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Snelders J.,Catholic University of Leuven | Dornez E.,Catholic University of Leuven | Benjelloun-Mlayah B.,Compagnie Industrielle de la Matiere Vegetale CIMV | Huijgen W.J.J.,Energy Research Center of the Netherlands | And 4 more authors.
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2014

To assess the potential of acetic and formic acid organosolv fractionation of wheat straw as basis of an integral biorefinery concept, detailed knowledge on yield, composition and purity of the obtained streams is needed. Therefore, the process was performed, all fractions extensively characterized and the mass balance studied. Cellulose pulp yield was 48% of straw dry matter, while it was 21% and 27% for the lignin and hemicellulose-rich fractions. Composition analysis showed that 67% of wheat straw xylan and 96% of lignin were solubilized during the process, resulting in cellulose pulp of 63% purity, containing 93% of wheat straw cellulose. The isolated lignin fraction contained 84% of initial lignin and had a purity of 78%. A good part of wheat straw xylan (58%) ended up in the hemicellulose-rich fraction, half of it as monomeric xylose, together with proteins (44%), minerals (69%) and noticeable amounts of acids used during processing. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Tachon N.,Compagnie Industrielle de la Matiere Vegetale CIMV | Tachon N.,ENSIACET | Jahouh F.,Memorial University of Newfoundland | Delmas M.,Compagnie Industrielle de la Matiere Vegetale CIMV | And 3 more authors.
Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry | Year: 2011

We have identified compounds obtained from the SARA fractions of bitumen by using atmospheric pressure photoionization mass spectrometry and low-energy collision tandem mass spectrometric analyses with a QqToF-MS/MS hybrid instrument. The identified compounds were isolated from the maltene saturated oil and the aromatic fractions of the SARA components of a bitumen. The QqToF instrument had sufficient mass resolution to provide accurate molecular weight information and to enhance the tandem mass spectrometry results. The APPI-QqToF-MS analysis of the separated compounds showed a series of protonated molecules [M+H]+ and molecular ions [M] +■ of the same mass but having different chemical structures, in the maltene saturated oil and the aromatic SARA fractions. These isobaric ions were a molecular ion [M 2] +■ at m/z 418.2787 and a protonated molecule [M5+H] + at m/z 287.1625 in the saturated oil fraction, and molecular ions [M 6] +■ at m/z 418.1584 and [M 7] +■ at m/z 287.1285 in the aromatic fraction. The identification of this series of chemical compounds was achieved by performing CID-MS/MS analyses of the molecular ions [M] +■ ([M 1] +■ at m/z 446. 2980, [M 2] +■ at m/z 418.2787, [M 3] +■ at m/z 360.3350 and [M 4] +■ at m/z 346.2095) in the saturated oil fraction and of the [M 5+H] + ion at m/z 287.1625 also in the saturated oil fraction. The observed CID-MS/MS fragmentation differences were explained by proposed different breakdown processes of the precursor ions. The presented tandem mass spectrometric study shows the capability of MS/MS experiments to differentiate between different classes of chemical compounds of the SARA components of bitumen and to explain the reasons for the observed mass spectrometric differences. However, greater mass resolution than that provided by the QqToF-MS/MS instrument would be required for the analysis of the asphaltene fraction of bitumen. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source

Compagnie Industrielle De La Matiere Vegetale Cimv | Date: 2011-10-05

A process for producing bioethanol includes the steps of pretreatment (consisting in destructuring the lignocellulosic vegetable raw material by placing it in the presence of a mixture containing formic acid, acetic acid and water, then in separating cellulose), of enzymatic hydrolysis and of alcoholic fermentation, characterized in that it includes, prior to the enzymatic hydrolysis, a step of partial elimination of the lignins so as to obtain a residual overall level of lignins (T), expressed as percentage by weight, which is non-zero and which is included in a range determined by a lower limit, and an upper limit Bsup, respectively equal to 0.30% and 4%. In order to obtain conditions of acidification before the enzymatic hydrolysis step, the process includes a step for re-acidification of the mixture, which is carried out with an acid, or of a mixture of acids, of determined pKa, and preferably with weak organic.

Delmas G.-H.,Compagnie Industrielle de la Matiere Vegetale CIMV | Delmas G.-H.,ENSIACET | Benjelloun-Mlayah B.,Compagnie Industrielle de la Matiere Vegetale CIMV | Bigot Y.L.,ENSIACET | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Applied Polymer Science | Year: 2013

Wheat straw Biolignin TM was used as a substitute of bisphenol-A in epoxy resin. Synthesis was carried out in alkaline aqueous media using polyethyleneglycol diglycidyl ether (PEGDGE) as epoxide agent. Structural study of Biolignin TM and PEGDGE was performed by solid-state 13C NMR and gel permeation chromatography, respectively, before epoxy resin synthesis. Biolignin TM based epoxy resins were obtained with different ratios of Biolignin TM: PEGDGE and their structures were analyzed by solid-state 13C NMR. The crosslinking of PEGDGE with Biolignin TM was highlighted in this study. Properties of Biolignin TM based epoxy resins were analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry and dynamic load thermomechanical analysis as well as compared with those of a bisphenol-A epoxy-amine resin. Depending on the epoxy resin formulation, results confirmed the high potential of Biolignin TM as a biosourced polyphenol used in epoxy resin applications. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

Delmas G.-H.,Compagnie Industrielle de la Matiere Vegetale CIMV | Delmas G.-H.,ENSIACET | Benjelloun-Mlayah B.,Compagnie Industrielle de la Matiere Vegetale CIMV | Bigot Y.L.,ENSIACET | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Applied Polymer Science | Year: 2011

Wheat straw lignin was extracted by the CIMV process using organic acid media at pilot plant scale. The product was analyzed by gel permeation chromatography (GPC), 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy, infrared attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared analysis (ATR-FTIR), and gas chromatography (GC) to clarify its structure and functionality. In most cases, lignin was esterified before analysis. Control of the esterification was conducted via ATR-FTIR and NMR. GC analysis was used to quantify total hydroxyl group of lignin by saponification of propionylated lignin and was also used to quantify phenolic hydroxyl groups of lignin by aminolysis of propionylated lignin. Acetylated lignin was analyzed by GPC. Carboxylic group of lignin was determined by pH metric titration. Lignin extracted from the CIMV process was observed as a low molecular weight polymer with a low polydispersity index and high free hydroxyl content. The potential of lignin as a natural polyphenol was confirmed by the analytical results obtained. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

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