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News Article | May 10, 2017

Professor Björn Ottersten, Director of the Interdisciplinary Centre for Security, Reliability and Trust (SnT) at the University of Luxembourg, has been awarded an Advanced Grant (AdG), the most prestigious award offered by the European Research Council (ERC). Professor Ottersten will receive 2.5 million Euros in funding over the next five years. He will use the grant to develop a novel overarching technical framework that could be used to simplify the design and operation of complex systems in different areas such as automotive radar, caching, and wireless networks. This is the second ERC Advanced Grant to be awarded to Luxembourg-based researchers, with both recipients at SnT. Many automated systems, such as parking assist systems in cars, process data acquired from sensors and make decisions autonomously based on machine learning, a sub-field of artificial intelligence. However, such systems can be enhanced using mathematical models. For example, in parking assist systems, a mathematical model provides methods for focussing the scan area around the vehicle to obtain reliable data about the scene. The intelligent algorithms will then better recognise from the sensor data that there is, for example, a bin and a person nearby. The model will automatically focus attention on the person as the critical element. Currently, such models are developed on a case-by-case basis - a time-consuming process. But Ottersten's research will provide a framework to streamline their development. Hence, AGNOSTIC, the name of his research project, stands for Actively Enhanced Cognition based Framework for Design of Complex Systems. Ideas about a general system have been floating around for a few years, but there is no comprehensive framework to date. Creating a system that will be applicable to many different areas will allow developers to leverage the framework to design efficient systems in different domains. To build this grand structure, SnT will bolster its in-house expertise by hiring additional experts and working closely with a research partner, KTH in Stockholm. The groundwork has already started, with SnT scientists conducting basic studies and testing theories on a smaller scale in their research lab together with SnT research partners SES and IEE. AGNOSTIC will kick into high gear in October 2017, when a team of about ten experts has been put together. ERC Advanced Grants are awarded to active researchers who need long-term funding to pursue a ground-breaking, high-risk research project. These grants are very competitive, as only less than ten percent of applications are approved. Professor Björn Ottersten is honoured to receive funding for his research endeavours: "Thanks to the strong support of the FNR and our research partners SES and IEE, I was able to quickly assemble a world-class research team in Signal Processing when I arrived in Luxembourg. The size and duration of the ERC AdG allows us to address some fundamental challenges in cognitive systems but also target some specific application areas, work that we often carry out with our partners." This is Ottersten's second ERC AdG. He was awarded his first grant in 2008 while conducting research at KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden when the ERC had just been created. Prof Ludwig Neyses, Acting President and Vice-president for Research at the University of Luxembourg, is thrilled about this milestone in Luxembourgish research: "This award demonstrates the trailblazing research our experts are conducting here at the University of Luxembourg. This second ERC grant for the SnT once more demonstrates the exceptional international reputation that our Interdisciplinary Centre has earned in only few years." After the physicists and material scientists Prof Jan Lagerwall, Prof Alexandre Tkatchenko, and Dr Massimiliano Esposito, the engineering scientist Prof. Stéphane Bordas, and the IT scientist Lionel Briand, Björn Ottersten is already the sixth scientist from the University of Luxembourg to be awarded an ERC Grant. Additionally, the ERC grant holder Josip Glaurdi? joined the University of Luxembourg as an Associate Professor of Political Science in April 2017.

