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Ritchie S.D.,935 Ramsey Lake Road | Wabano M.J.,Complex Drive | Russell K.,Old Carver 6 MS 9067 | Enosse L.,11A Debajehmujig Lane | Young N.L.,935 Ramsey Lake Road Sudbury
Rural and remote health | Year: 2014

Aboriginal people in Canada (First Nations, Inuit and Métis) have a lower health status compared to the Canadian population. There is a particular concern about the mental health and wellbeing of First Nations adolescents living on reserves. Interventions following principles of outdoor education and adventure therapy appear to be an appropriate fit for this population. These approaches have proven effective in non-Aboriginal populations, yet there is very little evidence on the efficacy of these types of program for Aboriginal adolescents. The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of an outdoor adventure leadership experience (OALE) on the resilience and wellbeing of First Nations adolescents from one reserve community. The secondary purposes were to explore whether this impact was sustainable, and whether there were any intervening factors that may have influenced the impact. The collaborative research team used a mixed-method design to evaluate the 10-day OALE for adolescents from Wikwemikong Unceded Indian Reserve in northern Ontario, Canada. The main outcome assessed was resilience, measured by self-report, using the 14-Item Resilience Scale (RS-14). Several other exploratory measures assessed other aspects of health and well-being. The questionnaire package was administered at three different time periods: (T1) one day before the OALE; (T2) one month after the OALE; and (T3) one year after the OALE. The Mental Component Score (MCS) of the SF-12v2 was used to confirm any changes in resilience. Open-ended questions were appended to the questionnaire at the 1-year point to identify any intervening factors that may have impacted any changes in resilience and wellbeing. The primary analysis compared mean RS-14 scores at T1 with those at T2. Responses to the open-ended questions were analyzed using content analysis. Over two summers (2009 and 2010), 73 youth 12-18 years of age from Wikwemikong participated in a standardized 10-day OALE program. This represented 15% of the on-reserve population of adolescents in this age range. Survey responses from 59 (80.8%) participants were available for analysis at T1, compared to 47 (64.4%) at T2 and 33 (45.2%) at T3. The mean RS-14 score was 73.65 at baseline, and this improved 3.40 points (p=0.011) between T1 and T2. However, the resilience scores at T3 (1 year post-OALE) had a mean of 74.19, indicating a return back to pre-OALE levels. The mean MCS score at T1 was 48.23 and it improved over the subsequent two time periods. Several intervening factors reported at T3 may have influenced the decrease in resilience scores from T2 to T3. These included changes in family living situation, death in the family, and other life stressors that occurred over the course of the year. Outcome scores from this study provide a unique glimpse into the self-reported health and wellbeing for adolescents within one First Nations community in Canada. The OALE program was beneficial in promoting resilience for adolescents in Wikwemikong over the short-term. Future studies are necessary to assess whether the OALE (or similar outdoor type interventions) are effective within other communities.


Ritchie S.D.,Laurentian University | Jo Wabano M.,Complex Drive | Beardy J.,Health Services | Curran J.,Laurentian University | And 3 more authors.
Health and Place | Year: 2013

Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is a promising approach used with increasing prevalence in health research with underserviced Indigenous communities in rural and remote locations. This case comparison used CBPR principles to examine the characteristics of two collaborative research projects in Canada. Both projects reflected CBPR principles in unique ways with particular differences related to community access and proximity of collaborating partners. CBPR principles are often used and recommended for partnerships involving remote underserviced communities, however many of these principles were easier to follow for the collaboration with a relatively well serviced community in close proximity to researchers, and more challenging to follow for a remote underserviced community. The proximity paradox is an apparent contradiction in the increasing application of CBPR principles for use in distal partnerships with remote Indigenous communities when many of these same principles are nearly impossible to follow. CBPR principles are much easier to apply in proximal partnerships because they afford an environment where collaborative relationships can be developed and sustained. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Dossett L.A.,Complex Drive | Kudchadkar R.R.,Emory University | Zager J.S.,Moffitt Cancer Center
Expert Opinion on Drug Safety | Year: 2015

