without any possibility of inducing electrophilic character. In contrast, in organopalladium complexes, researchers can switch the reactivity from electrophilic to nucleophilic relatively simply. Although σ-aryl and σ-vinylpalladium complexes are commonly used as electrophiles in C-C bond-forming reactions, recent research has demonstrated that they can also react with carbon-heteroatom multiple bonds in a nucleophilic manner. Nevertheless, researchers have completely ignored the issue of controlling the ambiphilic nature of such species.This Account describes our efforts toward selectively promoting the same starting materials toward either electrophilic α-arylation or nucleophilic addition reactions to different carbonyl groups. We could tune the properties of the σ-arylpalladium intermediates derived from amino-tethered aryl halides and carbonyl compounds to achieve chemoselective transformations. Therefore, chemists can control the ambiphilic nature of such intermediates and, consequently, the competition between the alternative reaction pathways by the adequate selection of the reaction conditions and additives (base, presence/absence of phenol, bidentate phosphines). The nature of the carbonyl group (aldehydes, ketones, esters, and amides) and the length of the tether connecting it to the aniline moiety also play an important role in the outcome of these processes.Our joint computational and experimental efforts to elucidate the reaction mechanism of these palladium-catalyzed transformations suggest that beyond the formation of the four-membered azapalladacycle, two major factors help to control the dual character of the palladium(II) intermediates derived from 2-haloanilines. First, their high nucleophilicity strongly modifies the interaction of the metal center with the carbonyl group. Second, the additive phenol exchanges the iodide ligand to give an arylpalladium(II) phenoxide complex, which has a beneficial effect on the arylation. The formation of this transient intermediate not only stabilizes the arylpalladium moiety, thus preventing the nucleophilic attack at the carbonyl group, but also assists the enolization reaction, which takes place in a more favorable intramolecular manner.The azapalladacycle intermediate is, in the words of J. R. R. Tolkien, "the one ring to bring them all and in the darkness to bind them." With this intermediate, we can easily achieve the synthesis of a variety of heterocyclic systems by selectively promoting electrophilic α-arylation or nucleophilic addition reactions from the same precursors. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

Parra A.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Reboredo S.,Complutense University of Madrid | Aleman J.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2012

Trap it: A combination of aminocatalysis with H-bonding activation is used in two new approaches to carry out formal enantioselective organocatalyzed [2+2] cycloaddition reactions. This cooperative catalysis solves the inconveniences associated with this transformation. These two new reactions will open opportunities to find reactivities involving other organocatalytic cycloadditions. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Balamurugan K.,Madurai Kamaraj University | Perumal S.,Madurai Kamaraj University | Menendez J.C.,Complutense University of Madrid
Tetrahedron | Year: 2011

New four-component domino reactions are described that allow the one-pot synthesis of spiro[indoline/acenaphthylene-3,4′-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridine derivatives from the reaction of phenylhydrazine, 3-aminocrotononitrile, isatin/acenaphthylene-1,2-dione, and cyclic 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds, including cyclohexane-1,3-diones, barbituric acid, and 2-thioxodihydropyrimidine-4,6(1H, 5H)-dione, in the presence of (±)-camphor-10-sulfonic acid (CSA). These processes take place in water and involve the generation of two rings and five new bonds (two C-C, two C-N and one CN) in a single synthetic operation, with expedient work-up and diminished waste generation due to the absence of extraction and purification steps. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Bargueno P.,Complutense University of Madrid | Miret-Artes S.,Institute Fisica Fundamental
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2013

Dissipative and stochastic effects in the geometric phase of a qubit are taken into account using a geometrical description of the corresponding open-system dynamics within a canonical Langevin framework based on a Caldeira-Leggett-like Hamiltonian. By extending the Hopf fibration S3→S2 to include such effects, the exact geometric phase for a dissipative qubit is obtained, whereas numerical calculations are used to include finite-temperature effects on it. © 2013 American Physical Society.

In some physical problems it is necessary to obtain a function coming from the inversion of an unstable problem, and use it to calculate some global quantities by integrating it weighted by the appropriate weighting functions. When the desired function comes from a first kind Volterra integral equation, the explicit inversion can be avoided by integrating by parts in the integrals in which the above mentioned function appears. That is the case of the fundamental parameters method of x-ray fluorescence analysis. To obtain the concentrations of chemical elements in the sample which is analyzed it is necessary to calculate some integrals of the spectral distribution of the fluorescence exciting x-ray beam multiplied by a weighting function which depends on the concrete analysis to be done. The spectral distribution of the fluorescence exciting beam is related to the experimental measurements of the fluorescence excited on a set of targets made up of pure elements by a Volterra integral equation of the first kind, and it can be obtained by inverting the Volterra equation. By integrating by parts in the integrals in which the spectral distribution appears we avoid the unstable reconstruction of the spectrum of the fluorescence exciting x-ray beam and the concentrations can be calculated in a stable fashion. © 2014 Springer International Publishing Switzerland.

Ivanov P.A.,Sofia University | Porras D.,Complutense University of Madrid
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2013

We show that the quasiadiabatic evolution of a system governed by the Dicke Hamiltonian can be described in terms of a self-induced quantum many-body metrological protocol. This effect relies on the sensitivity of the ground state to a small symmetry-breaking perturbation at the quantum phase transition, which leads to the collapse of the wave function into one of two possible ground states. The scaling of the final-state properties with the number of atoms and with the intensity of the symmetry-breaking field can be interpreted in terms of the precession time of an effective quantum metrological protocol. We show that our ideas can be tested with spin-phonon interactions in trapped ion setups. Our work points to a classification of quantum phase transitions in terms of the capability of many-body quantum systems for parameter estimation. © 2013 American Physical Society.

Pulido F.,Complutense University of Madrid
Oikos | Year: 2011

Partial migration is a common and widespread phenomenon in animal populations. Even though the ecological causes for the evolution and maintenance of partial migration have been widely discussed, the consequences of the genetics underlying differences in migration patterns have been little acknowledged. Here, I revise current ideas on the genetics of partial migration and identify open questions, focussing on migration in birds. The threshold model of migration describing the inheritance and phenotypic expression of migratory behaviour is strongly supported by experimental results. As a consequence of migration being a threshold trait, high levels of genetic variation can be preserved, even under strong directional selection. This is partly due to strong environmental canalization. This cryptic genetic variation may explain rapid de novo evolution of migratory behaviour in resident populations and the high prevalence of partial migration in animal populations. To date the threshold model of migration has been tested only under laboratory conditions. For obtaining a more realistic representation of migratory behaviour in the wild, the simple threshold model needs to be extended by considering that the threshold of migration or the liability may be modified by environmental effects. This environmental threshold model is valid for both facultative and obligate migration movements, and identifies genetic accommodation as an important process underlying evolutionary change in migration status. Future research should aim at identifying the major environmental variables modifying migration propensity and at determining reaction norms of the threshold and liability across variation in these variables. © 2011 The Authors.

Gaul C.,Complutense University of Madrid | Muller C.A.,National University of Singapore
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2011

We describe repulsively interacting Bose-Einstein condensates in spatially correlated disorder potentials of arbitrary dimension. The first effect of disorder is to deform the mean-field condensate. The second is that the quantum excitation spectrum and condensate population are affected. By a saddle-point expansion of the many-body Hamiltonian around the deformed mean-field ground state, we derive the fundamental quadratic Hamiltonian of quantum fluctuations. Importantly, a basis is used such that excitations are orthogonal to the deformed condensate. Via Bogoliubov-Nambu perturbation theory, we compute the effective excitation dispersion, including mean free paths and localization lengths. Corrections to the speed of sound and average density of states are calculated, due to correlated disorder in arbitrary dimensions, extending to the case of weak lattice potentials. © 2011 American Physical Society.

Luis A.,Complutense University of Madrid
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2011

We study nonclassicality in the product of the probabilities of noncommuting observables. We show that within the quantum theory, nonclassical states can provide larger probability product than classical states, so that nonclassical states approach the nonfluctuating states of the classical theory more closely than classical states. This is particularized to relevant complementary observables such as conjugate quadratures, phase and number, quadrature and number, and orthogonal angular momentum components. © 2011 American Physical Society.

Gonzalez P.G.,Complutense University of Madrid | Pliego-Cuervo Y.B.,IT de Orizaba
Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis | Year: 2013

The bamboo species Guadua angustifolia, Bambusa vulgaris striata and Bambusa oldhamii, were used as raw materials to obtain sixteen activated carbons. The physicochemical characterization showed wide adsorption capacity values (measured as iodine number) ranging from 280 to 1500 mg/g, activation yields from 80 to 85%, average point of zero charge ≈9.9 and high content of quinonic surface groups. The influence of the bamboo species, particle size, time and temperature on the final surface properties was analysed using factorial experimental design methodology. Results indicated that the maximum adsorption capacity was achieved with B. vulgaris striata and 4 h of activation time. The content of superficial oxygenated acidic groups on the samples were identified as the result of the third order interaction (raw material, time and temperature) allowing the control of the surface polarity on the final activated carbons. The scanning electron microscopy micrographs showed the shape conservation of the raw material after carbonization and activation stages. Transmission electron microscopy examinations suggest that structure of the prepared material is formed by highly disordered graphene-like layers as it was confirmed with the diffuse diffraction rings observed by selected area diffraction pattern and the shape of the carbon-K energy-loss near edge structure. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Hwang H.J.,Pohang University of Science and Technology | Velazquez J.J.L.,Complutense University of Madrid
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis | Year: 2010

In this paper we prove global existence for solutions of the Vlasov-Poisson system in convex bounded domains with specular boundary conditions and with a prescribed outward electrical field at the boundary. © Springer-Verlag 2009.

There are many controversies in the literature over the influence of different firm characteristics on the importance to the firm of cooperation for innovation. Empirical studies have focused on the fact of cooperation but have not measured its importance for the firm. The purpose of this work is to go a step further by investigating the characteristics and cooperative behaviour of firms that use cooperation as the main way to achieve innovation (cooperation-based innovators). We draw on the 2004 Spanish Innovation Survey and employ a two-step Heckman model. Our main results show that there are sharp differences among firms. More precisely, we find that smaller firms and firms outside the high-tech sectors are more likely to be cooperation-based innovators. We also find that the type of cooperative behaviour matters. Cooperation with providers, with a few agents and with national partners are strong features of cooperation-based innovators. We discuss some management and policy implications of our results. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Pulido F.,Max Planck Institute for Ornithology (Radolfzell) | Pulido F.,Netherlands Institute of Ecology | Pulido F.,Complutense University of Madrid | Berthold P.,Max Planck Institute for Ornithology (Radolfzell)
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | Year: 2010

Global warming is impacting biodiversity by altering the distribution, abundance, and phenology of a wide range of animal and plant species. One of the best documented responses to recent climate change is alterations in the migratory behavior of birds, but the mechanisms underlying these phenotypic adjustments are largely unknown. This knowledge is still crucial to predict whether populations of migratory birds will adapt to a rapid increase in temperature. We monitored migratory behavior in a population of blackcaps (Sylvia atricapilla) to test for evolutionary responses to recent climate change. Using a common garden experiment in time and captive breeding we demonstrated a genetic reduction in migratory activity and evolutionary change in phenotypic plasticity of migration onset. An artificial selection experiment further revealed that residency will rapidly evolve in completely migratory bird populations if selection for shorter migration distance persists. Our findings suggest that current alterations of the environment are favoring birds wintering closer to the breeding grounds and that populations of migratory birds have strongly responded to these changes in selection. The reduction of migratory activity is probably an important evolutionary process in the adaptation of migratory birds to climate change, because it reduces migration costs and facilitates the rapid adjustment to the shifts in the timing of food availability during reproduction.

Mirabal N.,Complutense University of Madrid
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society | Year: 2010

We report the discovery of an unusual source of extended X-ray emission CXOU J184846.3-013040 ('The Stem') located on the outskirts of the globular cluster GLIMPSE-C01. No point-like source falls within the extended emission which has an X-ray luminosity LX(0.3-8 keV) ∼ 1032 erg s-1 and a physical size of ∼0.1 pc at the inferred distance to the cluster. These X-ray properties are consistent with the pulsar wind nebula of an unseen pulsar located within the 95 per cent confidence error contour of an unidentified Fermiγ-ray source 0FGL J1848.6-0138. However, we cannot exclude an alternative interpretation that postulates X-ray emission associated with a bow shock produced from the interaction of the globular cluster and interstellar gas in the Galactic plane. Analysis of the X-ray data reveals that 'The Stem' is most significant in the 2-5 keV band, which suggests that the emission may be dominated by non-thermal bremsstrahlung from suprathermal electrons at the bow shock. If the bow shock interpretation is correct, these observations would provide compelling evidence that GLIMPSE-C01 is shedding its intracluster gas during a galactic passage. Such a direct detection of gas stripping would help clarify a crucial step in the evolutionary history of globular clusters. Intriguingly, the data may also accommodate a new type of X-ray source. © 2009 The Author. Journal compilation © 2009 RAS.

