Complexe Pediatrique de Bangui

Bangui, Central African Republic

Complexe Pediatrique de Bangui

Bangui, Central African Republic
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Vonaesch P.,Institute Pasteur Paris | Tondeur L.,Institute Pasteur Paris | Breurec S.,Center Hospitalo University | Breurec S.,CEA DAM Ile-de-France | And 13 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2017

Stunting remains a major public health concern worldwide. Although its global prevalence is slowly decreasing, the actual number of affected children is still rising in Sub-Saharan Africa. In the Central African Republic (CAR), about one third of all children below the age of five are stunted. Stunting is correlated with many long-term consequences, including poor cognitive development and a higher rate of morbidity and mortality, making stunting a major contributor to poverty. In CAR, little is known about the factors that contribute to stunting. This study aimed at analysing, in a cross-sectional study, the main factors associated with stunting in a group of 414 children recruited between December 2011 and November 2013, aged five years or less and living in Bangui. For all children, demographic, socio-economic and anthropometric data were recorded and asymptomatic enteropathogen carriage was assessed in stool samples using classical microbiological assays. The study group had a mean age of 14.2±10 months. Fifty-eight percent (292/414) were boys, and 36 percent (148/414) exhibited stunted growth. Of the stunted children, 51% (75/148) showed a moderate delay in linear growth for their age group [height-for-age z-score (HAZ) between -2 and -3 SD] while 49% (73/148) presented a severe delay (HAZ < -3). Factors significantly associated with stunting included gender (aOR: 1.67; 95% CI: 1.07; 2.62 for boys compared to girls) and age (aOR of 3.98 (95% CI: 2.45; 6.46) for toddlers and aOR 4.42 (95% CI: 2.36; 8.28) for children compared to infants). Most importantly, we identified being overweight [weight-for-height z-score (WHZ) > 2 SD; aOR: 3.21; 95% CI: 1.50; 6.90 of overweight compared to normal weight] as also being significantly associated with stunting. This is the first study showing that even in the poorest countries of the world there is an association of stunting with being overweight. © 2017 Vonaesch et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Waku-Kouomou D.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Esona M.D.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Pukuta E.,Institute National Of Recherches Biomedicales | Gouandijka-Vasilache I.,Institute Pasteur Of Bangui | And 14 more authors.
Tropical Medicine and International Health | Year: 2016

Objectives: The goal of the SURVAC pilot project was to strengthen disease surveillance and response in three countries; Cameroon (CAE), Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and Central African Republic (CAR). Methods: Seven laboratories involved in rotavirus surveillance were provided with equipment, reagents and supplies. CDC and WHO staff provided on-site classroom and bench training in biosafety, quality assurance, quality control (QC), rotavirus diagnosis using Enzyme Immunoassay (EIA) and genotyping of rotavirus strains using the Reverse Transcription Polymerase-chain reaction (RT-PCR). All laboratory data were reported through WHO/AFRO. Results: Twenty-three staff members were trained on RT-PCR for rotavirus genotyping which was introduced for the first time in all three countries. In CAE, the number of samples analysed by EIA and RT-PCR increased tenfold between 2007 and 2013. In DRC, this number increased fivefold, from 2009 to 2013 whereas in CAR, it increased fourfold between 2011 and 2013. All laboratories passed WHO proficiency testing in 2014. Conclusion: Laboratory capacity was strengthened through equipping laboratories and strengthening a subregional laboratory workforce for surveillance of rotavirus gastroenteritis. Each of the three countries generated rotavirus surveillance and genotyping data enabling the mapping of circulating genotypes. These results will help monitor the impact of rotavirus vaccination in these countries. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


PubMed | Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, World Health Organization, Complexe Pediatrique de Bangui, Institute Pasteur Of Bangui and 2 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Tropical medicine & international health : TM & IH | Year: 2016

The goal of the SURVAC pilot project was to strengthen disease surveillance and response in three countries; Cameroon (CAE), Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and Central African Republic (CAR).Seven laboratories involved in rotavirus surveillance were provided with equipment, reagents and supplies. CDC and WHO staff provided on-site classroom and bench training in biosafety, quality assurance, quality control (QC), rotavirus diagnosis using Enzyme Immunoassay (EIA) and genotyping of rotavirus strains using the Reverse Transcription Polymerase-chain reaction (RT-PCR). All laboratory data were reported through WHO/AFRO.Twenty-three staff members were trained on RT-PCR for rotavirus genotyping which was introduced for the first time in all three countries. In CAE, the number of samples analysed by EIA and RT-PCR increased tenfold between 2007 and 2013. In DRC, this number increased fivefold, from 2009 to 2013 whereas in CAR, it increased fourfold between 2011 and 2013. All laboratories passed WHO proficiency testing in 2014.Laboratory capacity was strengthened through equipping laboratories and strengthening a subregional laboratory workforce for surveillance of rotavirus gastroenteritis. Each of the three countries generated rotavirus surveillance and genotyping data enabling the mapping of circulating genotypes. These results will help monitor the impact of rotavirus vaccination in these countries.


