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Gordon S.C.,Compliance Assurance | Butala J.H.,Toxicology Consultants Inc. | Carter J.M.,Health-U | Elder A.,University of Rochester | And 6 more authors.
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology | Year: 2014

Occupational exposure limits (OELs) are important tools for managing worker exposures to chemicals; however, hazard data for many engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are insufficient for deriving OELs by traditional methods. Technical challenges and questions about how best to measure worker exposures to ENMs also pose barriers to implementing OELs. New varieties of ENMs are being developed and introduced into commerce at a rapid pace, further compounding the issue of OEL development for ENMs. A Workshop on Strategies for Setting Occupational Exposure Limits for Engineered Nanomaterials, held in September 2012, provided an opportunity for occupational health experts from various stakeholder groups to discuss possible alternative approaches for setting OELs for ENMs and issues related to their implementation. This report summarizes the workshop proceedings and findings, identifies areas for additional research, and suggests potential avenues for further progress on this important topic. © 2014 The Authors. Source

Giles C.,Compliance Assurance
Environmental Forum | Year: 2013

The most effective way to achieve compliance with the law is to make it easier to comply than to violate. EPA is using new technologies and lessons learned about what drives compliance to reduce pollution and improve results. Today's problems are pollution not apparent to the naked eye that still poses real threats to health, the large number of smaller sources that collectively make a big difference, and pollution that is not always easily identifiable as what comes from the top of a stack or the end of a pipe. These compliance problems require new tools and new thinking. Environmental compliance today requires a change just as dramatic as the one Bill Ruckelshaus led over 40 years ago. The manufacturer builds the compliance-ready equipment and reports who purchased the approved models. Compliance checks are easy: government need only electronically compare the user's purchase and installation reports with the manufacturer's sales reports. The more resource-intensive interaction is limited to a small number of manufacturers. Source

Kubota N.,Compliance Assurance
Rinsho byori. The Japanese journal of clinical pathology | Year: 2010

Serum IgG, IgA, and IgM are routinely measured by turbidimetric immunoassay (TIA), nephelometric immunoassay (NIA), and latex agglutination turbidimetric immunoassay (LATIA) while IgD and IgE, which are present in low concentrations, are usually measured by LATIA and other sensitive assays. There were some differences between LATIA and TIA in the values obtained from lyophilized serum, and sera with monoclonal proteins. We successfully solved the problem by dissociated and/or aggregated immunoglobulins treated with a newly prepared reagent. The difference caused a remarkable improvement thus realizing a coincidence in the measured values on LATIA and TIA. Source

News Article | November 3, 2015
Site: http://www.techtimes.com/rss/sections/auto.xml

The Volkswagen Group denies a new report by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency that drags Porsche and Audi, two of its most profitable brands, into the enormous emissions cheating scandal the German automaker has admitted to in September. The latest report says at least 10,000 vehicles in the United States with a 3-liter diesel engine are also equipped with software that can cheat emissions tests. The number, however, could still go higher if the same software is found in the same models sold in other markets. The new models affected include the 2014 Volkswagen Touareg, the 2015 Porsche Cayenne, and the 2016 models of the Audi A6 Quattro, Audi A7 Quattro, Audi A8 and Audi Q5. Cynthia Giles, assistant administrator for EPA's Office of Enforcement and Compliance Assurance, says the luxury vehicles caught in the scandalous web are fitted with software that automatically turns on "temperature conditioning mode" when it detects that the vehicle is about to undergo testing. In this mode, the higher temperatures warm up the catalytic converter, allowing the vehicles to pass the stringent emissions tests in the U.S. However, they immediately go back to "normal mode" just one second after testing, says Giles. "We have clear evidence of these additional violations and we thought it was important to put Volkswagen on notice and to inform the public," Giles says. The affected vehicles, which are alleged to emit nine times more nitrogen oxide than prescribed levels in the U.S., could net Volkswagen another $375 million in fines for violating the Clean Air Act, on top of the $18 billion the automaker already faces for admitting rigging emissions test results in 11 million of its vehicles, including several models of the Jetta, Passat, Golf and Beetle. Volkswagen spokesperson Mario Guerreiro, however, says no cheat device has been installed in the newer vehicles, without fully categorically denying the finding. "Volkswagen AG wishes to emphasize that no software has been installed in the 3-liter V6 diesel power units to alter emissions characteristics in a forbidden manner," he says. Nearly half a million Volkswagen vehicles discovered to have rigged emissions tests are found in the U.S., but majority of the affected vehicles are found in Europe and Asia, Volkswagen's biggest markets. Matthias Müller, former CEO of Porsche, has taken over the helm as CEO of Volkswagen as then chief Martin Winterkorn was forced to resign as the fallout over the cheating scandal ensued.