Maiz-Arevalo C.,Complutense University of Madrid
Journal of Pragmatics | Year: 2012

Compliments are certainly one of the most widely studied speech acts, as shown by the extensive literature devoted to the topic. However, as pointed out by different authors, research has almost exclusively focused on formulaic compliments while neglecting implicit ones, most probably because the first tend to outnumber the latter. The present paper is an attempt to redress the balance in favor of implicit compliments. My focus, however, is not on the interpretive procedures employed by interlocutors when receiving an implicit compliment but on the pragmatic motives underlying the speaker's choice of this much rarer speech act. Thus, this paper aims to answer the following research question: What are the speaker's pragmatic motivations to opt for an implicit instead of an explicit compliment? Results show that implicit compliments are preferred when evaluating someone's qualities, achievements or personal appearance in order to avoid face-threat, especially when the relationship between the interlocutors is still distant. Finally, it can also be argued that not all implicit compliments share the same degree of implicitness. In fact, some of them show recurrent linguistic patterns which lead to us argue in favor of a cline of explicitness both in English and Spanish. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Serrano-Pedraza I.,Complutense University of Madrid
Journal of vision | Year: 2012

The contrast detection threshold of a grating located in the periphery is increased if a surrounding grating of the same frequency and orientation is present. This inhibition between center and surround has been termed surround suppression. In this work we measured the spatial frequency bandwidth of surround suppression in the periphery for different spatial frequencies (0.5, 1.1, 3, and 5 cycles/deg) of a sinusoidal grating (target) surrounded by a grating with different spatial frequencies (surround). Using a Bayesian adaptive staircase, we measured contrast detection thresholds in an 8AFC detection task in which the target (grating with a 2.3-deg Butterworth window) could appear in one of eight possible positions at 4° eccentricity. The target was surrounded by a grating (with a 18° Butterworth window) with the same or an orthogonal orientation. In each session we fixed the spatial frequency of the target and changed the spatial frequency and the orientation of the surround. When the surround was orthogonal to the target, the thresholds were similar to those obtained without surround, independent of the surrounding spatial frequency. However, when the target and surround had the same orientation and spatial frequency, the contrast threshold was increased by a factor ranging from 3 to 6 across subjects. This suppression reduced rapidly as the spatial frequency of the surround moved away from that of the target. The bandwidth of the suppressive effect depended on spatial frequency, declining from 2.9 octaves at 0.5 c/deg to 1 octave for frequencies above 3 c/deg. This is consistent with the bandwidth of individual simple cells in visual cortex and of spatial frequency channels measured psychophysically, both of which decline with increasing spatial frequency. This suggests that surround suppression may be due to relatively precise inhibition by cells with the same tuning as the target.

De La Puente M.J.,Complutense University of Madrid
Kybernetika | Year: 2013

In this paper we give a short, elementary proof of a known result in tropical mathematics, by which the convexity of the column span of a zero-diagonal real matrix A is characterized by A being a Kleene star. We give applications to alcoved polytopes, using normal idempotentmatrices (which form a subclass of Kleene stars). For a normal matrix we define a norm and show that this is the radius of a hyperplane section of its tropical span.

Bonilla L.L.,Charles III University of Madrid | Carpio A.,Complutense University of Madrid
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2012

We propose a model of ripples in suspended graphene sheets based on plate equations that are made discrete with the periodicity of the honeycomb lattice and then periodized. In addition, the equation for the displacements with respect to the planar configuration contains a double-well site potential, a nonlinear friction, and a multiplicative white-noise term satisfying the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. The nonlinear friction terms agree with those proposed by Eichler to explain their experiments with a graphene resonator. The site double-well potential indicates that the carbon atoms at each lattice point have equal probability to move upward or downward off plane. For the considered parameter values, the relaxation time due to friction is much larger than the periods of membrane vibrations and the noise is quite small. Then ripples with no preferred orientation appear as long-lived metastable states for any temperature. Numerical solutions confirm this picture. © 2012 American Physical Society.

Gliganic L.A.,University of Wollongong | Jacobs Z.,University of Wollongong | Roberts R.G.,University of Wollongong | Dominguez-Rodrigo M.,Complutense University of Madrid | Mabulla A.Z.P.,University of Dar es Salaam
Journal of Human Evolution | Year: 2012

The archaeological deposits at Mumba rockshelter, northern Tanzania, have been excavated for more than 70 years, starting with Margit and Ludwig Köhl-Larsen in the 1930s. The assemblages of Middle Stone Age (MSA) and Later Stone Age (LSA) artefacts collected from this site constitute the type sequences for these cultural phases in East Africa. Despite its archaeological importance, however, the chronology of the site is poorly constrained, despite the application since the 1980s of several dating methods (radiocarbon, uranium-series and amino acid racemisation) to a variety of materials recovered from the deposits. Here, we review these previous chronologies for Mumba and report new ages obtained from optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL) measurements on single grains of quartz and multi-grain aliquots of potassium (K) feldspar from the MSA and LSA deposits. Measurements of single grains of quartz allowed the rejection of unrepresentative grains and the application of appropriate statistical models to obtain the most reliable age estimates, while measurements of K-feldspars allowed the chronology to be extended to older deposits. The seven quartz ages and four K-feldspar ages provide improved temporal constraints on the archaeological sequence at Mumba. The deposits associated with the latest Kisele Industry (Bed VI-A) and the earliest Mumba Industry (Bed V) are dated to 63.4 ± 5.7 and 56.9 ± 4.8 ka (thousands of years ago), respectively, thus constraining the time of transition between these two archaeological phases to ∼60 ka. An age of 49.1 ± 4.3 ka has been obtained for the latest deposits associated with the Mumba Industry, which show no evidence for post-depositional mixing and contain ostrich eggshell (OES) beads and abundant microlithics. The Nasera Industry deposits (Bed III) contain large quantities of OES beads and date to 36.8 ± 3.4 ka. We compare the luminescence ages with the previous chronologies for Mumba, and briefly discuss how the revised chronology fits in the context of existing archaeological records and palaeoclimatic reconstructions for East Africa. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Poilblanc D.,Toulouse 1 University Capitole | Schuch N.,California Institute of Technology | Schuch N.,RWTH Aachen | Perez-Garcia D.,Complutense University of Madrid | Cirac J.I.,Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2012

We examine in details the connections between topological and entanglement properties of short-range resonating valence bond (RVB) wave functions using projected entangled pair states (PEPS) on kagome and square lattices on (quasi)infinite cylinders with generalized boundary conditions (and perimeters with up to 20 lattice spacings). By making use of disconnected topological sectors in the space of dimer lattice coverings, we explicitly derive (orthogonal) "minimally entangled" PEPS RVB states. For the kagome lattice, using the quantum Heisenberg antiferromagnet as a reference model, we obtain the finite-size scaling with increasing cylinder perimeter of the vanishing energy separations between these states. In particular, we extract two separate (vanishing) energy scales corresponding (i) to insert a vison line between the two ends of the cylinder and (ii) to pull out and freeze a spin at either end. We also investigate the relations between bulk and boundary properties and show that, for a bipartition of the cylinder, the boundary Hamiltonian defined on the edge can be written as a product of a highly nonlocal projector, which fundamentally depends upon boundary conditions, with an emergent (local) SU(2)-invariant one-dimensional (superfluid) t-J Hamiltonian, which arises due to the symmetry properties of the auxiliary spins at the edge. This multiplicative structure, a consequence of the disconnected topological sectors in the space of dimer lattice coverings, is characteristic of the topological nature of the states. For minimally entangled RVB states, it is shown that the entanglement spectrum, which reflects the properties of the (gapless or gapped) edge modes, is a subset of the spectrum of the local Hamiltonian, e.g., half of it for the kagome RVB state, providing a simple argument on the origin of the topological entanglement entropy S 0=-ln2 of the Z 2 spin liquid. We propose to use these features to probe topological phases in microscopic Hamiltonians, and some results are compared to existing density matrix renormalization group data. © 2012 American Physical Society.

Martin M.,Complutense University of Madrid
Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology | Year: 2013

Adding taxanes to anthracycline-based adjuvant therapy improves survival outcomes of patients with node-positive breast cancer (BC). Currently, however, most patients with BC are node negative at diagnosis. The only pure node-negative study (Spanish Breast Cancer Research Group 9805) reported so far showed a docetaxel benefit but significant toxicity. Here we tested the efficacy and safety of weekly paclitaxel (wP) in node-negative patients, which is yet to be established. Patients with BC having T1-T3/N0 tumors and at least one high-risk factor for recurrence (according to St. Gallen 1998 criteria) were eligible. After primary surgery, 1,925 patients were randomly assigned to receive fluorouracil, doxorubicin, and cyclophosphamide (FAC) × 6 or FAC × 4 followed by wP × 8 (FAC-wP). The primary end point was disease-free survival (DFS) after a median follow-up of 5 years. Secondary end points included toxicity and overall survival. After a median follow-up of 63.3 months, 93% and 90.3% of patients receiving FAC-wP or FAC regimens, respectively, remained disease free (hazard ratio [HR], 0.73; 95% CI, 0.54 to 0.99; log-rank P = .04). Thirty-one patients receiving FAC-wP versus 40 patients receiving FAC died (one and seven from cardiovascular diseases, respectively; HR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.49 to 1.26; log-rank P = .31). The most relevant grade 3 and 4 adverse events in the FAC-wP versus the FAC arm were febrile neutropenia (2.7% v 3.6%), fatigue (7.9% v 3.4%), and sensory neuropathy (5.5% v 0%). For patients with high-risk node-negative BC, the adjuvant FAC-wP regimen was associated with a small but significant improvement in DFS compared with FAC therapy, in addition to manageable toxicity, especially regarding long-term cardiac effects.

This article reviews new mammography technologies resulting from advances in digital detectors and processing techniques. Most are just starting to be commercialized or are in the clinical trial phase. The results of clinical trials with the new 2 D techniques (contrast-enhanced techniques or stereotactic techniques) show they are useful for diagnosing cancer. However, the greater complexity of the image acquisition process suggests that their use will be limited to particular cases such as inconclusive lesions or women with high risk for developing breast cancer. Among the 3 D technologies (breast tomography and breast tomosynthesis), only breast tomosynthesis has been implemented in clinical practice, so it is the only technique for which it is possible to know the sensitivity, specificity, and radiation dose delivered. This article describes the principles underlying the way breast tomosynthesis works and the techniques used for image acquisition and reconstruction. It also summarizes the main results obtained in clinical studies, which generally show that breast tomosynthesis increases the breast cancer detection rate while decreasing the recall rate and number of biopsies taken. The protocol for breast tomosynthesis approved by the Food and Drug Administration (USA) consists of two conventional mammography projections for each breast and two tomosynthesis projections for each breast. This means multiplying the risks of inducing cancer and death associated with 2 D mammography by a factor between 2 and 3 (2.6-3.3 and 0.7-0.9 per 100,000 women exposed when 50 years old, respectively). The protocol for breast tomosynthesis examinations is one of the aspects that is essential to determine when including tomosynthesis in screening programs and routine breast imaging. © 2013 SERAM. Published by Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

Geuna S.,University of Turin | Herrera-Rincon C.,Complutense University of Madrid
Cell and Tissue Research | Year: 2015

The quantitative investigation of images taken from light microscopy observation is one of the pillars of biological and biomedical investigation. The main objective is the count of objects, usually cells. In addition, the measurement of several morphological parameters, such as the diameter of cells, the length of vessels, etc., can also be important for the quantitative assessment of the features of a tissue. Whereas counting and measuring histological elements may appear easy, especially today with the availability of dedicated software, in fact it is not, since what we can count and measure on light microscopy images are not the true histological elements but actually profiles of them. Obviously, the number and size of profiles of an object do not correspond to the object number and size and thus significant mistakes can be made in the interpretation of the quantitative data obtained from profiles. To cope with this problem, over the last decades, a number of design-based stereological tools have been developed in order to obtain unbiased and reliable quantitative estimates of cell and tissue elements that originate from light microscopy images. This paper reviews the basic principles of the stereological tools from the first disector applications through some of the most recently devised methods. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Sanchez A.,Ghent University | Vazquez C.,Complutense University of Madrid | Gomez D.,University of Huelva | Joormann J.,Northwestern University
Emotion | Year: 2014

The present study tested the interplay between mood and attentional deployment by examining attention to positive (i.e., happy faces) and negative (i.e., angry and sad faces) stimuli in response to experimental inductions of sad and happy mood. Participants underwent a negative, neutral, or positive mood induction procedure (MIP) which was followed by an assessment of their attentional deployment to emotional faces using eye-tracking technology. Faces were selected from the Karolinska Directed Emotional Faces (KDEF) database (Lundqvist, Flykt, & öhman, 1998). In the positive MIP condition, analyses revealed a mood- congruent relation between positive mood and greater attentional deployment to happy faces. In the negative MIP condition, however, analyses revealed a mood- incongruent relation between increased negative mood and greater attentional deployment to happy faces. Furthermore, attentional deployment to happy faces after the negative MIP predicted participants' mood recovery at the end of the experimental session. These results suggest that attentional processing of positive information may play a role in mood repair, which may have important clinical implications. © 2013 American Psychological Association.

