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Benitez-Paez A.,Research Center Principe Felipe | Benitez-Paez A.,University of Southern Denmark | Benitez-Paez A.,Bioinformatic Analysis Group GABi | Villarroya M.,Research Center Principe Felipe | And 3 more authors.

Transfer RNAs are the most densely modified nucleic acid molecules in living cells. In Escherichia coli, more than 30 nucleoside modifications have been characterized, ranging from methylations and pseudouridylations to more complex additions that require multiple enzymatic steps. Most of the modifying enzymes have been identified, although a few notable exceptions include the 2′-O-methyltransferase(s) that methylate the ribose at the nucleotide 34 wobble position in the two leucyl isoacceptors tRNALeu CmAA and tRNALeu cmnm5UmAA. Here, we have used a comparative genomics approach to uncover candidate E. coli genes for the missing enzyme(s). Transfer RNAs from null mutants for candidate genes were analyzed by mass spectrometry and revealed that inactivation of yibK leads to loss of 2′-O-methylation at position 34 in both tRNALeu CmAA and tRNALeu cmnm5UmAA. Loss of YibK methylation reduces the efficiency of codon-wobble base interaction, as demonstrated in an amber suppressor supP system. Inactivation of yibK had no detectable effect on steady-state growth rate, although a distinct disadvantage was noted in multiple-round, mixed-population growth experiments, suggesting that the ability to recover from the stationary phase was impaired. Methylation is restored in vivo by complementing with a recombinant copy of yibK. Despite being one of the smallest characterized α/β knot proteins, YibK independently catalyzes the methyl transfer from S-adenosyl-L-methionine to the 2′-OH of the wobble nucleotide; YibK recognition of this target requires a pyridine at position 34 and N6-(isopentenyl)-2-methylthioadenosine at position 37. YibK is one of the last remaining E. coli tRNA modification enzymes to be identified and is now renamed TrmL. Copyright © 2010 RNA Society. Source

Roetzer A.,University of Vienna | Gabaldon T.,Comparative Genomics Group | Schuller C.,University of Vienna
FEMS Microbiology Letters

The opportunistic human fungal pathogen Candida glabrata is closely related to Saccharomyces cerevisiae, yet it has evolved to survive within mammalian hosts. Which traits help C. glabrata to adapt to this different environment? Which specific responses are crucial for its survival in the host? The main differences seem to include an extended repertoire of adhesin genes, high drug resistance, an enhanced ability to sustain prolonged starvation and adaptations of the transcriptional wiring of key stress response genes. Here, we discuss the properties of C. glabrata with a focus on the differences to related fungi. © 2010 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Galindo-Moreno J.,Idibell Institute Dinvestigacio Biomedica Of Bellvitge | Iurlaro R.,Idibell Institute Dinvestigacio Biomedica Of Bellvitge | El Mjiyad N.,Idibell Institute Dinvestigacio Biomedica Of Bellvitge | Diez-Perez J.,Comparative Genomics Group | And 5 more authors.
Cell Death and Disease

Apolipoproteins of the L family are lipid-binding proteins whose function is largely unknown. Apolipoprotein L1 and apolipoprotein L6 have been recently described as novel pro-death BH3-only proteins that are also capable of regulating autophagy. In an in-silico screening to discover novel putative BH3-only proteins, we identified yet another member of the apolipoprotein L family, apolipoprotein L2 (ApoL2), as a BH3 motif-containing protein. ApoL2 has been suggested to behave as a BH3-only protein and mediate cell death induced by interferon-gamma or viral infection. As previously described, we observed that ApoL2 protein was induced by interferon-gamma. However, knocking down its expression in HeLa cells did not regulate cell death induced by interferon-gamma. Overexpression of ApoL2 did not induce cell death on its own. ApoL2 did not sensitize or protect cells from overexpression of the BH3-only proteins Bmf or Noxa. Furthermore, siRNA against ApoL2 did not alter sensitivity to a variety of death stimuli. We could, however, detect a weak interaction between ApoL2 and Bcl-2 by immunoprecipitation of the former, suggesting a role of ApoL2 in a Bcl-2-regulated process like autophagy. However, in contrast to what has been described about its homologs ApoL1 and ApoL6, ApoL2 did not regulate autophagy. Thus, the role, if any, of ApoL2 in cell death remains to be clarified. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved. Source

Gabaldon T.,Center for Genomic Regulation and | Gabaldon T.,Comparative Genomics Group | Martin T.,University of Bordeaux 1 | Marcet-Houben M.,Center for Genomic Regulation and | And 27 more authors.
BMC Genomics

Background:Candida glabrata follows C. albicans as the second or third most prevalent cause of candidemia worldwide. These two pathogenic yeasts are distantly related, C. glabrata being part of the Nakaseomyces, a group more closely related to Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Although C. glabrata was thought to be the only pathogenic Nakaseomyces, two new pathogens have recently been described within this group: C. nivariensis and C. bracarensis. To gain insight into the genomic changes underlying the emergence of virulence, we sequenced the genomes of these two, and three other non-pathogenic Nakaseomyces, and compared them to other sequenced yeasts.Results: Our results indicate that the two new pathogens are more closely related to the non-pathogenic N. delphensis than to C. glabrata. We uncover duplications and accelerated evolution that specifically affected genes in the lineage preceding the group containing N. delphensis and the three pathogens, which may provide clues to the higher propensity of this group to infect humans. Finally, the number of Epa-like adhesins is specifically enriched in the pathogens, particularly in C. glabrata.Conclusions: Remarkably, some features thought to be the result of adaptation of C. glabrata to a pathogenic lifestyle, are present throughout the Nakaseomyces, indicating these are rather ancient adaptations to other environments. Phylogeny suggests that human pathogenesis evolved several times, independently within the clade. The expansion of the EPA gene family in pathogens establishes an evolutionary link between adhesion and virulence phenotypes. Our analyses thus shed light onto the relationships between virulence and the recent genomic changes that occurred within the Nakaseomyces.Sequence Accession Numbers:Nakaseomyces delphensis: CAPT01000001 to CAPT01000179.Candida bracarensis: CAPU01000001 to CAPU01000251. Candida nivariensis: CAPV01000001 to CAPV01000123. Candida castellii: CAPW01000001 to CAPW01000101. Nakaseomyces bacillisporus: CAPX01000001 to CAPX01000186. © 2013 Gabaldón et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Roetzer A.,University of Vienna | Klopf E.,University of Vienna | Gratz N.,University of Vienna | Marcet-Houben M.,Comparative Genomics Group | And 5 more authors.
FEBS Letters

The human fungal pathogen Candida glabrata is related to Saccharomyces cerevisiae but has developed high resistance against reactive oxygen species. We find that induction of conserved genes encoding antioxidant functions is dependent on the transcription factors CgYap1 and CgSkn7 which cooperate for promoter recognition. Superoxide stress resistance of C. glabrata is provided by superoxide dismutase CgSod1, which is not dependent on CgYap1/Skn7. Only double mutants lacking both CgSod1 and CgYap1 were efficiently killed by primary mouse macrophages. Our results suggest that in C. glabrata the regulation of key genes providing stress protection is adopted to meet a host-pathogen situation. © 2010 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

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