News Article | April 21, 2017

A general view of the Large Hadron Collider experiment during a media visit to the Organization for Nuclear Research in the French village of Saint-Genis-Pouilly, near Geneva in Switzerland in 2014. —"If I have seen further," wrote Isaac Newton in a 1676 letter to Robert Hooke about studying the nature of light, "it is by standing on the shoulders of giants." Now, a study of nearly 30 million research papers and more than 5 million patents offers clues as to where more of these giants might be lurking. A paper published by researchers at Northwestern University's Institute on Complex Systems in the journal Science Advances on Wednesday reveals that the most-cited papers rely on a specific mix of old and new research that the authors say is "nearly universal in all branches of science and technology." The study addresses a question that lies at the heart of the scholarly enterprise: Today's research constitutes the basic building blocks for tomorrow's discoveries, but what should the composition of those blocks be? The findings point to ways to improve how researchers can assemble the richest combination of knowledge on a topic, and may also reveal deeper patterns in how humanity acquires knowledge. "We're very interested in trying to understand where knowledge comes from, particularly breakthroughs –  these insights in science and technology that are the ones really move the needle in terms of people's thinking," says Brian Uzzi, a professor at Northwestern's Kellogg School of Management and a co-author of the paper. To find out, the researchers gathered data on citations. "What do scientists and scholars do when they start a new project or work on a new idea?" asks lead author Satyam Mukherjee, now a professor at the Indian Institute of Management Udaipur. "The first thing we do is to perform a literature review and look for related works in the past and also in recent times." The researchers examined all 28,426,345 scientific papers in the Web of Science, an indexing service for research papers in the sciences, social sciences, arts, and humanities, from 1945 to 2013, and all 5,382,833 US patents granted between 1950 and 2010. They found that the papers and patents with the highest impact, defined as garnering the top 5 percent of citations in their field, tended to cite relatively new information, but with a long, diminishing tail into past work. "Our research indicates that one needs to see the entire arc of a given idea or concept over time to use it most effectively in one's own work," says Professor Mukherjee. The researchers were surprised by their findings' universality. The sweet spot – or "hotspot," as the researchers call it – between old and new research held for papers in physics, gender studies, and everything in between, from the postwar era to the present. "I was expecting that the patterns would vary drastically by time period and academic field," says mathematician Daniel Romero, now an assistant professor at the University of Michigan's School of Information, who worked on the study as part of a postdoctoral fellowship at Northwestern. "After all, different fields have different norms for how they cite other work." The findings address what philosopher of science Thomas Kuhn famously called "the essential tension" between tradition and innovation in scientific research. "It says something very deep about where you want to look for information," says Professor Uzzi. "And also something very deep about how knowledge itself matures through time." Mark Hannah, an assistant professor in Arizona State University's English department who specializes in cross-disciplinary communication in the sciences, suggests that the hotspot may emerge from efforts to reconcile new modes of thought with older ones. "You're seeing a balancing between legacy language and emerging language," says Professor Hannah, who was not affiliated with the study. "They're doing the work of thinking how those studies come together." The study's authors also found that scientists who worked collaboratively were more likely to rely on research within the knowledge hotspot than those who worked alone, a finding that came as no surprise to Anita Woolley, a professor at Carnegie Mellon University's Tepper School of Business who specializes in collective intelligence. "Having a team work on it is what leads them to cite the sufficient variety of references," she says "If you have a team you are more likely to have a diversity of different knowledge and perspectives." "When you're working with collaborators, you're forced to explain yourself more," says Hannah. "You're forced to think through and anticipate how your use of language may not be well understood or may create a barrier for readers." The findings may point to ways to improve the technology that scientists and other scholars use to search for information, an increasingly pressing need amid what Uzzi calls the "absolute explosion in the amount of information that's created every single day." Professor Woolley mentions Google Scholar, a free search engine for academic publishing whose slogan is: "Stand on the shoulders of giants." "Usually they give you some mix of what's the highest cited but also what's recent," says Woolley. "Definitely it tends to make the rich get richer in the citations race, because they come up first. But it also probably biases you toward fairly recent things as well." The discovery of this hotspot may point to ways search engines could be improved: "Imagine if you were to develop a search engine that could deliver information in a way that it grabs this hotspot of knowledge," says Uzzi. "And if you can do that, you'd be pointing people from the get-go to the place in the store of knowledge where they are most likely to find the building blocks of tomorrow's ideas. That would solve a tremendous amount of wasted-time problems." But Sidney Redner, a physicist at the Santa Fe Institute who specializes in citation statistics, cautions that the correlations uncovered by Mukherjee and his colleagues, which he calls a "cool observation," could be misconstrued. "I think there's potential for misuse of this kind of stuff," he says, noting that researchers often cite papers for the purpose of refuting them. "There's no contextual information in citations." "That's what worries me about the whole field of citation studies is that it gets misused by administrators," says Professor Redner. "If I were trying to use this as a tenure-decision mechanism, I would be very worried." Leveraging the power of the hotspot offers may require researchers be more mindful in supplying such context to their citations. "It comes back to us as scholars and us as researchers to be clear about the ways we conduct our research and the ways that we use our sources, so that we are making visible our selections and our rationale, so that we don't become subject to an algorithm," says Hannah. "It's challenging work, but it's something we're prepared to do."