Tijero A.,Complutense University of Madrid
Tappi Journal | Year: 2012

Increasingly stringent environmental standards and market demands are forcing pulp and paper mills to minimize both their water usage and their effluent discharge. Higher rates of process water reuse in pulp and paper mills leads to increased amounts of dissolved and colloidal substances in process water, which is a major fac-tor limiting further closure of the water circuits. This study explores the use of different types of talc as control agents for dissolved and colloidal material contained in white water from paper mills using recovered and coated paper as raw materials. It also identifies the kinds of talc that can be used to control detrimental properties of the white water.

Arango C.,Complutense University of Madrid | Garibaldi G.,Hoffmann-La Roche | Marder S.R.,University of California at Los Angeles | Marder S.R.,VA Desert Pacific Mental Illness Research
Schizophrenia Research | Year: 2013

Clinical trials of pharmacological agents targeting negative symptoms in schizophrenia are reviewed. The focus is on trials that occurred in patients who were stable on an antipsychotic medication at entry to the trial. A small number of trials compared antipsychotics as monotherapy for negative symptoms. Although the data supporting amisulpride for negative symptoms is promising the trials have limitations and it is plausible that the advantages of amisulpride over placebo may result from effects on secondary negative symptoms. Among available agents, antidepressant medications may have effects in negative symptoms. Other promising agents include minocycline, glutamatergic agents, and alpha-7 nicotinic agents. More than 15 active trials are currently underway to evaluate new treatments for negative symptoms. © 2013.

Torres-Rincon J.M.,Complutense University of Madrid
Progress in Particle and Nuclear Physics | Year: 2012

The latest experimental results in relativistic heavy-ion collisions show that the matter there produced requires transport coefficients because of the important collective properties found. We review the theoretical calculation of these transport coefficients in the hadron side at low temperatures by computing them in a gas composed of low energy pions. The interaction of these pions is taken from an effective chiral theory and further requiring scattering unitarity. The propagation of D and D * mesons in the thermalized pion gas is also studied in order to extract the heavy quark diffusion coefficients in the system. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Ruiz Ruiz F.,Complutense University of Madrid
European Physical Journal C | Year: 2015

Yang–Mills theory with a symmetry algebra that is the semidirect product $$\mathfrak {h}\ltimes \mathfrak {h}^*$$h⋉h∗ defined by the coadjoint action of a Lie algebra $$\mathfrak {h}$$h on its dual $$\mathfrak {h}^*$$h∗ is studied. The gauge group is the semidirect product $$\mathrm{G}_{\mathfrak {h}}\ltimes {\mathfrak {h}^*}$$Gh⋉h∗, a noncompact group given by the coadjoint action on $$\mathfrak {h}^*$$h∗ of the Lie group $$\mathrm{G}_{\mathfrak {h}}$$Gh of $$\mathfrak {h}$$h. For $$\mathfrak {h}$$h simple, a method to construct the self–antiself dual instantons of the theory and their gauge nonequivalent deformations is presented. Every $$\mathrm{G}_{\mathfrak {h}}\ltimes {\mathfrak {h}^*}$$Gh⋉h∗ instanton has an embedded $$\mathrm{G}_{\mathfrak {h}}$$Gh instanton with the same instanton charge, in terms of which the construction is realized. As an example, $$\mathfrak {h}=\mathfrak {s}\mathfrak {u}(2)$$h=su(2) and instanton charge one is considered. The gauge group is in this case $$SU(2)\ltimes \mathbf{R}^3$$SU(2)⋉R3. Explicit expressions for the selfdual connection, the zero modes and the metric and complex structures of the moduli space are given. © 2015, The Author(s).

Gracia D.,Complutense University of Madrid
Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics | Year: 2012

What does autonomy mean from a moral point of view? Throughout Western history, autonomy has had no less than four different meanings. The first is political: the capacity of old cities and modern states to give themselves their own laws. The second is metaphysical, and was introduced by Kant in the second half of the 18th century. In this meaning, autonomy is understood as an intrinsic characteristic of all rational beings. Opposed to this is the legal meaning, in which actions are called autonomous when performed with due information and competency and without coercion. This last meaning, the most frequently used in bioethics, is primarily legal instead of moral. Is there a proper moral meaning of the word autonomy? If so, this would be a fourth meaning. Acts can only be called moral when they are postconventional (using the terminology coined by Lawrence Kohlberg), inner-directed (as expressed by David Riesman), and responsible (according to Hannah Arendt). Such acts are autonomous in this new, fourth, and to my mind, the only one proper, moral meaning. The goal of ethics cannot be other than forming human beings capable of making autonomous and responsible decisions, and doing so because they think this is their duty and not because of any other nonmoral motivation, like comfort, convenience, or satisfaction. The goal of ethics is to promote postconventional and mature human beings. This was what Socrates tried to do with the young people of Athens. And it is also the objective of every course of ethics and of any process of training. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012.

Khayet M.,Complutense University of Madrid | Fernandez V.,Technical University of Madrid
Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling | Year: 2012

Background: Most aerial plant parts are covered with a hydrophobic lipid-rich cuticle, which is the interface between the plant organs and the surrounding environment. Plant surfaces may have a high degree of hydrophobicity because of the combined effects of surface chemistry and roughness. The physical and chemical complexity of the plant cuticle limits the development of models that explain its internal structure and interactions with surface-applied agrochemicals. In this article we introduce a thermodynamic method for estimating the solubilities of model plant surface constituents and relating them to the effects of agrochemicals. Results: Following the van Krevelen and Hoftyzer method, we calculated the solubility parameters of three model plant species and eight compounds that differ in hydrophobicity and polarity. In addition, intact tissues were examined by scanning electron microscopy and the surface free energy, polarity, solubility parameter and work of adhesion of each were calculated from contact angle measurements of three liquids with different polarities. By comparing the affinities between plant surface constituents and agrochemicals derived from (a) theoretical calculations and (b) contact angle measurements we were able to distinguish the physical effect of surface roughness from the effect of the chemical nature of the epicuticular waxes. A solubility parameter model for plant surfaces is proposed on the basis of an increasing gradient from the cuticular surface towards the underlying cell wall. Conclusions: The procedure enabled us to predict the interactions among agrochemicals, plant surfaces, and cuticular and cell wall components, and promises to be a useful tool for improving our understanding of biological surface interactions. © 2012 Khayet and Fernández; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Tempesta P.,Complutense University of Madrid | Tempesta P.,Institute Ciencias Matematicas
Annals of Physics | Year: 2016

The notion of entropy is ubiquitous both in natural and social sciences. In the last two decades, a considerable effort has been devoted to the study of new entropic forms, which generalize the standard Boltzmann-Gibbs (BG) entropy and could be applicable in thermodynamics, quantum mechanics and information theory. In Khinchin (1957), by extending previous ideas of Shannon (1948) and Shannon and Weaver (1949), Khinchin proposed a characterization of the BG entropy, based on four requirements, nowadays known as the Shannon-Khinchin (SK) axioms.The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, we show that there exists an intrinsic group-theoretical structure behind the notion of entropy. It comes from the requirement of composability of an entropy with respect to the union of two statistically independent systems, that we propose in an axiomatic formulation. Second, we show that there exists a simple universal family of trace-form entropies. This class contains many well known examples of entropies and infinitely many new ones, a priori multi-parametric. Due to its specific relation with Lazard's universal formal group of algebraic topology, the new general entropy introduced in this work will be called the universal-group entropy. A new example of multi-parametric entropy is explicitly constructed. © 2015 Elsevier Inc..

Luis A.,Complutense University of Madrid
Optics Letters | Year: 2016

Nonclassicality cannot be a single-observable property, since the statistics of any quantum observable is compatible with classical physics. We develop a general procedure to reveal nonclassical behavior of light states from the joint statistics arising in the practical measurement of multiple observables. Beside embracing previous approaches, this protocol can disclose nonclassical features for standard examples of classical-like behavior, such as SU(2) and Glauber coherent states. When combined with other criteria, this would imply that every light state is nonclassical. © 2016 Optical Society of America.

Giron P.,Complutense University of Madrid
Central European Journal of Public Health | Year: 2012

Objective: To examine the association of age and other factors with Self-rated Health (SRH) in the population aged 65 years or more in the context of action for health promotion in older adults. Material and Methods: The data used come from the household and adults questionnaires of the National Health Survey of Spain for 2006. SRH was categorized as positive (very positive or positive) and negative (fair, poor or very poor). Odds ratios for positive SRH compared to negative SRH were calculated using logistic regression models for complex samples. The determinants of the Positive SRH were obtained for the elderly population. Results: Among the population aged 65 years and older 39.7% report positive SRH. In this age group, those of 83 or more years have a better SRH. Other factors specific to this age group that improve the SRH are living alone, not having any functional dependence and high monthly family income. Conclusions: The association between several factors (particularly age) and positive SHR in people aged 65 and older differs from the one found in the rest of the population. Understanding the factors positively associated with the positive SRH in this population is of great importance for the design of specific programmes aimed at improving the health of older people.

Gonzalez-Munoz N.,University of Alcala | Costa-Tenorio M.,Complutense University of Madrid | Espigares T.,University of Alcala
Forest Ecology and Management | Year: 2012

Invasive tree Acacia dealbata was introduced in the Iberian Peninsula in the 19th century. Nowadays, it is spreading in wide areas in which native vegetation has been altered or removed by human-activities, as in the case of Quercus robur forests in the northwest of Spain. In this article we assess the impact of A. dealbata invasion on soil properties (pH, organic matter, total N, NH4+-N and NO3--N), light characteristics (direct and diffuse photon flux density and leaf area index) and soil seed bank and established vegetation. We selected three sites where native Q. robur forests and A. dealbata invaded patches grow nearby. Before 2008 autumn rains, we took soil samples under five trees per species (A. dealbata and Q. robur) and site to determine soil seed bank floristic composition and soil properties. In spring 2009 we monitored the floristic composition of the vegetation growing under the same trees. Our results show that A. dealbata presence increases total N, NH4+-N and NO3--N and decreases pH in soils but does not affect light characteristics. Acacia dealbata modifies soil seed bank composition by decreasing species richness, seed density and the percentage of bryophyte and fern spores, and by increasing the percentage of Asteraceae and exotic species. Understorey of invaded A. dealbata forests shows a decrease in species richness and plant cover. Finally, A. dealbata reduces the similarity between the soil seed bank and the established vegetation. These results suggest that A. dealbata invasion produces a deep impact on Q. robur forests that hampers their regeneration, even after A. dealbata removal. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Vaveliuk P.,Sao Paulo State Technological College | Martinez-Matos O.,Complutense University of Madrid
Optics Express | Year: 2012

Negative propagation is an unusual effect concerning the local sign change in the Poynting vector components of an optical beam under free propagation. We report this effect for finite-energy Airy beams in a subwavelength nonparaxial regime. This effect is due to a coupling process between propagating and evanescent plane waves forming the beam in the spectral domain and it is demonstrated for a single TE or TM mode. This is contrary to what happens for vector Bessel beams and vector X-waves, for which a complex superposition of TE and TM modes is mandatory. We also show that evanescent waves cannot contribute to the energy flux density by themselves such that a pure evanescent Airy beam is not physically realizable. The break of the shape-preserving and diffraction-free properties of Airy beams in a nonparaxial regime is exclusively caused by the propagating waves. The negative propagation effect in subwavelength nonparaxial Airy beams opens new capabilities in optical traps and tweezers, optical detection of invisibility cloacks and selective on-chip manipulation of nanoparticles. © 2012 Optical Society of America.