News Article
Site: http://phys.org/technology-news/

The civil complaint against the German automaker, filed on behalf of the Environmental Protection Agency in U.S. District Court in Detroit, alleges the company illegally installed software designed to make its "clean diesel" engines pass federal emissions standards while undergoing laboratory testing. The vehicles then switched off those measures in real-world driving conditions, spewing harmful gases at up to 40 times what is allowed under federal environmental standards. "Car manufacturers that fail to properly certify their cars and that defeat emission control systems breach the public trust, endanger public health and disadvantage competitors," John C. Cruden, the assistant attorney general for the Justice Department's Environment and Natural Resources Division, said in a statement. "The United States will pursue all appropriate remedies against Volkswagen to redress the violations of our nation's clean air laws alleged in the complaint," he said. The company is in the midst of negotiating a massive mandatory recall with U.S. regulators and potentially faces more than $18 billion in fines for violations of the federal Clean Air Act. The company and its executives could also still face separate criminal charges, while a raft of private class-action lawsuits filed by angry VW owners are pending. Volkswagen Group of America spokeswoman Jeannine Ginivan said Monday that the company "will continue to cooperate with all government agencies investigating these matters." In past statements, high-ranking VW executives have sought to blame only a small number of software developers in Germany for the suspect computer code designed to trick emissions tests. The company has hired a U.S.-based law firm to conduct an internal investigation into the scheme. The findings of that review have not yet been made public. The company first acknowledged in September that the cheating software was included in its diesel cars and SUVs sold since the 2009 model year, as well as some recent diesel models sold by the VW-owned Audi and Porsche brands. Worldwide, the company says cheating software was included in more than 11 million vehicles. The federal lawsuit alleges that Volkswagen intentionally tampered with the vehicles sold in the U.S. to include what regulators call a "defeat device," a mechanism specifically designed to game emissions tests. Under the law, automakers are required to disclose any such devices to regulators. Because Volkswagen kept its suspect software secret, the lawsuit alleges the company's cars were sold without a valid "certificate of conformity" issued by EPA to regulate new cars manufactured or imported into the country. In addition to producing far more pollution than allowed, experts say the excess nitrogen oxide and particulate emissions from the more than half-million VW vehicles had a human cost. A statistical and computer analysis by the Associated Press estimated the extra pollution caused somewhere between 16 and 94 deaths over the last seven years, with the annual toll increasing as more of the diesels were on the road. "With today's filing, we take an important step to protect public health by seeking to hold Volkswagen accountable for any unlawful air pollution, setting us on a path to resolution," said Assistant Administrator Cynthia Giles for EPA's Office of Enforcement and Compliance Assurance. "So far, recall discussions with the company have not produced an acceptable way forward. These discussions will continue in parallel with the federal court action." Justice Department officials said on Monday the case was filed in the Eastern District of Michigan because that is where "significant activity" related to the company's cheating scheme occurred. EPA's primary emissions-testing lab is located in Ann Arbor and Volkswagen also has facilities in the Detroit metro area. However, as the legal case proceeds, the venue is expected to move to Northern California, where hundreds of the class-action cases have been consolidated and state regulators played a key role in uncovering VW's deceptions. Explore further: More VW trouble: 2016 diesels have new suspect software

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