Nutt W.M.,Argonne National Laboratory | Howard R.,Oak Ridge National Laboratory | Busch I.,Oak Ridge National Laboratory | Carter J.,Savannah River National Laboratory | And 5 more authors.
14th International High-Level Radioactive Waste Management Conference, IHLRWMC 2013: Integrating Storage, Transportation, and Disposal | Year: 2013

Preliminary system-level analyses of the interfaces between at-reactor used fuel management, consolidated storage facilities, and disposal facilities, along with the development of supporting logistics simulation tools, have been initiated to provide the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and other stakeholders with information regarding the various alternatives for managing used nuclear fuel (UNF) generated by the current fleet of light water reactors operating in the United States. An important UNF management system interface consideration is the need for ultimate disposal of UNF assemblies contained in waste packages that are sized to be compatible with different geologic media. Thermal analyses indicate that waste package sizes for the geologic media under consideration by the Used Fuel Disposition Campaign may be significantly smaller than the canisters being used for on-site dry storage by the nuclear utilities. Therefore, at some point along the UNF disposition pathway, there could be a need to repackage fuel assemblies already loaded and being loaded into the dry storage canisters currently in use. The implications of where and when the packaging or repackaging of commercial UNF will occur are key questions being addressed in this evaluation. The analysis demonstrated that thermal considerations will have a major impact on the operation of the system and that acceptance priority, rates, and facility start dates have significant system implications.

Flaim T.A.,Complex Systems LLC | Flaim N.B.,Complex Systems LLC | Greening C.W.,Greening Associates Inc | Greening B.D.,Greening Associates Inc
SAE Technical Papers | Year: 2013

In addition to traditional load-deformation response of brake friction materials at constant load (compressibility), measurements for creep (time dependent deformation at constant load), and transient deformation response under increasing (apply) and decreasing (release) linear loading cycles have been measured and reported. One additional load-deformation response characteristic of brake friction materials that can be studied using the Greening Model 1140 test technology is that of nonlinear hysteresis under cyclic loading conditions (both linear and nonlinear). This presentation discusses the measurement of low frequency (< 10 Hz) deformation response of brake friction materials, how these measured results can be objectively quantified and normalized as well as how these measurements might provide additional insight into the 'internal friction' mechanisms of these complex composites. Copyright © 2013 SAE International.

Antanaitis D.B.,General Motors | Riefe M.,General Motors | Ciechoski C.,Durez Corporation | Flaim T.,Complex Systems LLC | Greening C.,Greening Associates Inc.
SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems | Year: 2013

The brake caliper piston plays a key role in caliper function, taking significant responsibility for qualities such as fluid consumption, insulation of the brake fluid from heat, seal rollback function, and brake torque variation sensitivity to disc thickness variation. It operates in a strenuous environment, being routinely subjected to high stresses and elevated temperatures. Given all of the demands on this safety-critical component (strength, stiffness, wear resistance, stable friction against rubber, thermal stability, machinability, manageable thermal conductivity, and more), there are actually relatively few engineering materials suitable for use as a caliper piston, and designs tend to be limited to steel, aluminum, and engineered plastics (phenolic composites). The lattermost - phenolic composites - has been of especial interest recently due to mass savings and possible reduction in brake corner judder sensitivity to disc thickness variation. This paper focuses on characterizing two important mechanical characteristics, stiffness and damping, of the most common piston materials, steel and phenolic. Data are shown first suggesting the effect of piston material on brake performance, and then stiffness and damping data from different methodologies are presented. From these data, a preferred methodology is recommended and results are reconciled with brake corner subsystem performance and modeling. Copyright © 2013 SAE International.

Vakulenko A.A.,Complex Systems LLC | Sytnik D.A.,Complex Systems LLC
Journal of Theoretical and Applied Information Technology | Year: 2015

In decision support systems, one of the tools for solving multicriteria choice problems is the analytic hierarchy process. This method uses a large amount of data. To improve the efficiency of decision-making, the method of interactive visualization of multidimensional data is proposed. The method makes it possible to change the hierarchical structure of objectives in the choice problem, set weights of objective functions at each of the hierarchy levels, and observe the quantitative dependencies of the objective function using graphs. The method is based on the combination and modification of charts: a bar graph, a Tree Map and a flat organizational chart. The modification involves adding interactive elements, making it possible to change the hierarchical structure, change the quantitative values of individual parameters and the weighting factors, select a range of values, as well as encoding quantitative values using the gradient transition of color to display the relationships between the values of the objective functions of different hierarchy levels. Continuous interactive actions of the user result in a corresponding change in graphically displayed items. It provides fast feedback between the user and the decision support system. The practical implementation of the method will provide ease of perception of choosing, setting rules for decision-making, ease of explaining the main reasons, influencing the choice of solutions, high-speed operation. © 2005 - 2015 JATIT & LLS. All rights reserved.