Artalejo J.R.,Complutense University of Madrid
Acta Biotheoretica | Year: 2014

We analyze the dynamics of nosocomial infections in intensive care units (ICUs) by using a Markov chain model. Since population size in the ICU is small, in contrast to previous studies, we concentrate on the analytical solution rather than using simulation. We investigate how changes in the system parameters affect to some important behavioral indicators of the spread of the pathogen. We also present an exact measure of the number of secondary cases of infection produced by one colonized patient. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Giron P.,Complutense University of Madrid
European Journal of Public Health | Year: 2012

Background: Identifying factors associated with self-rated health (SRH) in two age groups (16-49 and ≥50 years) in the context of action for health promotion in adults. Methods: The data used came from the household and adults questionnaires of the National Health Survey of Spain for 2006. SRH was categorized as positive (very positive or positive) and negative (fair, poor or very poor). Odds ratios for positive SRH compared with negative SRH were calculated using logistic regression models for complex samples. The determinants of the positive SRH were obtained for the total population and for two age groups. Results: Among the population aged ≥16 years, 66.6 reports positive SRH, 78.6 in the 16- to 49-year-old group and 47.7 in the ≥50-year-old group. SRH worsens with age until the age of 49, whereas 50 years onwards older report better health than the younger. The influence of lifestyle on the SRH varies by age group among adults as well: in the younger age groups, obesity, smoking and non-alcohol are associated with poor SRH; in contrast, physical exercise only in leisure time and enough sleeping hours are associated with positive SRH in the ≥50-year-old population. Conclusions: The factors associated with SRH differ across age groups, particularly for lifestyle. Understanding the differences between the factors associated with the positive SRH is highly relevant for the design of specific programmes aimed at improving public health. © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

Cruzado J.A.,Complutense University of Madrid | Elvira De La Morena M.J.,Fundacion Instituto San Jose
Brain Injury | Year: 2013

Objectives: To study depression, anxiety, maladjustment and coping in caregivers of patients in vegetative state (VS) or minimally conscious state (MCS). Materials and methods: Fifty-three caregivers of 43 patients with VS or MCS were assessed using Beck Anxiety Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory, maladjustment scale and Brief Coping Orientation of Problems Experienced (COPE-28). Results: There were 15 clinical cases (cut-off ≥ 21) of anxiety (28.30%); 16 cases (cut-off ≥ 21) of depression (30.20%); and 45 cases (cut-off ≥ 12) of maladjustment (84.8%). Active and problem-focused (Active coping, Instrumental support, Planning and Acceptance) were the most frequently used coping strategies. Acceptance predicted the absence of depression (p=0.000, Cohen's d=1.08) and anxiety (p=0.000, Cohen's d=1.08). Denial was associated with depression (p=0.000, Cohen's d=1.65) and anxiety (p=0.000, Cohen's d=1.23). Self-blame was associated with greater anxiety (p=0.001, Cohen's d=1.06) and depression (p=0.001, Cohen's d=1.07). Emotion-focused coping was associated with anxiety (p=0.000, Cohen's d=1.29) and depression (p=0.001, Cohen's d=1.11). Conclusions: Caregivers of patients with VS or MCS presented high levels of distress. Psychological support for caregivers of patients with VS or MCS is necessary. The most frequently used coping strategies were Active and Problem-focused. Acceptance was highly protective, but Denial, Self-blame and Emotion-focused strategies were very negative. © 2013 Informa UK Ltd.

de la Morena M.J.E.,Fundacion Instituto San Jose | Cruzado J.A.,Complutense University of Madrid
Acta Neurologica Scandinavica | Year: 2013

Objectives: To study the relationship between coping strategies and prolonged grief disorder (PGD) in caregivers of patients with disorders of consciousness: vegetative state (VS) or minimally conscious state (MCS). Materials and methods: Fifty-three caregivers of 43 patients with VS or MCS were assessed using PG-12 and Brief COPE-28. Mean differences for each coping strategy between caregivers of patients with/without PGD were compared using Bonferroni-adjusted t-tests, and the size effect was calculated (Cohen′s d). Results: The frequency of PGD was very high (n = 32; 60.40%). The most common coping strategies were problem-focused: active coping (mean = 6.41; SD = 1.02), Instrumental support (mean = 6.41; SD = 1.06), Planning (mean = 6.32; SD = 1.01) and Acceptance (mean = 6.20; SD = 1.29). Acceptance predicted a lower presence of PGD (P = 0.001; Cohen′s d = 1.02), while Denial (P = 0.003; Cohen′s d = 0.98) and Self-blame (P = 0.004, Cohen′s d = 0.91) increased the presence of PGD. Conclusions: The caregivers of patients with VS or MCS show a high risk of PGD. Problem-focused coping strategies are the most used. Acceptance is highly protective of PGD, and Denial and Self-blame are associated with an increased presence of PGD. PGD in caregivers of patients in VS or MCS should be evaluated, Acceptance and problem-focused strategies should be promoted, and Denial and Self-blame should be diminished. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

Jouguet P.,SeQureNet | Elkouss D.,Complutense University of Madrid | Kunz-Jacques S.,SeQureNet
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2014

Here, we demonstrate that a practical continuous-variable quantum key distribution (QKD) protocol relying on the Gaussian modulation of coherent states features secret key rates that cannot be achieved with standard qubit discrete-variable QKD protocols. Notably, we report a practical postprocessing that allows us to extract more than 1 bit of secret key per channel use. © 2014 American Physical Society.

Several immune functions are markers of health, biological age and predictors of longevity. A chronic oxidative and inflammatory state is the main cause of ageing and the immune system is involved in the rate of ageing. Thus, several murine models of premature ageing have been proposed owing to their early immunosenescence and oxidative stress, such as ovariectomised rats and mice, obese rats and anxious mice. In the last model, the most extensively studied by us, mice showing anxiety have an aged immune function and redox status as well as a shorter longevity in comparison with animals without anxiety of the same chronological age, being denominated prematurely ageing mice. A confirmation of the above is that the administration of diets supplemented with antioxidants improves the redox status and immune functions and increases the longevity of prematurely ageing mice. Antioxidant precursors of glutathione such as thioproline or N-acetylcysteine, which have a relevant role in ageing, have been the most widely investigated in adult prematurely ageing mice in our laboratory. In the present work, we have studied the effects of the ingestion for 5 weeks of a diet supplemented with 01% (w/w) thioproline+N-acetylcysteine on several functions of leucocytes from chronological old (69-73 weeks of age) prematurely ageing mice of two strains (Swiss and BALB/c). The results show an improvement of the immune functions, with their values becoming closer to those in adult animals (242 weeks). Thus, an adequate nutrition with antioxidants, even in aged subjects, could be a good strategy to retard ageing. © 2010 The Author.

Diaz De La Cruz J.M.,Polytechnic University of Mozambique | Martin-Delgado M.A.,Complutense University of Madrid
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2014

We introduce quantum information engines that extract work from quantum states and a single thermal reservoir. They may operate under three general conditions - (1) unitarily steered evolution (US), driven by a restricted set of available Hamiltonians; (2) irreversible thermalization (IT), and (3) isothermal relaxation (IR) - and hence are called USITIR machines. They include novel engines without traditional feedback control mechanisms, as well as versions which also include them. Explicit constructions of USITIR engines are presented for one- and two-qubit states and their maximum extractable work is computed, which is optimal. Optimality is achieved when the notions of controllable thermalizability and density matrix controllability are fulfilled. Then many-body extensions of USITIR engines are also analyzed and conditions for optimal work extraction are identified. When they are not met, we measure their lack of optimality by means of newly defined uncontrollable entropies, which are explicitly computed for some selected examples. This includes cases of distinguishable and indistinguishable particles. © 2014 American Physical Society.

Artalejo J.R.,Complutense University of Madrid
Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications | Year: 2012

This note provides a unified approach to the distribution of the time to extinction from quasi-stationarity for general Markov chains evolving both in discrete and in continuous time. Our results generalize a number of similar derivations which were established ad hoc for a variety of stochastic epidemic models. On the other hand, the obtained results unify the infinite irreducible case and the finite (reducible or irreducible) case which are typically presented under separate formulations in the literature for Markov chains. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Pina C.M.,Complutense University of Madrid
American Mineralogist | Year: 2015

Little is known about the physico-chemical processes that lead to the formation of dolomite in nature. Issues requiring further investigation include: (1) the role played by amorphous carbonate precursors, (2) the mechanisms of transformation of such precursors into proto-dolomite and dolomite, and (3) the controlling factors of the kinetics of the reactions that eventually result in the crystallization of highly ordered dolomite. In the article by Rodriguez-Blanco et al. in this issue entitled "A route for the direct crystallization of dolomite," the authors present experimental evidence of a threestage process that, starting from the precipitation of an amorphous magnesium calcium carbonate, produces proto-dolomite via spherulitic growth, and subsequently ordered dolomite. This article provides new insights into reaction pathways toward the formation of dolomite. © 2015 by Walter de Gruyter Berlin/Boston.

Aragon-Sanchez J.,Diabetic Foot Unit | Lipsky B.A.,Primary Care Clinic | Lipsky B.A.,University of Washington | Lazaro-Martinez J.L.,Complutense University of Madrid
Diabetic Medicine | Year: 2011

Aims To investigate the accuracy of the sequential combination of the probe-to-bone test and plain X-rays for diagnosing osteomyelitis in the foot of patients with diabetes.Methods We prospectively compiled data on a series of 338 patients with diabetes with 356 episodes of foot infection who were hospitalized in the Diabetic Foot Unit of La Paloma Hospital from 1 October 2002 to 31 April 2010. For each patient we did a probe-to-bone test at the time of the initial evaluation and then obtained plain X-rays of the involved foot. All patients with positive results on either the probe-to-bone test or plain X-ray underwent an appropriate surgical procedure, which included obtaining a bone specimen that was processed for histology and culture. We calculated the sensitivity, specificity, predictive values and likelihood ratios of the procedures, using the histopathological diagnosis of osteomyelitis as the criterion standard.Results Overall, 72.4% of patients had histologically proven osteomyelitis, 85.2% of whom had positive bone culture. The performance characteristics of both the probe-to-bone test and plain X-rays were excellent. The sequential diagnostic approach had a sensitivity of 0.97, specificity of 0.92, positive predictive value of 0.97, negative predictive value of 0.93, positive likelihood ratio of 12.8 and negative likelihood ratio of 0.02. Only 6.6% of patients with negative results on both diagnostic studies had osteomyelitis.Conclusions Clinicians seeing patients in a setting similar to ours (specialized diabetic foot unit with a high prevalence of osteomyelitis) can confidently diagnose diabetic foot osteomyelitis when either the probe-to-bone test or a plain X-ray, or especially both, are positive. © 2011 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2011 Diabetes UK.

Belinchon J.A.,Complutense University of Madrid
European Physical Journal C | Year: 2012

In order to analyze how the gravitational constant, G, and the cosmological constant, Λ, may vary we study through symmetry principles the form of the functions in the generalized scalar-tensor theories under the self-similar hypothesis. The results obtained are absolutely general and valid for all the Bianchi models and the flat FRW one. We study the concrete example of the Kantowski-Sachs model finding some new exact self-similar solutions. © 2012 Springer-Verlag / Società Italiana di Fisica.

Rey E.,Complutense University of Madrid | Balboa A.,Institute of Functional and Motor Digestive Disorders | Mearin F.,Institute of Functional and Motor Digestive Disorders
American Journal of Gastroenterology | Year: 2014

OBJECTIVES:Some patients with chronic constipation (CC) have abdominal pain and discomfort (painful CC) without fulfilling the criteria for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Our aim was to investigate similarities and differences among nonpainful CC, painful CC, and CC in patients with IBS according to prevalence, individual symptoms, associated factors, and impact on health-related quality of life and use of medical resources.METHODS:We conducted a telephone survey of a random sample of the Spanish population (N=1500). Bowel symptoms were recorded using the Rome III questionnaire, health-related quality of life using the short form-12 (SF-12) and quality of live in constipation-20 (CVE-20) questionnaires, and self-reported constipation, lifestyle habits, and consultation behavior using an ad hoc questionnaire.RESULTS:The overall prevalence of CC was 19.2%, with prevalence by subgroups being 13.9% for nonpainful CC, 2.0% for painful CC, and 3.3% for CC in patients with IBS. CC was more prevalent among women at a ratio of 2.7:1. Subjects with painful CC and CC in patients with IBS were younger, reported more constipation, and had more symptoms than subjects with nonpainful CC. Age and physical activity were significantly associated with CC. Symptoms associated with consultation were abdominal pain and digitation. Nonpainful CC patients were more satisfied with laxative use than were the other subgroups. Subjects with CC showed a significant impairment in the physical and mental component of the SF-12 questionnaire.CONCLUSIONS:CC appears to be a spectrum; most patients do not have abdominal pain/discomfort but others (with otherwise quite similar characteristics) are patients with IBS or are out of any established diagnosis. © 2014 by the American College of Gastroenterology.

