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Bangui, Central African Republic

Waku-Kouomou D.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Esona M.D.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Pukuta E.,Institute National Of Recherches Biomedicales | Gouandijka-Vasilache I.,Institute Pasteur Of Bangui | And 14 more authors.
Tropical Medicine and International Health | Year: 2016

Objectives: The goal of the SURVAC pilot project was to strengthen disease surveillance and response in three countries; Cameroon (CAE), Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and Central African Republic (CAR). Methods: Seven laboratories involved in rotavirus surveillance were provided with equipment, reagents and supplies. CDC and WHO staff provided on-site classroom and bench training in biosafety, quality assurance, quality control (QC), rotavirus diagnosis using Enzyme Immunoassay (EIA) and genotyping of rotavirus strains using the Reverse Transcription Polymerase-chain reaction (RT-PCR). All laboratory data were reported through WHO/AFRO. Results: Twenty-three staff members were trained on RT-PCR for rotavirus genotyping which was introduced for the first time in all three countries. In CAE, the number of samples analysed by EIA and RT-PCR increased tenfold between 2007 and 2013. In DRC, this number increased fivefold, from 2009 to 2013 whereas in CAR, it increased fourfold between 2011 and 2013. All laboratories passed WHO proficiency testing in 2014. Conclusion: Laboratory capacity was strengthened through equipping laboratories and strengthening a subregional laboratory workforce for surveillance of rotavirus gastroenteritis. Each of the three countries generated rotavirus surveillance and genotyping data enabling the mapping of circulating genotypes. These results will help monitor the impact of rotavirus vaccination in these countries. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source


Chelo D.,Center Mere Et Enfant Of La Fondation Chantal Biya | Chelo D.,University of Yaounde I | Nguefack F.,Center Mere Et Enfant Of La Fondation Chantal Biya | Nguefack F.,University of Yaounde I | And 10 more authors.
Archives de Pediatrie | Year: 2016

Background: Endomyocardial fibrosis is a restrictive cardiomyopathy that causes heart failure. It is characterized by the fibrotic thickening of the endocardium, sometimes involving the myocardium as well. The lesion generally lies at the apices or inflow tracts of one or both ventricles, associated with more or less severe alteration of the valves. It is a disease of the intertropical regions but is not well known in Cameroon. In this study we describe the first series seen in a pediatric hospital in Cameroon. Patients and methods: A retrospective study was conducted in a pediatric hospital in Yaoundé involving children who had been diagnosed with endomyocardial fibrosis after echocardiographic investigation. We collected the clinical and paraclinical data from consultation records and medical files. Results: Between January 2006 to December 2013, we registered 1430 patients with a cardiac anomaly in our center. Endomyocardial fibrosis was found in 46 patients. Neither sex predominated. Ages at the time of diagnosis varied between 2 and 17 years. Most of the patients were between 5 and 15 years old (80.4 %), with a median of 10 years (interquartile range, 7-13 years). The main complaints were breathlessness, cough, abdominal distension, abdominal, and loss of appetite. Apart from the hyperpigmentation of the lips observed in all our patients, dyspnea was the most frequent physical sign and the diagnosis was made at a time when signs of heart failure were preponderant. Growth retardation was found in all the children examined. All patients were underweight with a median weight for age found below the 25th percentile of the norms according to the National Health Statistics. Lower limb edema was absent even in the presence of voluminous ascites. All subjects had hyperpigmented lips. Despite the cyanotic appearance of the lips, pulse oximetry always gave a normal oxygen saturation level and no cyanosis was seen elsewhere. None of the patients had nail clubbing. Fibrosis more often affected the right ventricle (45/46 patients). The apical obliteration by fibrotic material was found in 43 (93.5 %) patients. Moreover, 36 (78.3 %) patients had pericardial effusion: mild to moderate in 32 subjects and abundant in four subjects. Hypereosinophilia was noted in 57.5 % of the patients. Atrial fibrillation was found in six out of 15 patients who had an electrocardiogram done. Conclusion: The modes of clinical presentation of endomyocardial fibrosis are not sufficiently well known in our context. Despite its insidious progression, certain signs such as weight loss and hyperpigmented lips could be very helpful for screening and easing orientation of parents and heath personnel, thus enabling early referral for appropriate investigation. The presence of bulky ascites without edema of the lower extremities should be viewed as strongly suggestive. © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. Source


