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Armas Alvarez A.L.,Complexo Hospitalario Universitario Of Santiago Of Compostela
Cirugía pediátrica : organo oficial de la Sociedad Española de Cirugía Pediátrica | Year: 2010

Amyand's hernia is a condition of exceptional presentation in children and is defined by the presence of inflamed appendix inside a inguinal hernia. It may manifest clinically as acute scrotum, inguinal lymphadenitis or strangulated hernia. The treatment is surgical and although several approaches are described, appendectomy with herniotomy by inguinal approach is considered of choice.

Arias M.,Complexo Hospitalario Universitario Of Santiago Of Compostela
Revista de Neurologia | Year: 2011

Introduction. Laughter, which is usually a healthy biological phenomenon, may be also a symptom of several severe brain pathologies. Aim. To review the neurobiological bases of laughter and humour, as well as those of pathological laughing and crying syndrome. Development. At the mesencephalic-pontine junction there is a central coordinator of the nuclei that innervate the muscles involved in laughter (facial expression, respiratory and phonatory). This centre receives connections from three systems: Inhibitory (pre-motor and motor cortex), excitatory (temporal cortex, amygdala, hypothalamus) and modulator (cerebellum). Humour is a complex phenomenon with a range of components: the perception of the unexpected incongruence (occipitotemporal area, prefrontal cortex), emotional (reward circuit) and volitional (temporal and frontal cortex). Functional magnetic resonance imaging studies do not reveal a markedly prominent role of the right frontal lobe in processing humour, as had been suggested in the classical studies. The causes of pathological laughing and crying syndrome can be classified in two groups: altered behaviour with unmotivated happiness (Angelman syndrome, schizophrenia, manias, dementia) and interference with the inhibitory/excitatory mechanisms (gelastic epilepsy, fou rire prodromique in strokes, multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Parkinson's disease and Parkinson-plus, traumatic injuries, tumours). Serotonin and noradrenalin reuptake inhibitors, levodopa, lamotrigine and the association of dextromethorphan/quinidine can be effective in certain cases of pathological laughing and crying. Conclusions. As human neurobiological phenomena, laughter and humour also belong to the field of clinical neurology; their processing is affected in a number of different diseases and, in certain cases, effective treatment can be established. © 2011 Revista de Neurología.

Barros Alcalde P.,Complexo Hospitalario Universitario Of Santiago Of Compostela
BMJ case reports | Year: 2014

Hyponatraemia is the most common fluid-electrolyte disorder, and the most frequent related aetiologies are syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH), which accounts for up to 38%. SIADH has been linked to multiple pathologies that affect the central nervous system; these disorders generally originate in the brain and, more rarely, in the spinal cord. It is often observed in patients undergoing neurosurgery and in patients with head injuries or intracranial tumours, and less common in those with spinal pathologies, especially traumatic. We describe an SIADH case associated with syringomyelia, in a patient admitted for severe, symptomatic hyponatraemia.

Arias Gomez M.,Complexo Hospitalario Universitario Of Santiago Of Compostela
Neurologia | Year: 2010

Serious complications (catastrophes) resulting from diverse neurological diagnostic procedures can be caused by erroneous indication and omission, as well as by delay and erroneous execution or interpretation. Headache, caused by cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) hypotension, is a frequent complication of lumbar puncture; hematic patch is a therapeutic option for severe cases. The most serious complication is cerebral herniation and, for its prevention, computed tomography (CT) or cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) must always be performed before lumbar puncture: a lesion with evident mass effect is a contraindication. Some cases of minor subarachnoid hemorrhages can produce sentinel headache: when the findings of CT scans are normal, lumbar puncture must be performed for diagnosis and prevention of a catastrophic recurrence. Edrophonium testing can be complicated with bradycardia and/or asystole. The lack of indication of this procedure is a cause of under-diagnosis of myasthenia gravis, especially in older people. Electromyography produces few complications (rare cases of paraspinal hematomas and pneumothorax). Ultrasound, CT angiography and MR angiography examinations have decreased the indications for cerebral angiography, whose main complications -in addition to contrast reactions, hemorrhage and infection at the injection site- are neurological deficits caused by vascular dissection or atheromatous embolus. Video-electroencephalogram (EEG) recording with medication suppression can be used in the presurgical evaluation of epilepsy, which can precipitate repeated seizures with the risk of injuries and status epilepticus. The possible complications of studies performed with invasive electrodes are infections and intracranial hemorrhages. Cerebral biopsy is indicated when treatable disease is suspected but the therapeutic options (radiotherapy, chemotherapy) have potential serious adverse effects. Furthermore, cerebral biopsy can aggravate previous neurological deficits or produce new deficits. Genetic testing is not indicated in healthy children when an untreatable disease is suspected. In adults, genetic testing is appropriate in selected cases, but detailed previous information should be gathered and the possibility of triggering serious emotional reactions should always be considered. © 2010 Sociedad Española de Neurología.

Orosa B.,Complexo Hospitalario Universitario Of Santiago Of Compostela | Gonzalez A.,Complexo Hospitalario Universitario Of Santiago Of Compostela | Mera A.,Complexo Hospitalario Universitario Of Santiago Of Compostela | Gomez-Reino J.J.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Conde C.,Complexo Hospitalario Universitario Of Santiago Of Compostela
Arthritis and Rheumatism | Year: 2012

Objective To investigate the role of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) receptors in the proliferation and apoptosis of fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods Expression of LPA receptors 1-3 was analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). LPAR1 and LPAR2 were suppressed in RA FLS by small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfection. Proliferation of RA FLS after tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and LPA stimulation was determined with a luminescent cell viability assay. Apoptosis was analyzed by quantification of nucleosome release and measurement of activated caspase 3/7. Genes involved in the apoptotic response were identified with a human apoptosis PCR array and validated with Western blot assays. The requirement of these genes for apoptosis sensitization was assessed by siRNA transfection. Secretion of mediators of inflammation was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results Only LPAR1 and LPAR2 were expressed by RA FLS, and their levels were higher than those in osteoarthritis (OA) FLS. Suppression of LPAR1 abrogated TNF-induced proliferation and sensitized the RA FLS, but not the OA FLS, to TNF-induced apoptosis. These changes occurred despite an increased early inflammatory response to TNF. Sensitization to apoptosis was associated with changes in expression of multiple apoptosis-related genes. Three of the up-regulated proapoptotic genes were further studied to confirm their involvement. In contrast, suppression of LPAR2 showed no effect in any of these analyses. Conclusion LPA1 is an important receptor in RA FLS. Its suppression is accompanied by a global increase in the response to TNF that is ultimately dominated by sensitization to apoptosis. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Rheumatology.

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