Checa-Casalengua P.,Complutense University of Madrid
Journal of controlled release : official journal of the Controlled Release Society | Year: 2011

The present experimental work describes the use of a novel protein encapsulation method to achieve protection of the biological factor during the microencapsulation procedure. With this aim, the protein is included in poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres without any preliminary manipulation, in contrast to the traditional S/O/W (solid-in-oil-in-water) method where the bioactive substance is first dissolved and then freeze-dried in the presence of lyoprotectors. Furthermore, the presented technique involves the use of an oily additive, vitamin E (Vit E), useful from a technological point of view, by promoting additional protein protection and also from a pharmacological point of view, because of its antioxidant and antiproliferative properties. Application of this microencapsulation technique has been performed for GDNF (glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor) designed for the treatment of optic nerve degenerative diseases, such as glaucoma, the second leading cause of blindness in the western world. The protein was released in vitro in its bioactive form for more than three months, demonstrated by the survival of their potential target cells (photoreceptors and retinal ganglion cells (RGC)). Moreover, the intravitreal injection of GDNF/Vit E PLGA microspheres in an experimental animal model of glaucoma significantly increased RGC survival compared with GDNF, Vit E or blank microspheres (p<0.01). This effect was present for at least eleven weeks, which suggests that the formulation prepared may be clinically useful as a neuroprotective tool in the treatment of glaucomatous optic neuropathy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Prados J.M.,Complutense University of Madrid
Journal of Anxiety Disorders | Year: 2011

Various theoretical models have pointed out the role of positive beliefs in the worry process (Dugas, Gagnon, Ladouceur, & Freeston, 1998; Wells, 1995). Two studies were conducted to search for experimental support for this possibility. After trait worry was controlled, a persuasion procedure was used to induce diverse beliefs about worry (positive, negative, or neutral). It was hypothesized that participants persuaded of the usefulness of worry would be more worried and more anxious after listening to a worrisome message. In the first study, 90 participants (62 females and 28 males) were exposed to a novel worrisome message, and in the second study, 60 participants (34 females and 26 males) were exposed to a more personally relevant worry. Results indicate that persuasion about the utility of worry does not trigger worry, and when prior positive beliefs about worry were controlled, they do not correlate with the change in anxiety after worrisome induction. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Garcia-Martin R.,Complutense University of Madrid | Moussallam B.,University Paris - Sud
European Physical Journal C | Year: 2010

We reconsider Muskhelishvili-Omnès (MO) dispersive representations of photon-photon scattering to two pions, motivated by the very high statistics results recently released by the Belle collaboration for charged as well as neutral pion pairs and also by recent progress in the determination of the low-energy ππ scattering amplitude. Applicability of this formalism is extended beyond 1 GeV by taking into account inelasticity due to K K. A modified MO representation is derived which has the advantage that all polynomial ambiguities are collected into the subtraction constants and have simple relations to pion polarizabilities. It is obtained by treating differently the exactly known QED Born term and the other components of the left-hand cut. These components are approximated by a sum over resonances. All resonances up to spin two and masses up to ≃1.3 GeV are included. The tensor contributions to the left-hand cut are found to be numerically important. We perform fits to the data imposing chiral constraints, in particular, using a model independent sum-rule result on the p6 chiral coupling c34. Such theoretical constraints are necessary because the experimental errors are dominantly systematic. Results on further p6 couplings and pion dipole and quadrupole polarizabilities are then derived from the fit. The relevance of the new data for distinguishing between two possible scenarios of isospin breaking in the f0(980) region is discussed. © 2010 Springer-Verlag / Società Italiana di Fisica.

Pajares G.,Complutense University of Madrid
Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing | Year: 2015

Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA) is presently in continuous development at a rapid pace. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) or more extensively Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) are platforms considered under the RPAs paradigm. Simultaneously, the development of sensors and instruments to be installed onboard such platforms is growing exponentially. These two factors together have led to the increasing use of these platforms and sensors for remote sensing applications with new potential. Thus, the overall goal of this paper is to provide a panoramic overview about the current status of remote sensing applications based on unmanned aerial platforms equipped with a set of specific sensors and instruments. First, some examples of typical platforms used in remote sensing are provided. Second, a description of sensors and technologies is explored which are onboard instruments specifically intended to capture data for remote sensing applications. Third, multi-UAVs in collaboration, coordination, and cooperation in remote sensing are considered. Finally, a collection of applications in several areas are proposed, where the combination of unmanned platforms and sensors, together with methods, algorithms, and procedures provide the overview in very different remote sensing applications. This paper presents an overview of different areas, each independent from the others, so that the reader does not need to read the full paper when a specific application is of interest. © 2015 American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing.

Garcia-Perez M.A.,Complutense University of Madrid | Peli E.,Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary
Attention, Perception, and Psychophysics | Year: 2014

Bisection tasks are used in research on normal space and time perception and to assess the perceptual distortions accompanying neurological disorders. Several variants of the bisection task are used, which often yield inconsistent results, prompting the question of which variant is most dependable and which results are to be trusted. We addressed this question using theoretical and experimental approaches. Theoretical performance in bisection tasks is derived from a general model of psychophysical performance that includes sensory components and decisional processes. The model predicts how performance should differ across variants of the task, even when the sensory component is fixed. To test these predictions, data were collected in a within-subjects study with several variants of a spatial bisection task, including a two-response variant in which observers indicated whether a line was transected to the right or left of the midpoint, a three-response variant (which included the additional option to respond "midpoint"), and a paired-comparison variant of the three-response format. The data supported the model predictions, revealing that estimated bisection points were least dependable with the two-response variant, because this format confounds perceptual and decisional influences. Only the three-response paired-comparison format can separate out these influences. Implications for research in basic and clinical fields are discussed. © 2014 Psychonomic Society, Inc.

Viedma C.,Complutense University of Madrid | McBride J.M.,Yale University | Kahr B.,New York University
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2013

Let's get together: Racemic samples of d- and l-enantiomorphous NaBrO 3 (or NaClO3) crystals aggregate with nearly complete enantioselection. Centimeter-sized enantiopure megacrystals are often produced, and these can be sorted easily. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Sutter G.D.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Deschamps J.-P.,Rovira i Virgili University | Imana J.L.,Complutense University of Madrid
IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics | Year: 2013

This paper details the design of a new high-speed point multiplier for elliptic curve cryptography using either field-programmable gate array or application-specified integrated circuit technology. Different levels of digit-serial computation were applied to the data path of Galois field (GF) multiplication and division to explore the resulting performances and find out an optimal digit size. We provide results for the five National Institute of Standards and Technology recommended curves, outperforming the previous published results. In GF(2 163), we achieve a point multiplication in 19.38 μs in Xilinx Virtex-E. Using the modern Xilinx Virtex-5, the point multiplication times in GF(2 m) for m = 163, 233, 283, 409, and 571 are 5.5, 17.8, 33.6, 102.6, and 384μs, respectively, which are the fastest figures reported to date. © 2012 IEEE.

Herna'ndez R.,Complutense University of Madrid
Journal of High Energy Physics | Year: 2011

Three-point correlation functions in the strong-coupling regime of the AdS/CFT correspondence can be analyzed within a semiclassical approximation when two of the vertex operators correspond to heavy string states having large quantum numbers while the third vertex corresponds to a light state with fixed charges. We consider the case where the heavy string states are chosen to be giant magnon solitons with either a single or two different angular momenta, for various different choices of light string states. © SISSA 2011.

Background: The assessment of bullying requires an analysis both of the main profiles involved in this phenomenon and of the social context in which it occurs. By considering both aspects, this study develops a scale that, in addition to individual information, incorporates a representation of the group structure of the classroom. Method: A large sample composed of 11,561 students (mean age = 11.12 years, girls = 49.2%) from 108 schools completed the Sociescuela Scale by peer reports. An analysis of the internal structure and reliability of the scale was performed, as well as of the students' social networks. Results: Factor analysis yielded five factors: Victimization, Acceptance, Prosociality, Withdrawal, and Aggressiveness. Boys showed more victimization and aggressiveness than girls. The results obtained enable us to: (a) evaluate a series of individual profiles associated with involvement in bullying and their sociometric status, and (b) position them on a social map of each classroom. Conclusions: The data suggested that the scale is reliable and valid for use in the detection of bullying and its applied nature facilitates the design of school interventions. © 2014 Psicothema.

Mirabal N.,Complutense University of Madrid
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society: Letters | Year: 2013

Tentative line emission at 111 and 129 GeV from 16 unassociated Fermi-LAT point sources has been reported recently by Su and Finkbeiner. Together with similar features seen by Fermi in a region near the Galactic Centre, the evidence has been interpreted as the spectral signature of dark matter annihilation or internal bremsstrahlung. Through a combination of supervised machine-learning algorithms and archival multiwavelength observations, we find that 14 out of the 16 unassociated sources showing that the line emission in the Su and Finkbeiner sample are most likely active galactic nuclei (AGN). Based on this new evidence, one must widen the range of possible solutions for the 100-140 GeV excess to include a very distinct astrophysical explanation. While we cannot rule out a dark matter origin for the line emission in the Galactic Centre, we posit that if the detection in the Su and Finkbeiner sample is indeed real it might be related to accretion, bubble or jet activity in nearby (z < 0.2) AGN. Alternatively, given the right conditions, the similarity could be due to a chance occurrence caused by extragalactic background light absorption. Or else one must concede that the features are an artefact of instrumental or calibration issues. © 2012 The Author Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society.

Detailed Monte Carlo models of the interaction of impact cratering and volcanic resurfacing, which included the Beta-Atla-Themis (BAT) volcanic concentration, were used to test different planetary resurfacing histories. The results were compared with: (1) the randomness of the spatial distribution of craters, (2) the number of modified craters, (3) the number of dark-floored craters due to volcanic flooding, (4) the frequency-area distribution of volcanic units, (5) the frequency-size distribution of craters and modified craters, and (6) the spatial distribution of craters and modified craters with respect to the BAT anomaly. Two catastrophic and two equilibrium resurfacing models were tested. The two catastrophic models consisted of one with a drastic decay and the other with a moderate decay of volcanic activity following the catastrophic event. The two equilibrium models consisted of one with a gradual decay of volcanic activity at the end of the model and the other with a magmatic event followed by a gradual decay of volcanic activity. Both equilibrium models and the catastrophic model with moderate decay fail to reproduce the small reduction of the crater density in the BAT area. The model that best fits all the observations is a global catastrophic resurfacing event followed by a drastic decay of volcanic activity. Thus, a Venus global catastrophic resurfacing event erasing all previous craters with little post-resurfacing volcanism is supported by this study. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Mirabal N.,Complutense University of Madrid
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society: Letters | Year: 2013

The recently published Galactic Arecibo L-Band Feed Array-H I Compact Cloud Catalogue lists 20 neutral hydrogen clouds that might pinpoint previously undiscovered high-latitude dwarf galaxies. Detection of an associated gamma-ray dark matter signal could provide a route to distinguish unambiguously between truly dark-matter-dominated systems that have accumulated neutral hydrogen but have not successfully ignited star formation and pure gaseous structures devoid of dark matter. We use 4.3 years of Fermi observations to derive gamma-ray flux upper limits in the 1-300 GeV energy range for the sample. Limits on gamma rays from pair annihilation of dark matter are also presented depending on the yet unknown astrophysical factors. © 2013 The Authors. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society.

