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Ortiz-Perez A.,IIS Fundacion Jimenez Diaz | Martin-De-Hijas N.Z.,IIS Fundacion Jimenez Diaz | Esteban J.,IIS Fundacion Jimenez Diaz | Fernandez-Natal M.I.,Complejo Asistencial de Leon | And 2 more authors.
Microbial Drug Resistance | Year: 2010

The genus Corynebacterium includes a high number of species that are usually isolated from human skin as saprophytes. However, these microorganisms have also been reported as infectious agents in a broad group of patients and have showed broad-spectrum resistance. We studied the susceptibility profiles against macrolides, clindamycin, and streptogramins of 254 clinical strains belonging to the species Corynebacterium urealyticum (120), Corynebacterium amycolatum (66), Corynebacterium jeikeium (17), Corynebacterium striatum (20), Corynebacterium coyleae (12), Corynebacterium aurimucosum (11), and Corynebacterium afermentans subsp. afermentans (8). The MLSB phenotype was detected in 186 strains and was associated with the presence of methylase enzymes codified by the erm(X) gene in 171 strains. The erm(B) gene was only detected in two C. urealyticum strains. Fourteen strains showed macrolide resistance, but they did not carry erm genes. mef genes were not detected despite eight C. amycolatum strains showed the M phenotype. Also, the presence of hydrolytic enzymes codified by ere(B) was evaluated, but all results were negative. Resistance to macrolide in Corynebacterium sp. is mainly due to the presence of erm(X) methylase, although other resistance mechanisms could be involved. © Copyright 2010, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2010. Source

Izquierdo F.M.,Complejo Asistencial de Leon | Ramos L.R.,Cirugia Ortopedica y Traumatologia | Sanchez-Herraez S.,Cirugia Ortopedica y Traumatologia | Hernandez T.,University of Salamanca | And 2 more authors.
American Journal of Surgical Pathology | Year: 2010

Adamantinomas of the long bones are low-grade malignant tumours. They seem to be related to osteofibrous dysplasia with a mesenchymal-to-epithelial transformation. We report a case of an adamantinoma with a revertant sarcomatoid transformation that showed a complete loss of epithelial differentiation. It corresponded to a 41-year-old male presented with an 8-cm multilobated lesion in the centre of the distal tibia. On the en bloc resection specimen, areas of classic adamantinoma were found but most of the tumor corresponded to a high-grade neoplasm with 2 histologic patterns: one made up by epithelial nests with a basaloid arrangement and positive for pankeratins and so-called glandular keratins, and a second sarcomatoid component, negative for these epithelial markers. Five months after surgery the patient had a massive relapse that consisted solely of the second sarcomatous component also negative for epithelial antibodies.Three cases of adamantinomas with sarcomatoid transformation of the epithelial component have been described but the tumours still preserved an epithelial immunophenotype. However, our case represents the extreme end of the sarcomatoid dedifferentiation of a classic adamantinoma with complete sarcomatoid transformation and total loss of epithelial markers. To our knowledge this has not been described previously. © 2010 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source

Pilo-de-la-Fuente B.,Hospital del Sureste | Jimenez-Escrig A.,Hospital Ramon y Cajal | Lorenzo J.R.,Hospital Policlinico de Vigo | Pardo J.,Complejo Hospitalario Universitario Of Santiago Of Compostela | And 6 more authors.
European Journal of Neurology | Year: 2011

Background and purpose: Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the CYP27A1 gene resulting in sterol-27-hydroxylase deficiency. Current information about CTX is based mainly on case reports, with only few large series reported. Although perceived as a potentially treatable condition, efficacy of chenodeoxycholic acid plus statin therapy remains unclear. To perform a nationwide survey of confirmed cases, with a thorough analysis of genotype-phenotype data and prognostic factors. Methods: Retrospective review of the clinical and epidemiological aspects and mutations of all the patients diagnosed since 1992 in the main reference centers for genetic testing of CTX in Spain. Results: Twenty-five patients from 19 families were identified. An average delay of 19years was observed between symptom onset and clinical diagnosis. Two main clinical subgroups were recognizable: a classic form (cerebellar and other supratentorial symptoms) and a spinal form (chronic myelopathy). Cholestanol levels did not correlate with clinical presentation, severity or response to therapy. Despite treatment, five patients died during follow-up, one to 4years after diagnosis. Thirteen different mutations were identified, with a higher frequency of p.R395C in Northwestern Spain and p.R405W in Southern Spain. None of the mutations could be associated with a particular clinical feature combination or prognosis. Conclusions: This is the first nationwide extensive series of CTX reported in Spain. The higher number of cases in some areas suggests a possible founder effect. Spinal forms had a less severe prognosis. A delayed diagnosis could contribute to the lack of significant response to treatment. Click for the corresponding questions to this CME article. © 2011 The Author(s). European Journal of Neurology © 2011 EFNS. Source