Introduction: Selective inhibition of the MAPK pathway with either BRAF or MEK inhibition has emerged as a key component for the treatment of BRAF-mutant metastatic melanoma. New evidence suggests that the combination of BRAF and MEK inhibitors improves tumor response rate and progression-free survival, while potentially attenuating some of the serious adverse events observed with monotherapy.Areas covered: This review covers the current data on the efficacy and safety of the selective BRAF (vemurafenib and dabrafenib) and MEK (trametinib) inhibitors as well as the available data on BRAF inhibitor + MEK inhibitor combination therapy (dabrafenib + trametinib and vemurafenib + cobimetinib). The efficacy, safety and toxicity data are discussed from Phase I, Phase II and Phase III trials of these drugs.Expert opinion: Combination therapy with the BRAF and MEK inhibitors improves response rates and progression-free survival in patients with BRAF-mutant metastatic melanoma. Some of the serious adverse events, in particular, the incidence of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, are attenuated with combination therapy, whereas milder side effects such as pyrexia can be more common with combination therapy. Although dose reductions and dose interruptions are slightly more common with combination therapy, overall data supports the notion that combination therapy is safe and improves the outcomes for patients compared to single agent BRAF inhibitors. © 2015 Informa UK, Ltd.


Muallil R.N.,University of the Philippines at Diliman | Muallil R.N.,Mindanao State University | Geronimo R.C.,University of the Philippines at Diliman | Cleland D.,Australian National University | And 5 more authors.
Fisheries Research | Year: 2011

The coastal ecosystems of the Philippines are among the most heavily fished areas in the world. High dependency on fishery resources by an expanding population have resulted in overexploited and deteriorated fish stocks, perpetuating widespread poverty in fishing communities. Reducing fishing pressure through livelihood support provision for fishers could potentially alleviate poverty and mitigate deteriorating fisheries at the same time. However, this requires understanding fishers' behavior toward exiting the fishery and how different socioeconomic factors affect this behavior. We determined fishers' willingness to exit the fishery for different catch and monetary incentive scenarios in 6 coastal towns in the South China Sea biogeographic region of the Philippines. Half the fishers surveyed would continue fishing even when catches fall to 0.5. kg a day. This translates to less than US$1 gross income which is only about 15% of the daily fishers' household expenses in the studied towns. For monetary incentives, 18% of fishers were already willing to exit the fishery at US$111 monthly incentives. This proportion increased to 51% when the offer was increased to US$222 which is about the same as the fishers' monthly household expenses. When the offer was increased to US$333, 18% of fishers still said they would prefer to continue fishing. Fishers who were newer to the fishery and exerting less fishing effort showed more willingness to exit the fishery for both catch and monetary incentive scenarios. Age and educational attainment also influenced fishers' exit decision. These findings demonstrate high heterogeneity in fishers' behavior toward exiting the fishery and that properly targeting those who are more willing to exit the fishery in livelihood programs might both effectively reduce fishing pressure and give fish stocks and other marine ecosystems a chance to recover while improving the fishers' well-being. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Mago V.K.,Complex Drive | Frank R.,Complex Drive | Frank R.,Simon Fraser University | Reid A.,Complex Drive | And 2 more authors.
Expert Systems | Year: 2014

Crime attractors are locations (e.g. shopping malls) that attract criminally motivated offenders because of the presence of known criminal opportunities. Although there have been many studies that explore the patterns of crime in and around these locations, there are still many questions that linger. In recent years, there has been a growing interest to develop mathematical models in attempts to help answer questions about various criminological phenomena. In this paper, we are interested in applying a formal methodology to model the relative attractiveness of crime attractor locations based on characteristics of offenders and the crime they committed. To accomplish this task, we adopt fuzzy logic techniques to calculate the attractiveness of crime attractors in three suburban cities in the Metro Vancouver region of British Columbia, Canada. The fuzzy logic techniques provide results comparable with our real-life expectations that offenders do not necessarily commit significant crimes in the immediate neighbourhood of the attractors, but travel towards it, and commit crimes on the way. The results of this study could lead to a variety of crime prevention benefits and urban planning strategies. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Ltd.