Sanz M.,Complutense University of Madrid | Simion M.,University of Milan
Journal of Clinical Periodontology | Year: 2014

Background: The scope was to review the three main clinical indications in periodontal plastic surgical procedures. Aims: To review the fundamental principles in periodontal plastic surgery, the main surgical designs in flap surgery applied to the treatment of recessions, periimplant soft tissue deficiencies and soft tissue ridge augmentation, as well as the surgical principles of using autologous connective tissue grafts and soft tissue substitutes. Fundamental Principles in Plastic Surgery: In the pre-operative phase, the key elements are the control of prognostic factors affecting the patient, namely oral hygiene, tobacco smoking cessation and systemic disease control. In the operative phase, the principles of flap design, mobilization, advancement, adaptation and stabilization. In the post-operative phase infection control, including effective oral hygiene measures, antiseptic treatment and other medications. Critical Elements in Flap Design and Surgical Execution: In single recession defects, the most widely used flap technique is the coronally advanced flap and in specific clinical situations the laterally positioned flap. In multiple recession defects, the number of defects and their location and depth guide the surgical design, being one design with and the other without vertical releasing incisions. When flaps are used in combination with grafts the tunnel flap is also used extensively. Critical Elements in the Use of Soft Tissue Replacement Grafts: The key elements are the donor site selection and harvesting technique, its tissue integration and volume stability. Clinical Recommendations: Given the current evidence, various clinical recommendations on the use of flaps and grafts are provided. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

Kirkpatrick T.R.,University of Maryland University College | Ortiz De Zarate J.M.,Complutense University of Madrid | Sengers J.V.,University of Maryland University College
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2015

In this Letter, we consider a liquid mixture confined between two thermally conducting walls subjected to a stationary temperature gradient. While in a one-component liquid nonequilibrium fluctuation forces appear inside the liquid layer, nonequilibrium fluctuations in a mixture induce a Casimir-like force on the walls. The physical reason is that the temperature gradient induces large concentration fluctuations through the Soret effect. Unlike temperature fluctuations, nonequilibrium concentration fluctuations are also present near a perfectly thermally conducting wall. The magnitude of the fluctuation-induced Casimir force is proportional to the square of the Soret coefficient and is related to the concentration dependence of the heat and volume of mixing. © 2015 American Physical Society. © 2015 American Physical Society.

Basin D.,ETH Zurich | Clavel M.,Complutense University of Madrid | Egea M.,IMDEA Madrid Institute for Advanced Studies
Proceedings of ACM Symposium on Access Control Models and Technologies, SACMAT | Year: 2011

In model-driven development, system designs are specified using graphical modeling languages like UML and system artifacts such as code and configuration data are automatically generated from the models. Model-driven security is a specialization of this paradigm, where system designs are modeled together with their security requirements and security infrastructures are directly generated from the models. Over the past decade, we have explored different facets of model-driven security. This research includes different modeling languages, code generators, model analysis tools, and even model transformations. For example, in multifitier systems, we used model transformations to transform a security policy, formulated for a system's data model, to a security policy governing the behavior of the system's graphical user interface. In this paper, we survey progress made, tool support, and case studies, which attest to the exibility and power of such a multi-faceted approach to building secure systems. © 2011 ACM.

Aguado L.,Complutense University of Madrid
The Spanish journal of psychology | Year: 2013

The possibility that facial expressions of emotion change the affective valence of faces through associative learning was explored using facial electromyography (EMG). In Experiment 1, EMG activity was registered while the participants (N = 57) viewed sequences of neutral faces (Stimulus 1 or S1) changing to either a happy or an angry expression (Stimulus 2 or S2). As a consequence of learning, participants who showed patterning of facial responses in the presence of angry and happy faces, that is, higher Corrugator Supercilii (CS) activity in the presence of angry faces and higher Zygomaticus Major (ZM) activity in the presence of happy faces, showed also a similar pattern when viewing the corresponding S1 faces. Explicit evaluations made by an independent sample of participants (Experiment 2) showed that evaluation of S1 faces was changed according to the emotional expression with which they had been associated. These results are consistent with an interpretation of rapid facial reactions to faces as affective responses that reflect the valence of the stimulus and that are sensitive to learned changes in the affective meaning of faces.

Wu J.I.,University of Georgia | Fernandez I.,Complutense University of Madrid | Schleyer P.V.R.,University of Georgia
Journal of the American Chemical Society | Year: 2013

Like the larger nonplanar Möbius rings, porphyrinoid aromaticity is not due primarily to the macrocyclic π conjugation of the corresponding annulene perimeters. The block-localized wave function (BLW)-derived aromatic stabilization energies (ASE) of several porphyrinoids reveal that, on a per atom basis, the appended 6π electron heterocycles of porphyrinoids confer aromaticity much more effectively than the macrocyclic 4n+2 π electron conjugations. There is no direct relationship between thermochemical stability of porphyrinoids and their macrocyclic 4n or 4n+2 π electron counts. Porphyrinoids having an "antiaromatic" macrocyclic 4n+2 π electron conjugation pathway (e.g., 4) as well as those having no macrocyclic conjugation (e.g., 9) can be stabilized by aromaticity. Computed nucleus independent chemical shifts (NICS) and the anisotropy of the induced current density (ACID) disclose the intricate local versus macrocyclic circulation interplay for several porphyrinoids. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

Belinchon J.A.,Complutense University of Madrid
Astrophysics and Space Science | Year: 2013

In order to study how the gravitational constant, G, varies within the Barber's second self-creation theory of gravitation we find exact solutions for Bianchi type I, VII0, IX and Kantowski-Sach (KS) under the self-similar hypothesis. Some physical and geometrical properties of the models are also discussed and compare the obtained results with the current observations. We also compare our results with the obtained ones in the Brans-Dicke theory. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Guo Z.-H.,Hebei Normal University | Guo Z.-H.,University of Murcia | Oller J.A.,University of Murcia | Ruiz de Elvira J.,Complutense University of Madrid
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2012

We perform a complete one-loop calculation of meson-meson scattering, and of the scalar and pseudoscalar form factors in U(3) chiral perturbation theory with the inclusion of explicit resonance fields. This effective field theory takes into account the low-energy effects of the QCD U A(1) anomaly explicitly in the dynamics. The calculations are supplied by non-perturbative unitarization techniques that provide the final results for the meson-meson scattering partial waves and the scalar form factors considered. We present thorough analyses on the scattering data, resonance spectroscopy, spectral functions, Weinberg-like sum rules and semi-local duality. The last two requirements establish relations between the scalar spectrum with the pseudoscalar and vector ones, respectively. The N C extrapolation of the various quantities is studied as well. The fulfillment of all these non-trivial aspects of the QCD dynamics by our results gives a strong support to the emerging picture for the scalar dynamics and its related spectrum. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Naranjo C.,Complutense University of Madrid | Dubielzig R.R.,University of Wisconsin - Madison
Veterinary Ophthalmology | Year: 2014

Objective: To characterize the histopathological causes for failure of intrascleral prosthesis placement in dogs and cats. Procedures: The Comparative Ocular Pathology Laboratory of Wisconsin database was searched to find canine and feline evisceration samples that were diagnosed with neoplasia. A second population included canine and feline scleral shells that were removed after an evisceration surgery had been performed. The causes for removal were divided into: neoplasia, corneal abnormalities, and other causes. Results: In dogs, 163 of 1985 evisceration samples (8.21%) contained a neoplasm, whereas 17 of 88 (19.31%) evisceration samples in cats contained a neoplasm. In dogs, severe corneal disease was diagnosed in 38 of 80 scleral shells (46.25%) and neoplasia was diagnosed in 31 of 80 scleral shells (38.75%). Malignant melanoma was the most frequently diagnosed tumor, in 14 of 31 scleral shells. In cats, eight of 12 scleral shells contained a tumor (66.7%), with feline diffuse iris melanoma being diagnosed most commonly (six of eight shells). Two of 12 feline scleral shells had severe corneal disease (16.7%). Epithelial downgrowth, lining the inner aspect of the fibrous tunic, was seen in 14 of 38 canine scleral shells and in two of two feline scleral shells with severe corneal disease. Conclusions: Severe corneal disease and neoplasia are the most common causes for intrascleral prosthesis failure in dogs, whereas neoplasia is the single most common cause for intrascleral prosthesis failure in cats. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

Alcaide B.,Complutense University of Madrid | Almendros P.,Institute Quimica Organica General
Chemical Record | Year: 2011

The hybrid allenic β-lactam moiety represents an excellent building block for carbo- and heterocyclization reactions, affording a large number of cyclic structures containing different sized skeletons in a single step. This strategy has been studied under thermal and radical-induced conditions. More recently, the use of transition-metal catalysis has been introduced as an alternative that relies on the activation of the allenic component. On the other hand, the intramolecular version has attracted much attention as a strategy for the synthesis of bi- and tricyclic compounds in a regio- and stereoselective manner. This overview focuses on the most recently developed cyclizations on 2-azetidinone-tethered allenes along with remarkable early works accounting for the mechanism, as well as for the regio- and diastereoselectivities of the cyclizations. © 2011 The Japan Chemical Journal Forum and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Arango C.,Complutense University of Madrid
European Neuropsychopharmacology | Year: 2015

The field of child and adolescent psychiatry has always lagged behind adult psychiatry. With recent evidence that the vast majority of mental disorders, even when they emerge in adulthood, cause abnormal neurodevelopment and resultant emphasis on prevention and early intervention, there is a need to put child psychiatry at the top of the agenda in mental health research. This should also be the case for developmental neuropsychopharmacology. The target of drug discovery should shift toward a population younger than the one that is typically included in clinical trials. This is not only a matter of trying to replicate what has been found in individuals with mature brains; it is about searching for new strategies that address developing brains while the therapeutic window for their effect is still open. At present, major concerns in developmental psychopharmacology are over-prescription rates and use of psychotropic medications for conditions with a particularly underdeveloped evidence base, as well as adverse effects, especially potentially life-shortening cardiometabolic effects and suicidal ideation. The future of research in this area should focus on the use of drugs for primary and secondary prevention that would modify abnormal brain development. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP.

Schuch N.,California Institute of Technology | Schuch N.,Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics | Cirac I.,Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics | Perez-Garcia D.,Complutense University of Madrid
Annals of Physics | Year: 2010

We introduce a framework for characterizing Matrix Product States (MPS) and Projected Entangled Pair States (PEPS) in terms of symmetries. This allows us to understand how PEPS appear as ground states of local Hamiltonians with finitely degenerate ground states and to characterize the ground state subspace. Subsequently, we apply our framework to show how the topological properties of these ground states can be explained solely from the symmetry: We prove that ground states are locally indistinguishable and can be transformed into each other by acting on a restricted region, we explain the origin of the topological entropy, and we discuss how to renormalize these states based on their symmetries. Finally, we show how the anyonic character of excitations can be understood as a consequence of the underlying symmetries. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.

Guzman-Aranguez A.,Complutense University of Madrid
Eye and Contact Lens | Year: 2015

ABSTRACT:: Dry eye disease affects a substantial segment of the word population with increasing frequency. It is a multifactorial disease of the ocular surface and tear film, which causes ocular discomfort, visual disturbances, and tear instability with potential damage to the cornea and conjunctiva. Because of its multifactorial etiology, the use of different pharmacological treatment for dry eye treatment has been proposed, which include anti-inflammatory molecules, lubricants or comfort agents, and secretagogues. However, in some cases these pharmacological approaches only relieve symptoms temporarily, and consequently, eye care professionals continue to have difficulties managing dry eye. To improve pharmacological therapy that allows a more efficient and long-term action, effective ocular drug delivery of the currently available drugs for dry eye treatment is required. Contact lenses are emerging as alternative ophthalmic drugs delivery systems that provide an increased residence time of the drug at the eye, thus leading to enhanced bioavailability and more convenient and efficacious therapy. In this article, we reviewed the different techniques used to prepare contact lens-based drug delivery systems and focused on articles that describe the delivery of compounds for dry eye treatment through contact lenses. © 2015 Contact Lens Association of Ophthalmologists, Inc.

Garcia-Perez M.A.,Complutense University of Madrid
Journal of Informetrics | Year: 2012

Citation curves for researchers with the same h index can vary greatly in the heaviness of their top (excess citations to core papers) or the heaviness of their tail (citations to non-core papers), revealing quantitative differences across researchers. Also, promotion to the next higher h depends only on citations received by a small subset of papers, so that researchers with a given h may have citation curves whose top and tail reveal a weaker impact than that of researchers with a lower h. To overcome these problems, we propose a two-sided h index, an extension that computes additional h indices progressively up the top and out the tail of the citation curve. This extension represents a citation curve descriptor one of whose elements is the scalar h. The advantages of the two-sided h index are illustrated through analysis of citation curves for 88 researchers with h indices ranging from 8 to 20. Several schemes are also discussed that use the two-sided h index to define criteria for ranking researchers within and across scalar h indices, according to whether the top of the citation curve, its tail, or both are deemed relevant under the circumstances in which research accomplishments are assessed. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Fernandez I.,Complutense University of Madrid | Wu J.I.,University of Georgia | Von Rague Schleyer P.,University of Georgia
Organic Letters | Year: 2013

Computed aromatic stabilization energies (ASEs) and dissected nucleus independent chemical shifts (NICSπzz) quantify the effect of hyperconjugation on the (anti)aromaticities of the planar conformations of three, five, seven, and nine membered (CnHn)CR2 (R = H, SiH3, F) rings. CH2 and especially C(SiH 3)2 groups supply two "pseudo" π electrons hyperconjugatively along with the olefinic π electrons in the ring, whereas a CF2 group acts like a partially vacant p orbital. Following the Hückel rule, compounds with 4n+2 (or 4n) pseudo π electrons are "hyperconjugatively" aromatic (or antiaromatic). © 2013 American Chemical Society.