Banga-Mingo V.,Institute Pasteur Of Bangui | Waku-Kouomou D.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Gody J.C.,Complexe Pediatrique de Bangui | Esona M.D.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | And 10 more authors.
Infection, Genetics and Evolution | Year: 2014

Background: The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends the introduction of rotavirus vaccine in the immunization program of all countries. In the Central African Republic (CAR), sentinel surveillance for rotavirus gastroenteritis was established in 2011 by the Ministry of Health, with the support of the Surveillance en Afrique Centrale Project (SURVAC). The purpose of this study was to assess the burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis and to identify rotavirus strains circulating in CAR before the introduction of rotavirus vaccine planned for this year, 2014. Methods: One sentinel site and one laboratory at the national level were designated by the CAR Ministry of Health to participate in this surveillance system. Stool samples were collected from children who met the WHO rotavirus gastroenteritis case definition (WHO, 2006). The samples were first screened for group A rotavirus antigen by enzyme immunoassay (EIA), and genotyping assays performed using a multiplex reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) technique. Results: Between October 2011 and September 2013, 438 stool samples were collected and analyzed for detection of rotavirus antigen; 206 (47%) were positive. Among the 160 (78%) that could be genotyped, G2P[6] was the predominant strain (47%) followed by G1P[8] (25%) and G2P[4] (13%). Conclusions: Almost half of stool samples obtained from children hospitalized with gastroenteritis were positive for rotavirus. These baseline rotavirus surveillance data will be useful to health authorities considering rotavirus vaccine introduction and for evaluating the efficacy of rotavirus vaccine once it is introduced into the routine immunization system. © 2014.


PubMed | Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, World Health Organization, Institute Pasteur Of Bangui, Programme Elargi de vaccination and Complexe Pediatrique de Bangui
Type: | Journal: Infection, genetics and evolution : journal of molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genetics in infectious diseases | Year: 2014

The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends the introduction of rotavirus vaccine in the immunization program of all countries. In the Central African Republic (CAR), sentinel surveillance for rotavirus gastroenteritis was established in 2011 by the Ministry of Health, with the support of the Surveillance en Afrique Centrale Project (SURVAC). The purpose of this study was to assess the burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis and to identify rotavirus strains circulating in CAR before the introduction of rotavirus vaccine planned for this year, 2014.One sentinel site and one laboratory at the national level were designated by the CAR Ministry of Health to participate in this surveillance system. Stool samples were collected from children who met the WHO rotavirus gastroenteritis case definition (WHO, 2006). The samples were first screened for group A rotavirus antigen by enzyme immunoassay (EIA), and genotyping assays performed using a multiplex reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) technique.Between October 2011 and September 2013, 438 stool samples were collected and analyzed for detection of rotavirus antigen; 206 (47%) were positive. Among the 160 (78%) that could be genotyped, G2P[6] was the predominant strain (47%) followed by G1P[8] (25%) and G2P[4] (13%).Almost half of stool samples obtained from children hospitalized with gastroenteritis were positive for rotavirus. These baseline rotavirus surveillance data will be useful to health authorities considering rotavirus vaccine introduction and for evaluating the efficacy of rotavirus vaccine once it is introduced into the routine immunization system.