Kumar R.R.,University of The South Pacific | Kumar R.,University of The South Pacific | Kumar R.,Complex Drive
Energy Policy | Year: 2013

The paper investigates the long-run cointegration relationship and energy elasticities for Kenya and South Africa over the periods 1978-2009 and 1971-2009, respectively, using the ARDL procedure developed by Pesaran et al. (2001) with recomputed critical bounds from Narayan (2005) and the Solow (1956) framework extended by Rao (2010). We also conduct the (Toda and Yamamoto (1995) test for Granger non-causality. The regression results show that short-run and long-run energy elasticities are 0.50 and 1.71, respectively for Kenya and 0.17 and 0.34, respectively for South Africa. The causality results indicate a unidirectional Granger causality running from capital per worker and energy per capita to output per worker for both countries. Moreover, in Kenya, we detect a strong unidirectional causality: (a) on output from joint consideration of capital stock and energy; and (b) on capital stock from joint consideration of energy and output. In South Africa, the joint causations are neutral. Hence, while energy and capital stock spurs growth in both countries, Kenya has a greater potential to harness growth and capital productivity via joint consideration of energy with capital and output, respectively. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Chenven M.,University of California at San Diego | Chenven M.,Complex Drive | Chenven M.,American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America | Year: 2010

Although the future of the systems of care model continues to evolve, the core values of child psychiatry are well supported and well served in this emerging arena of public children's mental health service delivery. A substantial body of evidence supports the concepts and practices of family-driven care congruent with wraparound principles and practices. Individual and system outcomes data show efficacy for programs that integrate traditional professional services with consumer-centric wraparound approaches, such as mentoring, team decision making, and community-based services and supports. Integrative interagency practice, fostering cross-agency collaboration to address the needs of at-risk populations, has been shown to be central in providing supports for families and youth. © 2010.


Badeen C.,Complex Drive | Turcotte R.,Complex Drive | Hobenshield E.,NORAM Engineering and Constructors Ltd. | Berretta S.,NORAM Engineering and Constructors Ltd.
Journal of Hazardous Materials | Year: 2011

During the production of nitrobenzene by an adiabatic nitration process, the main byproducts are mono and dinitrophenols as well as 2,4,6-trinitrophenol (picric acid) and 1,3-dinitrobenzene. The byproducts can become concentrated if a distillation step to remove high boiling point impurities is used. In the present work, representative samples of nitrobenzene containing 20-30% dinitrobenzene and less than 1% dinitrophenol, 1% picric acid, and 1% sodium hydroxide were tested by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Accelerating Rate Calorimetry (ARC) to investigate their thermal stability relative to the pure substances. The DSC thermal curves for pure nitrobenzene and the various nitrobenzene-dinitrobenzene mixtures exhibited exothermic activity from about 300°C to 500°C and enthalpy changes of about -2.5×10 3Jg -1, which is very energetic. The impurities (dinitrophenol, picric acid, and sodium hydroxide) had no significant effect on the DSC results. During the ARC experiments, the various nitrobenzene-dinitrobenzene mixtures were found to be less thermally stable than pure nitrobenzene and pure dinitrobenzene, with exotherms beginning in the 263-280°C temperature range. Analysis of ARC data indicates that short-term exposure of nitrobenzene mixtures containing up to 20mass% dinitrobenzene to temperatures up to 208°C should not pose a serious runaway reaction hazard. © 2011.


PubMed | Complex Drive
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Expert opinion on drug safety | Year: 2015

Selective inhibition of the MAPK pathway with either BRAF or MEK inhibition has emerged as a key component for the treatment of BRAF-mutant metastatic melanoma. New evidence suggests that the combination of BRAF and MEK inhibitors improves tumor response rate and progression-free survival, while potentially attenuating some of the serious adverse events observed with monotherapy.This review covers the current data on the efficacy and safety of the selective BRAF (vemurafenib and dabrafenib) and MEK (trametinib) inhibitors as well as the available data on BRAF inhibitor + MEK inhibitor combination therapy (dabrafenib + trametinib and vemurafenib + cobimetinib). The efficacy, safety and toxicity data are discussed from Phase I, Phase II and Phase III trials of these drugs.Combination therapy with the BRAF and MEK inhibitors improves response rates and progression-free survival in patients with BRAF-mutant metastatic melanoma. Some of the serious adverse events, in particular, the incidence of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, are attenuated with combination therapy, whereas milder side effects such as pyrexia can be more common with combination therapy. Although dose reductions and dose interruptions are slightly more common with combination therapy, overall data supports the notion that combination therapy is safe and improves the outcomes for patients compared to single agent BRAF inhibitors.


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