Tabernero M.D.,IECSCYL | Tabernero M.D.,University of Salamanca | Maillo A.,University of Salamanca | Nieto A.B.,University of Salamanca | And 10 more authors.
Genes Chromosomes and Cancer | Year: 2012

Despite recent advances in the identification of the cytogenetic profiles of meningiomas, a significant group of tumors still show normal karyotypes or few chromosomal changes. The authors analyzed the cytogenetic profile of 50 meningiomas using fluorescence in situ hybridization and high-density (500 K) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays. Our results confirm that del(22q) (52%) and del(1p) (16%) (common deleted regions: 22q11.21-22q13.3. and 1p31.2-p36.33) are the most frequent alterations. Additionally, recurrent monosomy 14 (8%), del(6q) (10%), del(7p) (10%), and del(19q) (4%) were observed, while copy number patterns consistent with recurrent chromosomal gains, gene amplification, and copy number neutral loss of heterozygosity (cnLOH) were either absent or rare. Based on their overall SNP profiles, meningiomas could be classified into: (i) diploid cases, (ii) meningiomas with a single chromosomal change [e.g., monosomy 22/del(22q)] and (iii) tumors with ≥2 altered chromosomes. In summary, our results confirm and extend on previous observations showing that the most recurrent chromosomal abnormalities in meningiomas correspond to chromosome losses localized in chromosomes 1, 22 and less frequently in chromosomes 6, 7, 14, and 19, while chromosomal gains and cnLOH are restricted to a small proportion of cases. Finally, a set of cancer-associated candidate genes associated with the TP53, MYC, CASP3, HDAC1, and TERT signaling pathways was identified, in cases with coexisting monosomy 14 and del(1p). © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

Mestres J.A.,Hospital Del Mar | IMolins A.B.,Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau | Martinez L.C.,Complejo Hospitalario Universitario Of runa | Lopez-Muniz J.I.C.,Hospital Virgen de la Salud | And 16 more authors.
Clinical and Translational Oncology | Year: 2016

Metastatic breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease that presents in varying forms, and a growing number of therapeutic options makes it difficult to determine the best choice in each particular situation. When selecting a systemic treatment, it is important to consider the medication administered in the previous stages, such as acquired resistance, type of progression, time to relapse, tumor aggressiveness, age, comorbidities, pre- and post-menopausal status, and patient preferences. Moreover, tumor genomic signatures can identify different subtypes, which can be used to create patient profiles and design specific therapies. However, there is no consensus regarding the best treatment sequence for each subgroup of patients. During the SABCC Congress of 2014, specialized breast cancer oncologists from referral hospitals in Europe met to define patient profiles and to determine specific treatment sequences for each one. Conclusions were then debated in a final meeting in which a relative degree of consensus for each treatment sequence was established. Four patient profiles were defined according to established breast cancer phenotypes: pre-menopausal patients with luminal subtype, post-menopausal patients with luminal subtype, patients with triple-negative subtype, and patients with HER2-positive subtype. A treatment sequence was then defined, consisting of hormonal therapy with tamoxifen, aromatase inhibitors, fulvestrant, and mTOR inhibitors for pre- and post-menopausal patients; a chemotherapy sequence for the first, second, and further lines for luminal and triple-negative patients; and an optimal sequence for treatment with new antiHER2 therapies. Finally, a document detailing all treatment sequences, that had the agreement of all the oncologists, was drawn up as a guideline and advocacy tool for professionals treating patients with this disease. © 2016 The Author(s) Source

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