Volkov A.V.,Complex Systems LLC | Sytnik D.A.,Complex Systems LLC
Journal of Theoretical and Applied Information Technology | Year: 2015

The objective of this article is the study of existing approaches to extraction and structuring of data about information objects from news flow and development of the original approach to solution of that task. The article covers the approach to extraction of data about information objects based on domain otology. The developed model of information objects extracted from text is described, as well as the complex of linguistic resources applied for implementation of extraction from text of data about various types of information objects. This article gives a brief description of processing. The stage of extraction of data about information objects includes three phases: named entity recognition; inter-object relationship extraction; building complex information objects (events). For extraction of information from text, rule-based approach is used. © 2005 - 2015 JATIT & LLS.

Nutt W.M.,Argonne National Laboratory | Trail C.,Argonne National Laboratory | Cotton T.,Complex Systems LLC | Howard R.,Oak Ridge National Laboratory | Van Den Akker B.,Oak Ridge National Laboratory
15th International High-Level Radioactive Waste Management Conference 2015, IHLRWM 2015 | Year: 2015

The evaluation of alternative UNF acceptance strategies resulted in several high level insights, identified additional analyses that should be performed, and identified necessary waste management system model enhancements. At a summary level, these are: Site-specific allocation/acceptance strategies could lead to significant benefits with respect to at-reactor management logistics and costs. Such strategies may allow for more efficient clearing of UNF from the reactor sites than would be attainable under an oldest-fuel-first allocation approach. Accelerating acceptance can also have benefits with respect to at-reactor management logistics and costs. Accelerating acceptance in combination with site-specific allocation/ acceptance could potentially be the most efficient approach for clearing UNF from the reactor sites. However, very aggressive allocation/acceptance strategies and rates would be challenging, if not impossible, to achieve considering the constraints associated with moving UNF at the reactor sites. Additional evaluation of UNF acceptance strategies is necessary to better understand their feasibility with respect to reactor site operations. Waste management system analysis tools need to be improved to better represent windows when UNF can be moved at the reactor sites. The strategy for accepting UNF from the reactor fleets will have an impact on the design, configuration, and operation of an ISF. The form of the UNF that would be accepted (canisters, bare fuel assemblies) and the rate the UNF is accepted will effect the number of canister/cask processing bays needed and the overall amount of UNF that would be stored at the ISF. The selection of an acceptance rate from the reactor fleet (i.e., 3,000 MTHM/yr) may influence the preferred strategy regarding the form of the UNF that would be accepted. From an overall system perspective, there may be advantages to accepting all UNF in dual-purpose canisters for acceptance rates on the order of 3,000 MTHM/yr. However, it may be beneficial to accept both bare fuel in re-useable transportation casks along with dual-purpose canisters if the acceptance rate is increased. Improved confidence in at-reactor UNF management costs along with better understanding of ISF design concepts would allow for better understanding of system impacts of different UNF allocation/acceptance strategies. The NFST is currently developing modular ISF design concepts for dry storage and the results from that effort can be implemented into future waste management system analyses. However, the development of ISF design concepts for bare fuel storage is not as mature. Constraints on UNF transportation casks/overpacks, such as thermal or radiation exposure limits, can have a significant impact on the ability to clear UNF from reactor sites for the different UNF allocation/acceptance strategies. These constraints are well understood for DPC systems. Designs designs certified by the U.S. NRC to meet the 10 CFR 71 requirements for re-useable transportation are limited and at present it was necessary to assume those constraints for large re-useable bare fuel casks transported via rail in the analyses completed to date. Bare fuel cask design concept development work underway should provide a better understanding of those constraints. The approach for loading DPCs in current system analysis modeling tools do not reflect how they are typically loaded or would be loaded at the reactor sites while taking thermal limits into account. The current waste management system analysis tools also do not estimate external radiation exposure on loaded transportation casks/overpacks for comparison with 10 CFR 71 limits. Efforts are being initiated to define these approaches and implement them into waste management system analysis tools.

Complex Systems Inc. | Date: 2012-11-15

Computer programs for use in banking and financial services for payments processing, namely, for ensuring secure messaging capability pertaining to financial transactions, and user manuals sold therewith.

Complex Systems Inc. | Date: 2016-07-25

Computer software for use by banks and their customers for the administration of international trade transactions, namely, the preparation and management of letters of credit, stand-by letters of credit, guarantees, import / export documents and funds collection, that may be downloaded from a global computer network.

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