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Krzyzanowski F.,Federal University of Sao Paulo | de Souza Lauretto M.,University of Sao Paulo | Nardocci A.C.,University of Sao Paulo | Sato M.I.Z.,CETESB Companhia Ambiental do Estado de Sao Paulo | Razzolini M.T.P.,University of Sao Paulo
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2016

A deeper understanding about the risks involved in sewage sludge practice in agriculture is required. The aims of the present study were to determine the annual risk of infection of consuming lettuce, carrots and tomatoes cultivated in soil amended with sewage sludge. The risk to agricultural workers of accidental ingestion of sludge or amended soil was also investigated.A Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment was conducted based on Salmonella concentrations from five WWTPs were used to estimate the probability of annual infection associated with crops and soil ingestion. The risk of infection was estimated for nine exposure scenarios considering concentration of the pathogen, sewage sludge dilution in soil, variation of Salmonella concentration in soil, soil attachment to crops, seasonal average temperatures, hours of post-harvesting exposure, Salmonella regrowth in lettuce and tomatoes, Salmonella inhibition factor in carrots, crop ingestion and frequency of exposure, sludge/soil ingestion by agricultural workers and frequency of exposure. Annual risks values varied across the scenarios evaluated. Highest values of annual risk were found for scenarios in which the variation in the concentration of Salmonella spp. in both soil and crops (scenario 1) and without variation in the concentration of Salmonella spp. in soil and variation in crops (scenario 3) ranging from 10-3 to 10-2 for all groups considered. For agricultural workers, the highest annual risks of infection were found when workers applied sewage sludge to agricultural soils (2.26 × 10-2). Sensitivity analysis suggests that the main drivers for the estimated risks are Salmonella concentration and ingestion rate. These risk values resulted from conservative scenarios since some assumptions were derived from local or general studies. Although these scenarios can be considered conservative, the sensitivity analysis yielded the drivers of the risks, which can be useful for managing risks from the fresh products chain with stakeholders' involvement. © 2016.

Mejias Carpio I.E.,University of Houston | Mejias Carpio I.E.,University of Sao Paulo | Franco D.C.,University of Sao Paulo | Zanoli Sato M.I.,CETESB Companhia Ambiental do Estado de Sao Paulo | And 4 more authors.
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2016

Understanding the diversity and metal removal ability of microorganisms associated to contaminated aquatic environments is essential to develop metal remediation technologies in engineered environments. This study investigates through 16S rRNA deep sequencing the composition of a biostimulated microbial consortium obtained from the polluted Tietê River in São Paulo, Brazil. The bacterial diversity of the biostimulated consortium obtained from the contaminated water and sediment was compared to the original sample. The results of the comparative sequencing analyses showed that the biostimulated consortium and the natural environment had γ-Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and uncultured bacteria as the major classes of microorganisms. The consortium optimum zinc removal capacity, evaluated in batch experiments, was achieved at pH = 5 with equilibrium contact time of 120 min, and a higher Zn-biomass affinity (KF = 1.81) than most pure cultures previously investigated. Analysis of the functional groups found in the consortium demonstrated that amine, carboxyl, hydroxyl, and phosphate groups present in the consortium cells were responsible for zinc uptake. © 2016 Elsevier B.V..

Zagatto P.A.,ZAGATTO Consultoria Ambiental e Social Ltda. | Buratini S.V.,CETESB Companhia Ambiental do Estado de Sao Paulo | Aragao M.A.,CETESB Companhia Ambiental do Estado de Sao Paulo | Ferrao-Filho A.S.,Instituto Oswaldo Cruz Fiocruz
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry | Year: 2012

In recent decades, toxic cyanobacterial blooms have become frequent in the drinking water supply and have caused serious deleterious effects to domestic and wild animals, as well as to humans. Two strains of the cyanobacterium species Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii (T2 and T3) were isolated from the Billings Reservoir (São Paulo, Brazil) and cultured in the laboratory for use in acute toxicity tests with mice, micro crustaceans, and fish. The results showed high toxicity of both strains in mouse bioassays (median lethal dose [LD50]; 24h=9.6 and 27mg/kg; intraperitoneal injections). The symptomatology presented by mice was typical of neurotoxicosis, such as trembling, ataxia, convulsions and death by respiratory arrest. Acute and chronic effects were observed in Daphnia similis and Ceriodaphnia dubia, such as immobilization and reduced fitness, respectively. Although acute effects were not detected on the adult fish Danio rerio, chronic toxicity was observed for its larval stage. Although both strains showed high toxicity to all organisms, no consistent pattern was seen between the different bioassays and strains. The results also showed that C. raciborskii toxins are stable to heat and to extreme pH variations. Because of high toxicity of these strains and the potential risk to human health, the authors propose a revision of the legislation regarding safety factors for drinking water supply. © 2012 SETAC.

Campi T.O.,CETESB Companhia Ambiental do Estado de Sao Paulo | Boscov M.E.G.,University of Sao Paulo
Geotechnical Special Publication | Year: 2011

Stability analysis for MSW landfills is based on limit equilibrium methods of general use in Geotechnics, in spite of the fact that rheological behavior of MSW is different from that of typical soils: stress-strain curves show an increase of strength without the occurrence of failure within the normal range of strain levels of shear strength tests, and shear strength and deformability parameters alter along time. Furthermore, there is the additional problem of the representativeness of waste samples for laboratory tests. This paper proposes to evaluate strength parameters of MSW by means of in-situ static load plate tests carried out in a sanitary landfill in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, Brazil, and Terzaghi's formulation for ultimate bearing capacity of direct shallow foundations. Cohesion-friction angle curves for different strain levels obtained by analysis of in-situ tests are presented and discussed. © 2011 ASCE.

Borsari V.,CETESB Companhia Ambiental do Estado de Sao Paulo | Abrantes R.D.,CETESB Companhia Ambiental do Estado de Sao Paulo
SAE Technical Papers | Year: 2013

It is common the development of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions inventories, by private and public organizations. They are used as starting point for policy makers in their efforts on the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions. It has already been established that vehicle emissions contain methane (CH 4), whose formation is strongly dependent on the type of emission control system used. In the transportation sector, methane emission can contribute significantly to the total GHG emissions, considering the lifecycle of the fuel used. Although there are plenty of data about the regulated emission from vehicles, for greenhouse gases such data tend to be scarce. For this reason it is usual to try to establish ratios between the regulated pollutants and greenhouse gases so that the latter can be estimated from the available data of the former. The most usual way to do that is to make such estimation based on a relation between CH4 and NMVOC (non-methane volatile organic compounds). In 2006 the IPCC (International Panel on Climate Change) published a new version of the guidelines for GHG inventories. The emission ratios between CH4 and THC indicated in that document are in use nowadays to help the inventories development. The aim of this study is to make an update of that ratios, for the Brazilian situation, based on the data available from new vehicles dynamometers tests, made for the purpose of the type approval processes and also for the production control made by the vehicles manufacturers. © 2013 SAE INTERNATIONAL.

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