Hanhart C.,Julich Research Center | Pelaez J.R.,Complutense University of Madrid | Rios G.,University of Bonn
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2014

We discuss in general terms pole trajectories of resonances coupling to a continuum channel as some strength parameter is varied. It is demonstrated that, regardless of the underlying dynamics, the trajectories of poles that couple to the continuum in a partial wave higher than s-wave are qualitatively the same, while in case of s-waves the pole trajectory can reveal important information on the internal structure of the resonance. In addition we show that only molecular (or extraordinary) states appear near thresholds naturally, while more compact structures need a significant fine tuning in the parameters.This study is of current relevance especially in strong interaction physics, since lattice QCD may be employed to deduce the pole trajectories for hadronic resonances as a function of the quark mass thus providing additional, new access to the structure of s-wave resonances. © 2014 The Authors.

Martin M.,Complutense University of Madrid
Breast Cancer Research | Year: 2015

nab-Paclitaxel is approved for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer on an every-3-week schedule based on positive findings from a pivotal phase III trial in which nab-paclitaxel 260mg/m2 every 3weeks was superior to solvent-based paclitaxel 175mg/m2 every 3weeks for the primary endpoint of overall response rate (33% vs 19%; P=0.001). Subsequently, a number of trials have examined different schedules, doses, and combinations in efforts to optimize nab-paclitaxel-based therapy for metastatic and early-stage breast cancer. The goal of this review is to evaluate the clinical experiences to date with nab-paclitaxel as a single agent or in combination with targeted agents in different treatment settings - with a focus on the feasibility of administration, adverse event profile, and standard efficacy endpoints, such as overall survival, progression-free survival, overall response rate, and pathologic complete response rate. In general, weekly dosing during the first 3 of 4weeks appears to achieve the best clinical benefit in both the metastatic and early-stage settings. Furthermore, the data suggest that high doses of nab-paclitaxel, such as 150mg/m2 during first 3 of 4weeks or 260mg/m2 every 2weeks, may be more feasible and appropriate for treatment of early-stage disease compared with metastatic disease. Intense regimens of nab-paclitaxel may not be the best treatment approach for unselected patients with metastatic breast cancer, but may suit a subset of patients for whom immediate disease control is required. The growing number of nab-paclitaxel trials in breast cancer will lead to greater refinements in tailoring therapy to patients based on their individual disease and patient characteristics. © 2015 Martín; licensee BioMed Central.

Vegas A.,CSIC - Institute of Physical Chemistry "Rocasolano" | Mattesini M.,Complutense University of Madrid
Acta Crystallographica Section B: Structural Science | Year: 2010

Theoretical calculations of the electron-localization function show that, at the volumes of the two CaO phases (rocksalt and CsCl type), the parent Ca structures (fcc: face-centred cubic and sc: simple cubic, respectively) exhibit charge concentration zones which coincide with the positions occupied by the O atoms in their oxides. Similar features, also observed for the pairs Ca/CaF2 and BaSn/BaSnO3, are supported by recent high-pressure experiments as well as electron-localization function (ELF) calculations, carried out on elemental K. At very high pressures, the elemental K adopts the hP4 structure, topologically identical to that of the K atoms in high-pressure K2S and high-temperature α-K2SO4. Moreover, the ELF for the hP4 structure shows charge concentration (∼2 electrons) at the sites occupied by the S atoms in the high-pressure K2S phase. All these features confirm the oxidation/high-pressure equivalence as well as the prediction of how cation arrays should be metastable phases of the parent metals. For the first time to our knowledge, the structure type, dimension and topology of several oxides and fluorides (CaO, CaF2 and BaSnO3) are explained in univocal physical terms. © 2010 International Union of Crystallography. Printed in Singapore-all rights reserved.

Lopez M.A.M.,Complutense University of Madrid
Antipode | Year: 2013

Squatting empty properties for living or to develop public activities has lasted in European cities for more than three decades. Although local and national contexts differ significantly, there are also some general trends and patterns that deserve careful attention. When squatting occasionally appears in public debates, controversy is generated and many gaps open between academic, social and political perceptions. In this article I use evidence from several European cities to argue that the squatters' movement has produced an original impact in urban politics. The main feature of this impact has been to generate a relatively wide autonomous and mainly non-institutional mode of citizen participation, protest and self-management. How has this been possible? Which are the specific contributions made by this urban movement? These are questions that both scholars and activists continuously claim to be relevant, so that this research attempts to offer some general answers based on detailed comparisons and experiences. © 2013 The Author. Antipode© 2013 Antipode Foundation Ltd.

Fernandez I.,Complutense University of Madrid | Frenking G.,University of Marburg | Merino G.,Research Center Estudios Avanzados
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2015

The concept of aromaticity was initially introduced in chemistry to account for the stability, reactivity, molecular structures, and other properties of many unsaturated organic compounds. Despite that, it has been extended to other species with mobile electrons including saturated systems, transition structures, and even inorganic molecules. In this review, we focus on the aromaticity of a particular family of organometallic compounds known as metallabenzenes, which are characterized by the formal replacement of a CH group in benzene by an isolobal transition metal fragment. In addition, aromaticity of related compounds such as heterometallabenzenes is considered as well. To this end, we shall describe herein the insight gained by the available experimental data as well as by the application of the state-of-the-art computational methods developed as descriptors for aromaticity together with a critical evaluation of their performance to quantitatively estimate the strength of aromaticity of these systems. © 2015 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Vano E.,Complutense University of Madrid
Techniques in Vascular and Interventional Radiology | Year: 2010

Radiation protection (RP) knowledge is of paramount importance for interventionalists. All international bodies acknowledge the importance of education and training in reducing patient doses while maintaining the desired level of quality in medical exposures. The basic recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) on RP training for Interventional Radiology (IR) are summarized as follows: a second, specific level of training in RP; specific additional training whenever new X-ray systems or techniques are implemented, and quality assurance programs, including RP training. The European perspective is discussed in the framework of the Directive on Medical Exposures: Competence in RP must be certified. The Member States of the European Union shall ensure that appropriate curricula are established and shall recognize the corresponding diplomas, certificates, or formal qualifications. Some examples of the accredited training courses on RP organized by national IR Societies are described (content, training strategy, training material available, and results obtained). The work carried out in this area and the training material produced by the International Atomic Energy Agency are also quoted, together with a new set of recommendations on RP training and the certification produced by the ICRP that will be published in 2010. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.

Ortea I.,CSIC - Institute of Marine Research | Canas B.,Complutense University of Madrid | Gallardo J.M.,CSIC - Institute of Marine Research
Journal of Chromatography A | Year: 2011

Selected tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) ion monitoring (SMIM) is the most suitable scanning mode to detect known peptides in complex samples when an ion-trap mass spectrometer is the instrument used for the analysis. In this mode, the MS detector is programmed to perform continuous MS/MS scans on one or more selected precursors, either during a selected time interval, or along the whole chromatographic run. MS/MS spectra are recorded, so virtual multiple reaction monitoring chromatogram traces for the different fragment ions can be plotted. In this work, a shotgun proteomics approach was applied to the detection of previously characterized species-specific peptides from different seafood species. The proposed methodology makes use of high intensity focused ultrasound-assisted trypsin digestion for ultra fast sample preparation, peptide separation and identification by reverse phase capillary LC coupled to an ion-trap working in the SMIM scanning mode. This methodology was applied to the differential classification of seven commercial, closely related, species of Decapoda shrimps proving to be an excellent tool for seafood product authentication, which may be used by fisheries and manufacturers to provide a fast and effective identification of the specimens, guaranteeing the quality and safety of foodstuffs to consumers. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Perez-Ortega S.,CSIC - National Museum of Natural Sciences | Suija A.,University of Tartu | Crespo A.,Complutense University of Madrid | De Los Rios A.,CSIC - National Museum of Natural Sciences
Fungal Diversity | Year: 2014

This study provides new insights on the phylogenetic position of the lichenicolous fungal genus Abrothallus based on six molecular markers (nuSSU, nuLSU, mtSSU, RPB1, RPB2 and TEF-α). In a broad-scale analysis, we detected high support for inclusion of the genus within Dothideomycetes. A further analysis provided support for Abrothallus as a member of the subclass Pleosporomycetidae as a sister group of Jahnulales, an order of aquatic Dothideomycetes. Given the exclusive characters of this group of apotheciate fungi within the Dothidiomycetes, a new monotypic order Abrothallales is here introduced together with the new family Abrothallaceae. In a multi-locus analysis (based on the six loci indicated above plus ITS) restricted to 12 putative Abrothallus species, two clearly separated clades were observed: one comprising species growing on lichens of the families Parmeliaceae and Ramalinaceae, and the second including species that live on lichens of the order Peltigerales and the family Cladoniaceae. © 2013 Mushroom Research Foundation.

Marsh D.R.,U.S. National Center for Atmospheric Research | Mills M.J.,U.S. National Center for Atmospheric Research | Kinnison D.E.,U.S. National Center for Atmospheric Research | Lamarque J.-F.,U.S. National Center for Atmospheric Research | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Climate | Year: 2013

The NCAR Community Earth SystemModel (CESM) now includes an atmospheric component that extends in altitude to the lower thermosphere. This atmospheric model, known as the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM), includes fully interactive chemistry, allowing, for example, a self-consistent representation of the development and recovery of the stratospheric ozone hole and its effect on the troposphere. This paper focuses on analysis of an ensemble of transient simulations using CESM1(WACCM), covering the period from the preindustrial era to present day, conducted as part of phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project. Variability in the stratosphere, such as that associated with stratospheric sudden warmings and the development of the ozone hole, is in good agreement with observations. The signals of these phenomena propagate into the troposphere, influencing near-surface winds, precipitation rates, and the extent of sea ice. In comparison of tropospheric climate change predictions with those from a version of CESM that does not fully resolve the stratosphere, the global-mean temperature trends are indistinguishable. However, systematic differences do exist in other climate variables, particularly in the extratropics. The magnitude of the difference can be as large as the climate change response itself. This indicates that the representation of stratosphere- troposphere coupling could be a major source of uncertainty in climate change projections in CESM. © 2013 American Meteorological Society.

Senguttuvan P.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Senguttuvan P.,University of Picardie Jules Verne | Rousse G.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Arroyo Y De Dompablo M.E.,Complutense University of Madrid | And 3 more authors.
Journal of the American Chemical Society | Year: 2013

We report the direct synthesis of powder Na3Ti 2(PO4)3 together with its low-potential electrochemical performance and crystal structure elucidation for the reduced and oxidized phases. First-principles calculations at the density functional theory level have been performed to gain further insight into the electrochemistry of Ti(IV)/Ti(III) and Ti(III)/Ti(II) redox couples in these sodium superionic conductor (NASICON) compounds. Finally, we have validated the concept of full-titanium-based sodium ion cells through the assembly of symmetric cells involving Na3Ti2(PO4) 3 as both positive and negative electrode materials operating at an average potential of 1.7 V. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

Liras A.,Complutense University of Madrid
Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy | Year: 2015

Introduction: In hemophilia, advanced therapies are warranted from a conceptual and methodological standpoint. Current advanced therapy strategies are centered on the use of adeno-associated viral vectors, although problems related to immunogenicity and hepatotoxicity still remain.Areas covered: Future clinical trials will have to scrupulously observe international bioethical standards in terms of patient selection, particularly children. Patient recruitment rates are likely to remain low due to the stringent exclusion criteria usually imposed on the trial population regarding their hepatic and immunological markers and the presence of viral coinfection; and to the existence of an optimal palliative treatment.Expert opinion: Accordingly, the results obtained are likely to be of low statistical significance, which could hinder their application to clinical practice. Another important issue is the degree to which society embraces these new emerging therapies. The unfamiliarity of society with these new methods, together with the many unresolved questions about them that remain, may threaten their acceptance not only by society at large but also by health-care professionals, which would limit their translational application to clinical practice. © 2015 Informa UK, Ltd.