Breurec S.,Institute Pasteur Of Bangui | Breurec S.,Center Hospitalo University | Breurec S.,CEA DAM Ile-de-France | Breurec S.,University des Antilles | And 16 more authors.
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases | Year: 2016

Background: In Sub-Saharan Africa, infectious diarrhea is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. A case-control study was conducted to identify the etiology of diarrhea and to describe its main epidemiologic risk factors among hospitalized children under five years old in Bangui, Central African Republic. Methods: All consecutive children under five years old hospitalized for diarrhea in the Pediatric Complex of Bangui for whom a parent’s written consent was provided were included. Controls matched by age, sex and neighborhood of residence of each case were included. For both cases and controls, demographic, socio-economic and anthropometric data were recorded. Stool samples were collected to identify enteropathogens at enrollment. Clinical examination data and blood samples were collected only for cases. Results: A total of 333 cases and 333 controls was recruited between December 2011 and November 2013. The mean age of cases was 12.9 months, and 56% were male. The mean delay between the onset of first symptoms and hospital admission was 3.7 days. Blood was detected in 5% of stool samples from cases. Cases were significantly more severely or moderately malnourished than controls. One of the sought-for pathogens was identified in 78% and 40% of cases and controls, respectively. Most attributable cases of hospitalized diarrhea were due to rotavirus, with an attributable fraction of 39%. Four other pathogens were associated with hospitalized diarrhea: Shigella/EIEC, Cryptosporidium parvum/hominis, astrovirus and norovirus with attributable fraction of 9%, 10%, 7% and 7% respectively. Giardia intestinalis was found in more controls than cases, with a protective fraction of 6%. Conclusions: Rotavirus, norovirus, astrovirus, Shigella/EIEC, Cryptosporidium parvum/hominis were found to be positively associated with severe diarrhea: while Giardia intestinalis was found negatively associated. Most attributable episodes of severe diarrhea were associated with rotavirus, highlighting the urgent need to introduce the rotavirus vaccine within the CAR’s Expanded Program on Immunization. The development of new medicines, vaccines and rapid diagnostic tests that can be conducted at the bedside should be high priority for low-resource countries. © 2016 Breurec et al.


PubMed | Institute Pasteur Paris, Institute Pasteur Of Bangui, University of Rouen and Complexe Pediatrique de Bangui
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PLoS neglected tropical diseases | Year: 2016

In Sub-Saharan Africa, infectious diarrhea is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. A case-control study was conducted to identify the etiology of diarrhea and to describe its main epidemiologic risk factors among hospitalized children under five years old in Bangui, Central African Republic.All consecutive children under five years old hospitalized for diarrhea in the Pediatric Complex of Bangui for whom a parents written consent was provided were included. Controls matched by age, sex and neighborhood of residence of each case were included. For both cases and controls, demographic, socio-economic and anthropometric data were recorded. Stool samples were collected to identify enteropathogens at enrollment. Clinical examination data and blood samples were collected only for cases.A total of 333 cases and 333 controls was recruited between December 2011 and November 2013. The mean age of cases was 12.9 months, and 56% were male. The mean delay between the onset of first symptoms and hospital admission was 3.7 days. Blood was detected in 5% of stool samples from cases. Cases were significantly more severely or moderately malnourished than controls. One of the sought-for pathogens was identified in 78% and 40% of cases and controls, respectively. Most attributable cases of hospitalized diarrhea were due to rotavirus, with an attributable fraction of 39%. Four other pathogens were associated with hospitalized diarrhea: Shigella/EIEC, Cryptosporidium parvum/hominis, astrovirus and norovirus with attributable fraction of 9%, 10%, 7% and 7% respectively. Giardia intestinalis was found in more controls than cases, with a protective fraction of 6%.Rotavirus, norovirus, astrovirus, Shigella/EIEC, Cryptosporidium parvum/hominis were found to be positively associated with severe diarrhea: while Giardia intestinalis was found negatively associated. Most attributable episodes of severe diarrhea were associated with rotavirus, highlighting the urgent need to introduce the rotavirus vaccine within the CARs Expanded Program on Immunization. The development of new medicines, vaccines and rapid diagnostic tests that can be conducted at the bedside should be high priority for low-resource countries.


Manirakiza A.,Institute Pasteur of Bangui | Prisca M.-B.,Complexe Pediatrique de Bangui | Gustave B.-S.,University of Bangui | Bercion R.,Federation of Laboratories | Faou A.L.,Nancy University Hospital Center
Journal of Infection in Developing Countries | Year: 2010

Introduction: Shigellosis is still a major public health problem in sub-Saharan countries, especially among children. Methodology: The prevalence of shigellosis in children presenting with diarrhoea in the Complexe Pédiatrique de Bangui, Central African Republic, was determined. Stools were analyzed in the bacteriology laboratory of the Institut Pasteur de Bangui, Central African Republic, where identification of Shigella species and analysis of antibiotics susceptibility were performed. Results: A total of 15 strains of Shigella were isolated from 156 stools; Shigella flexneri was the only species found. Two infected children died of dehydration. Most strains were resistant to antibiotics except quinolones, which were active on all of these strains. Conclusions: The control of Shigella infections should be reinforced in Bangui, and accurate, affordable and rapid methods of diagnosis would be helpful. © 2010 Manirakiza et al.


