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Volpato C.E.S.,Federal University of Lavras | Conde A.P.,Companhia Energetica de Minas Gerais CEMIG | Barbosa J.A.,Federal University of Lavras | Salvador N.,Federal University of Lavras
Ciencia e Agrotecnologia | Year: 2012

Biodiesel is a renewable fuel derived from vegetable oils used in diesel engines, in any proportion with petroleum diesel, or pure. It is produced by chemical processes, usually by transesterification, in which the glycerin is removed. The objective of this study was to compare the performance of a four stroke, four cylinder diesel cycle engines using either olive (B100) biodiesel oil or diesel oil. The following parameters were analyzed: effective and reduced power, torque, specific and hourly fuel consumption, thermo-mechanical and volumetric efficiency. Analysis of variance was performed on a completely randomized design with treatments in factorial and the Tukey test applied at the level of 5%. Five rotation speeds were researched in four replications (650, 570, 490, 410, 320 and 240 rpm). The engine fed with biodiesel presented more satisfactory results for torque, reduced power and specific and hourly consumptions than that fed with fossil diesel. Source


Nakamura Filho A.,Rede Tematica em Engineering de Materiais REDEMAT | De Almeida A.C.,Rede Tematica em Engineering de Materiais REDEMAT | Riera H.E.,Rede Tematica em Engineering de Materiais REDEMAT | Gouveia V.J.P.,Fundacao Centro Tecnologico Of Minas Gerais Cetec | And 3 more authors.
Materials Research | Year: 2014

Applying the theories of Materials Science and Engineering to describe the composition and hierarchy of microstructures that comprise biological systems could help the search for new materials and results in a deeper insight into evolutionary processes. The layered microstructure that makes up the freshwater bivalve Limnoperna fortunei shell, an invasive specie in Brazil, was investigated utilizing SEM and AFM for the determination of the morphology and organization of the layers; and XRD was used to determine the crystalline phases of the calcium carbonate (CaCO3) present in the shell. The presence of the polymorphs calcite and aragonite were confirmed and the calcite is present only on the external side of the shell. The shell of L. fortunei is composed of two layers of aragonite with distinct microstructures (the aragonite prismatic layer and the aragonite sheet nacreous layer) and the periostracum (a protein layer that covers and protects the ceramic part of the shell). A new morphology of the calcite layer was found, below the periostracum, without defined form, albeit crystalline. Source


Fan F.M.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Collischonn W.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Meller A.,Agencia Nacional de Aguas ANA | Botelho L.C.M.,Companhia Energetica de Minas Gerais CEMIG
Journal of Hydrology | Year: 2014

The present study shows experiments of ensemble forecasting applied to a large tropical river basin, where such forecasting methodologies have many potential applications. The case study is the Três Marias hydroelectric power plant basin (Brazil), on the São Francisco river, where forecast results are particularly important for reservoir operation and downstream flood control. Results showed some benefits in the use of ensembles, particularly for the reservoir inflow on flooding events, and in comparison to the deterministic values given by the control member of the ensemble and by the ensemble mean. The study also discusses the improvements that must be tested and implemented in order to achieve better results, what is particularly important for the smaller basins within the study case. Despite the necessary improvements mentioned, the results suggest that benefits can result from the application of ensemble forecasts for hydropower plants with large basins within the Brazilian energy system. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source


Carvalho M.D.D.,Companhia Energetica de Minas Gerais CEMIG | Cardoso A.V.,Minas Gerais State University
Materials Science and Engineering C | Year: 2015

In this study we characterized the surface morphology and ultrastructure of the foot of the golden mussel, Limnoperna fortunei (Dunker, 1857), relating its characteristics to the attaching mechanisms of this mollusk. The observation of the foot of this bivalve reveals the presence of micro-scaled cilia with a unique shape, which has a narrowing at its end. This characteristic was associated to the capacity for underwater adhesion to substrates through the employment of van der Waals forces, resembling the adhesion phenomenon of the gecko foot. The temporary attachment during locomotion by means of the foot to substrates was observed to be strong even on smooth surfaces, like glass, or hydrophobic waxy surfaces. Comparing TEM and light microscopy results it was possible to associate the mucous secretions and secreting cells found along the tissues to the production of the byssus inside the groove on the ventral portion of the foot. Not only our experiments, but also the state of the art allowed us to discard the involvement of secretions produced in the foot of the mussel to the temporary adhesion. Through SEM images it was possible to build a virtual three-dimensional model where total foot surface was measured for the estimated calculation of van der Waals forces. Also, some theoretical analysis and considerations have been made concerning the characteristics of the functional surface of L. fortunei foot. © 2015 Published by Elsevier B.V. Source


De Carvalho M.D.,Companhia Energetica de Minas Gerais CEMIG
Materials Research | Year: 2015

Aragonite is a metastable polymorph of calcium carbonate found in mollusk's shells, appearing in tiles and prismatic columns, cemented in a protein matrix - mainly proteins - that acts as a framework on which the aragonite is nucleated forming nacre, besides selecting the morphology of the nucleated cristaline phase. The presence of the mineralyzing organic matrix may affect osteoinductive properties of biogenic aragonite, hypothesis tested by combinated tests, comparing viability and bioactivity of biomineralizated aragonite and nacre. Bioactivity was observed by deposition of Ca-P (presumably calcium phosphate) on the surface of samples immersed in Simulated Body Fluid; biocompatibility was verified by adhesion with VERO cells; cytotoxicity and alkaline phosphatase activity assays were performed with human adipose stem cells (hASC). Samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Both materials showed similar behaviour on bioactivity assay; in contrast, exhibited different behaviours in the presence of hASC. © 2015. Source

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