Del Rio P.,Institute for Public Goods and Policies IPP | Cerda E.,Complutense University of Madrid
Energy Policy | Year: 2014

The cost-effectiveness of support for renewable electricity is a main criterion to assess the success of policy instruments, together with effectiveness. The costs of support are also a source of significant concern for governments all over the world. However, significant confusion exists in the literature on the cost-effectiveness of public support for renewable electricity. While some authors define the concept of cost-effectiveness as that which complies with the equimarginality principle, many others, including documents from relevant organisations (European Commission, International Energy Agency, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) define it as "the lowest costs of support", generally equating it with the minimisation of consumer costs. The aim of this paper is to clarify the differences between both approaches and their policy implications regarding the choice of instruments and design elements. It is shown that they partly overlap and that their policy implications clearly differ, leading to very different policy prescriptions. While the former favours technology neutral instruments and design elements, the "minimisation of consumer costs" approach favours instruments and design elements which adjust support levels to the costs of the technologies. © 2013 .

Paz M.J.,Complutense University of Madrid
Energy Policy | Year: 2014

In the wake of the commodity boom, "new development strategies" in Latin America are centering on the industrialization of natural resources, thereby questioning the "resource curse" thesis and linking the economic performance of this activity with the institutional framework. In this context, the aim of this paper focusing on the Brazilian oil sector is to analyze the implementation of a resource-based industrialization strategy. After analyzing the Brazilian institutional framework and identifying the key features of a resource-based industrialization strategy, we assess its development and identify its scope and limitations. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Manzano M.,Complutense University of Madrid | Vallet-Regi M.,CIBER ISCIII
Progress in Solid State Chemistry | Year: 2012

The use of bioceramics for designing scaffolds for bone tissue engineering and multifunctional nano-particles for biomedical applications has produced a great impact in this research area in the last few years. It has been a tremendous evolution from the first generation ceramics towards novel biomaterials thanks to the great possibilities that modern bioceramics have to offer to the clinic. This review focus on the last advances in bioceramics scaffolds for bone regenerative technologies, and on the boom of multifunctional mesoporous silica nanoparticles as drug delivery systems. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Luis A.,Complutense University of Madrid
Progress in Optics | Year: 2016

This contribution addresses the quantum picture of polarization for two-mode harmonic electromagnetic fields. Because of electric field commutation relations, the quantum electric field cannot describe definite ellipses in the same sense that particles cannot follow definite trajectories. Alternatively, the Stokes operators do not commute so they cannot take definite values simultaneously, nor a true joint distribution for them can exist. These facts make quantum polarization an excellent theoretical and practical arena to the quantum theory. We address all statistical tools available for a precise characterization of quantum polarization with particular emphasis on phenomena incompatible with classical electromagnetism. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

Rivas A.,Complutense University of Madrid | Huelga S.F.,University of Ulm | Huelga S.F.,Center for Integrated Quantum Science and Technologies | Plenio M.B.,University of Ulm | Plenio M.B.,Center for Integrated Quantum Science and Technologies
Reports on Progress in Physics | Year: 2014

We present a comprehensive and up-to-date review of the concept of quantum non-Markovianity, a central theme in the theory of open quantum systems. We introduce the concept of a quantum Markovian process as a generalization of the classical definition of Markovianity via the so-called divisibility property and relate this notion to the intuitive idea that links non-Markovianity with the persistence of memory effects. A detailed comparison with other definitions presented in the literature is provided. We then discuss several existing proposals to quantify the degree of non-Markovianity of quantum dynamics and to witness non-Markovian behavior, the latter providing sufficient conditions to detect deviations from strict Markovianity. Finally, we conclude by enumerating some timely open problems in the field and provide an outlook on possible research directions. © 2014 IOP Publishing Ltd.

Santarsiero M.,Third University of Rome | Piquero G.,Complutense University of Madrid | De Sande J.C.G.,Technical University of Madrid | Gori F.,Third University of Rome
Optics Letters | Year: 2014

Generally speaking, the difference between two cross-spectral densities (CSDs) does not represent a correlation function. We will furnish a sufficient condition so that such difference be a valid CSD. Using such a condition, we will show through some exampleshownew classes of CSDs can be generated. ©2014 Optical Society of America.

Goecke T.,Justus Liebig University | Fischer C.S.,Justus Liebig University | Williams R.,Complutense University of Madrid
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2011

We present a calculation of the hadronic vacuum polarisation (HVP) tensor within the framework of Dyson-Schwinger equations. To this end we use a well-established phenomenological model for the quark-gluon interaction with parameters fixed to reproduce hadronic observables. From the HVP tensor we compute both the Adler function and the HVP contribution to the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon, aμ. We find aμHVP=6760×10-11 which deviates about two percent from the value extracted from experiment. Additionally, we make comparison with a recent lattice determination of aμHVP and find good agreement within our approach. We also discuss the implications of our result for a corresponding calculation of the hadronic light-by-light scattering contribution to aμ. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Ben-Amram A.M.,The Academic College of Tel-Aviv-Yaffo | Genaim S.,Complutense University of Madrid
Journal of the ACM | Year: 2014

In this article, we study the complexity of the problems: given a loop, described by linear constraints over a finite set of variables, is there a linear or lexicographical-linear ranking function for this loop? While existence of such functions implies termination, these problems are not equivalent to termination. When the variables range over the rationals (or reals), it is known that both problems are PTIME decidable. However, when they range over the integers, whether for single-path or multipath loops, the complexity has not yet been determined. We show that both problems are coNP-complete. However, we point out some special cases of importance of PTIME complexity. We also present complete algorithms for synthesizing linear and lexicographical-linear ranking functions, both for the general case and the special PTIME cases. Moreover, in the rational setting, our algorithm for synthesizing lexicographical-linear ranking functions extends existing ones, because our definition for such functions is more general, yet it has PTIME complexity. © 2014 ACM 0004-5411/2014/07-ART26 $15.00.

This work describes and assesses the implementation of the Cross-border Healthcare Directive in Spain. Although implementation has not yet taken place, the Government has already adopted a draft implementing regulation, on which this article is based. In addition, this article deals with a number of other rules that have been adopted in Spain, which are not strictly aimed at the implementation of the Directive but which are expected to facilitate its implementation and to help cement its effectiveness. © 2014 Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden.

Tempesta P.,Complutense University of Madrid | Tondo G.,University of Trieste
Physical Review E - Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics | Year: 2012

We show that the notion of generalized Lenard chains naturally allows formulation of the theory of multiseparable and superintegrable systems in the context of bi-Hamiltonian geometry. We prove that the existence of generalized Lenard chains generated by a Hamiltonian function defined on a four-dimensional ωN manifold guarantees the separation of variables. As an application, we construct such chains for the Hénon-Heiles systems and for the classical Smorodinsky-Winternitz systems. New bi-Hamiltonian structures for the Kepler potential are found. © 2012 American Physical Society.

Horowitz J.M.,Complutense University of Madrid
Physical Review E - Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics | Year: 2012

I formulate a quantum stochastic thermodynamics for the quantum trajectories of a continuously monitored forced harmonic oscillator coupled to a thermal reservoir. Consistent trajectory-dependent definitions are introduced for work, heat, and entropy, through engineering the thermal reservoir from a sequence of two-level systems. Within this formalism the connection between irreversibility and entropy production is analyzed and confirmed by proving a detailed fluctuation theorem for quantum trajectories. Finally, possible experimental verifications are discussed. © 2012 American Physical Society.

Akdis M.,University of Zurich | Palomares O.,Complutense University of Madrid | Van De Veen W.,University of Zurich | Van Splunter M.,University of Zurich | Akdis C.A.,University of Zurich
Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology | Year: 2012

Substantial progress in understanding mechanisms of immune regulation in allergy, asthma, autoimmune diseases, tumors, organ transplantation, chronic infections, and pregnancy is in an exciting developmental phase that might lead to a variety of targeted therapeutic approaches. Recent progress in the interaction between immune/inflammatory cell subsets through cytokines, particularly the extension of the knowledge on reciprocal regulation and counterbalance between subsets of T H1, T H2, T H9, T H17, T H22, T follicular helper cells and different subsets of regulatory T cells, as well as corresponding and co-orchestrating B-cell, natural killer cell, dendritic cell, and innate lymphoid cell subsets, offers new possibilities for immune intervention. Studies on new subsets confirm the important role of T cells in the instruction of tissue cells and also demonstrate the important role of feedback regulation for the polarization toward distinct T-cell subsets. T H17 and T H22 cells are 2 emerging T H cell subsets that link the immune response to tissue inflammation; IL-17A and IL-17F and IL-22 are their respective prototype cytokines. Although both cytokines play roles in immune defense to extracellular bacteria, IL-17 augments inflammation, whereas IL-22 plays a tissue-protective role. This review focuses on current knowledge on T H17 and T H22 cells and their role in inflammation, with special focus on the mechanisms of their generation and driving and effector cytokines, as well as their role in host defense, autoimmunity, and allergic diseases. © 2012 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology.

Viedma C.,Complutense University of Madrid
Chemical Communications | Year: 2011

A single-chirality solid phase can be obtained in boiling solutions containing a racemic mixture of left- and right-handed enantiomorphous crystals due to dissolution-crystallization cycles induced by a temperature gradient. This phenomenon provides further insights into asymmetric amplification mechanisms under presumably prebiotic conditions. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Vallet-Regi M.,Complutense University of Madrid | Vallet-Regi M.,CIBER ISCIII
Journal of Internal Medicine | Year: 2010

In the last few years the biomedical research field has shown a growing interest towards nanostructured mesoporous silica materials, whose chemical composition is silica and present nanometric pores. These bioceramics exhibit two important features: they can regenerate osseous tissues - the bond bioactivity of these materials has been confirmed by the formation of biological-like nanoapatites on their surface when in contact with physiological fluids - and they are able to act as controlled release systems. Drugs in the nanometre scale can be loaded on those matrices and then locally released in a controlled fashion. It is possible to chemically modify the silica walls to favour the adsorption of certain biomolecules such as peptides, proteins or growth factors. It is even possible to design smart biomaterials where the drug is released under an external stimulus. Thus, looking at all those properties, a question arises: Have these bioceramics good expectations to be used in clinical medical practice? Their biocompatibility, bioactivity, capacity to regenerate bone and ability to act as controlled release systems of biologically active species have been confirmed. In fact, their preliminary in vitro and in vivo essays have been positive. Now it is the time to adequate all these properties to the actual clinical problems, and to evaluate their efficiency in comparison with materials already known and currently employed such as bioglasses. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Malyshev A.V.,Complutense University of Madrid
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2012

We address a two-level system in an environment interacting with an electromagnetic field in the dipole approximation. The resonant optical bistability induced by local-field effects is studied by considering the relationship between the population difference and the excitation field. The diversity of various systems is included by accounting for system self-action via the surface part of Green's dyadic in the general form. The bistability condition and the exact solution of the steady-state optical Bloch equations at the absolute bistability threshold are derived analytically. © 2012 American Physical Society.

Navascues M.,University of Bristol | Perez-Garcia D.,Complutense University of Madrid
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2012

In nonrelativistic quantum mechanics, measurements performed by separate observers are modeled via tensor products. In algebraic quantum field theory, though, local observables corresponding to spacelike separated parties are just required to commute. The problem of determining whether these two definitions of separation lead to the same set of bipartite correlations is known in nonlocality as Tsirelson's problem. In this article, we prove that the analog of Tsirelson's problem in steering scenarios is false. That is, there exists a steering inequality that can or cannot be violated depending on how we define spacelike separation at the operator level. © 2012 American Physical Society.

Hawksworth D.L.,Complutense University of Madrid | Hawksworth D.L.,Natural History Museum in London
Medical Mycology | Year: 2011

The nomenclature of fungi is governed by the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature. That Code is revised at each International Botanical Congress. This Code has permitted most fungi expressing both sexual and asexual states (i.e., pleomorphic fungi) to be accorded separate name(s) for the asexual states. Prior to 1981, the rules on naming pleomorphic fungi had become complicated and were not being applied consistently by mycologists. The changes made in 1981 simplified procedures but resulted in numerous name changes in Aspergillus. Molecular data in particular can now resolve the phylogenetic position of a fungus regardless of whether it expresses sexual or asexual structures. A growing consensus now wishes to either remove entirely or drastically amend the provision to permit separate names to be used for different states of the same species. Some initial changes towards that eventual goal were made at the 2005 International Botanical Congress, and a Special Committee then appointed is debating the most appropriate action to take. In the interim, in order to minimize confusion, mycologists working with Aspergillus and other affected genera are urged to refrain from both introducing new scientific names for further states of already known species, and also from using any such names proposed. © 2011 ISHAM.

Indumathi S.,Madurai Kamaraj University | Perumal S.,Madurai Kamaraj University | Menendez J.C.,Complutense University of Madrid
Tetrahedron | Year: 2011

L-Proline-catalysed three-component domino reactions of e