Nakoune E.,Institute Pasteur Of Bangui | Tricou V.,Institute Pasteur Of Bangui | Manirakiza A.,Institute Pasteur Of Bangui | Komoyo F.,Institute Pasteur Of Bangui | And 5 more authors.
Virology Journal | Year: 2013

Background: Acute viral respiratory illnesses in children in sub-Saharan Africa have received relatively little attention, although they are much more frequent causes of morbidity and mortality than in developed countries. Active surveillance is essential to identify the causative agents and to improve clinical management, especially in the context of possible circulation of pandemic viruses. Findings. A prospective study was conducted in the Central African Republic (CAR) between January and December 2010 among infants and children aged 0-15 years attending sentinel sites for influenza-like illness or acute respiratory illness. Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected, and one-step real-time and multiplex reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction were used to detect respiratory viruses. Respiratory viruses were detected in 49 of the 329 (14.9%) nasopharyngeal samples: 29 (8.8%) contained influenza viruses (5 (1.5%) had pandemic influenza A/H1N1 virus and 24 (7.3%) had influenza B viruses), 11 (3.3%) contained parainfluenza viruses types 1 and 3 and 9 (2.7%) contained human respiratory syncytial virus. Most cases were detected during the rainy season in the CAR. Analysis of the amplicon sequences confirmed the identity of each detected virus. Conclusions: The influenza surveillance system in the CAR has provided valuable data on the seasonality of influenza and the circulation of other respiratory viruses. Our network could therefore play a valuable role in the prevention and control of influenza epidemics in the CAR. © 2013 Nakouné et al.


PubMed | University of Yaounde I and Complexe pediatrique de Bangui
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Archives de pediatrie : organe officiel de la Societe francaise de pediatrie | Year: 2016

Endomyocardial fibrosis is a restrictive cardiomyopathy that causes heart failure. It is characterized by the fibrotic thickening of the endocardium, sometimes involving the myocardium as well. The lesion generally lies at the apices or inflow tracts of one or both ventricles, associated with more or less severe alteration of the valves. It is a disease of the intertropical regions but is not well known in Cameroon. In this study we describe the first series seen in a pediatric hospital in Cameroon.A retrospective study was conducted in a pediatric hospital in Yaound involving children who had been diagnosed with endomyocardial fibrosis after echocardiographic investigation. We collected the clinical and paraclinical data from consultation records and medical files.Between January 2006 to December 2013, we registered 1430 patients with a cardiac anomaly in our center. Endomyocardial fibrosis was found in 46 patients. Neither sex predominated. Ages at the time of diagnosis varied between 2 and 17 years. Most of the patients were between 5 and 15 years old (80.4 %), with a median of 10 years (interquartile range, 7-13 years). The main complaints were breathlessness, cough, abdominal distension, abdominal, and loss of appetite. Apart from the hyperpigmentation of the lips observed in all our patients, dyspnea was the most frequent physical sign and the diagnosis was made at a time when signs of heart failure were preponderant. Growth retardation was found in all the children examined. All patients were underweight with a median weight for age found below the 25th percentile of the norms according to the National Health Statistics. Lower limb edema was absent even in the presence of voluminous ascites. All subjects had hyperpigmented lips. Despite the cyanotic appearance of the lips, pulse oximetry always gave a normal oxygen saturation level and no cyanosis was seen elsewhere. None of the patients had nail clubbing. Fibrosis more often affected the right ventricle (45/46 patients). The apical obliteration by fibrotic material was found in 43 (93.5 %) patients. Moreover, 36 (78.3 %) patients had pericardial effusion: mild to moderate in 32 subjects and abundant in four subjects. Hypereosinophilia was noted in 57.5 % of the patients. Atrial fibrillation was found in six out of 15 patients who had an electrocardiogram done.The modes of clinical presentation of endomyocardial fibrosis are not sufficiently well known in our context. Despite its insidious progression, certain signs such as weight loss and hyperpigmented lips could be very helpful for screening and easing orientation of parents and heath personnel, thus enabling early referral for appropriate investigation. The presence of bulky ascites without edema of the lower extremities should be viewed as strongly suggestive.

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