Nakoune E.,Institute Pasteur Of Bangui | Tricou V.,Institute Pasteur Of Bangui | Manirakiza A.,Institute Pasteur Of Bangui | Komoyo F.,Institute Pasteur Of Bangui | And 5 more authors.
Virology Journal | Year: 2013

Background: Acute viral respiratory illnesses in children in sub-Saharan Africa have received relatively little attention, although they are much more frequent causes of morbidity and mortality than in developed countries. Active surveillance is essential to identify the causative agents and to improve clinical management, especially in the context of possible circulation of pandemic viruses. Findings. A prospective study was conducted in the Central African Republic (CAR) between January and December 2010 among infants and children aged 0-15 years attending sentinel sites for influenza-like illness or acute respiratory illness. Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected, and one-step real-time and multiplex reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction were used to detect respiratory viruses. Respiratory viruses were detected in 49 of the 329 (14.9%) nasopharyngeal samples: 29 (8.8%) contained influenza viruses (5 (1.5%) had pandemic influenza A/H1N1 virus and 24 (7.3%) had influenza B viruses), 11 (3.3%) contained parainfluenza viruses types 1 and 3 and 9 (2.7%) contained human respiratory syncytial virus. Most cases were detected during the rainy season in the CAR. Analysis of the amplicon sequences confirmed the identity of each detected virus. Conclusions: The influenza surveillance system in the CAR has provided valuable data on the seasonality of influenza and the circulation of other respiratory viruses. Our network could therefore play a valuable role in the prevention and control of influenza epidemics in the CAR. © 2013 Nakouné et al. Source


Manirakiza A.,Institute Pasteur Of Bangui | Prisca M.-B.,Complexe Pediatrique de Bangui | Gustave B.-S.,University of Bangui | Bercion R.,Federation of Laboratories | Faou A.L.,Nancy University Hospital Center
Journal of Infection in Developing Countries | Year: 2010

Introduction: Shigellosis is still a major public health problem in sub-Saharan countries, especially among children. Methodology: The prevalence of shigellosis in children presenting with diarrhoea in the Complexe Pédiatrique de Bangui, Central African Republic, was determined. Stools were analyzed in the bacteriology laboratory of the Institut Pasteur de Bangui, Central African Republic, where identification of Shigella species and analysis of antibiotics susceptibility were performed. Results: A total of 15 strains of Shigella were isolated from 156 stools; Shigella flexneri was the only species found. Two infected children died of dehydration. Most strains were resistant to antibiotics except quinolones, which were active on all of these strains. Conclusions: The control of Shigella infections should be reinforced in Bangui, and accurate, affordable and rapid methods of diagnosis would be helpful. © 2010 Manirakiza et al. Source


Djalle D.,Institute Pasteur Of Bangui | Gody J.C.,Complexe Pediatrique de Bangui | Moyen J.M.,Ministry of Public Health | Tekpa G.,Hopital de lAmitie | And 4 more authors.
BMC Infectious Diseases | Year: 2014

Background: Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are the current complement to microscopy for ensuring prompt malaria treatment. We determined the performance of three candidate RDTs (Paracheck™-Pf, SD Bioline malaria Ag-Pf and SD Bioline malaria Ag-Pf/pan) for rapid diagnosis of malaria in the Central African Republic.Methods: Blood samples from consecutive febrile patients who attended for laboratory analysis of malaria at the three main health centres of Bangui were screened by microscopy and the RDTs. Two reference standards were used to assess the performance of the RDTs: microscopy and, a combination of microscopy plus nested PCR for slides reported as negative, on the assumption that negative results by microscopy were due to sub-patent parasitaemia.Results: We analysed 436 samples. Using the combined reference standard of microscopy + PCR, the sensitivity of Paracheck™-Pf was 85.7% (95% CI, 80.8-89.8%), that of SD Bioline Ag-Pf was 85.4% (95% CI, 80.5-90.7%), and that of SD Bioline Ag-Pf/pan was 88.2% (95% CI, 83.2-92.0%). The tests performed less well in cases of low parasitaemia; however, the sensitivity was > 95% at > 500 parasites/μl.Conclusions: Overall, SD Bioline malaria Ag-Pf and SD Bioline malaria Ag-Pf/pan performed slightly better than Paracheck™-Pf. Use of RDTs with reinforced microscopy practice and laboratory quality assurance should improve malaria treatment in the Central African Republic. © 2014 Djallé et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

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