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Stewart S.A.,Community Informatics | Abidi S.S.R.,Dalhousie University
Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine | Year: 2017

Background and Objective Online communities of practice contain a wealth of information, stored in the free text of shared communications between community members. The Knowledge Maps (KMaps) system is designed to facilitate Knowledge Translation in online communities through multi-level analyses of the shared messages of these communications. Methods Using state-of-the-art semantic mapping technologies (Metamap) the contents of the messages shared within an online community are mapped to terms from the MeSH medical lexicon, providing a multi-level topic-specific summary of the knowledge being shared within the community. Using the inherent hierarchical structure of the lexicon important insights can be found within the community. Results The KMaps system was applied to two medical mailing lists, the PPML (archives from 2009–02 to 2013–02) and SURGINET (archives from 2012–01 to 2013–04), identifying 27,924 and 50,597 medical terms respectively. KMaps identified content areas where both communities found interest, specifically around Diseases, 22% and 24% of the total terms, while also identifying field-specific areas that were more popular: SURGINET expressed an interest in Anatomy (14% vs 4%) while the PPML was more interested in Drugs (19% vs 9%). At the level of the individual KMaps identified 6 PPML users and 9 SURGINET users that had noticeably more contributions to the community than their peers, and investigated their personal areas of interest. Conclusion The KMaps system provides valuable insights into the structure of both communities, identifying topics of interest/shared content areas and defining content-profiles for individual community members. The system provides a valuable addition to the online KT process. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.

De Kraker M.E.A.,National Institute for Public Health and the Environment RIVM | De Kraker M.E.A.,University of Groningen | Wolkewitz M.,Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg | Davey P.G.,Community Informatics | And 2 more authors.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy | Year: 2011

Antimicrobial resistance is threatening the successful management of nosocomial infections worldwide. Despite the therapeutic limitations imposed by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), its clinical impact is still debated. The objective of this study was to estimate the excess mortality and length of hospital stay (LOS) associated with MRSA bloodstream infections (BSI) in European hospitals. Between July 2007 and June 2008, a multicenter, prospective, parallel matched-cohort study was carried out in 13 tertiary care hospitals in as many European countries. Cohort I consisted of patients with MRSA BSI and cohort II of patients with methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) BSI. The patients in both cohorts were matched for LOS prior to the onset of BSI with patients free of the respective BSI. Cohort I consisted of 248 MRSA patients and 453 controls and cohort II of 618 MSSA patients and 1,170 controls. Compared to the controls, MRSA patients had higher 30-day mortality (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 4.4) and higher hospital mortality (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 3.5). Their excess LOS was 9.2 days. MSSA patients also had higher 30-day (aOR = 2.4) and hospital (aHR = 3.1) mortality and an excess LOS of 8.6 days. When the outcomes from the two cohorts were compared, an effect attributable to methicillin resistance was found for 30-day mortality (OR = 1.8; P = 0.04), but not for hospital mortality (HR = 1.1; P = 0.63) or LOS (difference = 0.6 days; P = 0.96). Irrespective of methicillin susceptibility, S. aureus BSI has a significant impact on morbidity and mortality. In addition, MRSA BSI leads to a fatal outcome more frequently than MSSA BSI. Infection control efforts in hospitals should aim to contain infections caused by both resistant and susceptible S. aureus. Copyright © 2011, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

Takanohashi A.,Center for Genetic Medicine Research | Prust M.,Center for Clinic and Community Research | Wang J.,Community Informatics | Gordish-Dressman H.,Center for Genetic Medicine Research | And 10 more authors.
Neurology | Year: 2013

Objective: This study explores a large panel of cytokines in plasma and CSF of patients with Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS) at different ages, in order to establish signatures of cytokines most predictive of AGS. Methods: Plasma from 22 subjects with known mutations were assayed for cytokines using the Milliplex MAP Immunobead system, and compared to results from 8 age-matched normal controls. CSF of 11 additional patients with mutation-proven AGS was tested in an identical manner and compared to results from age-matched controls. Samples were banked and analysis was carried out retrospectively. Results: Significant elevations were seen in FMS-related tyrosine kinase 3 ligand, IP-10, interleukin (IL)-12p40, IL-15, tumor necrosis factor α, and soluble IL 2 receptor α in both AGS patient plasma and CSF relative to controls. Additionally, this cytokine signature was able to correctly cluster 9 of 11 AGS cases based on CSF values. While most cytokines decreased exponentially with age, a subgroup including IP-10 demonstrated persistent elevation beyond early childhood. Conclusion: Patients with AGS exhibit plasma and CSF elevations of proinflammatory cytokines. Selected cytokines remain persistently elevated beyond the initial disease phase. This panel of proinflammatory cytokines may be considered for use as diagnostic and therapeutic markers of disease, and may permit improved understanding of disease pathogenesis. © 2013 American Academy of Neurology.

Al-Mutlaq H.M.,Qassim University | Bawazir A.A.,University of Aden | Bawazir A.A.,Community Informatics | Jradi H.,Community Informatics | And 2 more authors.
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention | Year: 2015

Background: Although childhood cancer is a rare disease, 100,000 children younger than 15 years of age die from cancer each year, the majority of them in developing countries. More data need to be gathered and published particularly in developing countries to better understand the scale of the problem. Aims: This study aimed to describe the patterns of childhood cancers in Saudi Arabia over a period of ten years (1999-2008). Materials and Methods: This descriptive retrospective study was based on secondary data from the Saudi Cancer Registry from 1999 to 2008. All Saudi cases (both genders), under the age of 15 years, who were diagnosed with cancer during the study period, were included in this study. Results: Childhood cancer in Saudi Arabia, in the period between 1999 and 2008, accounted for about 8% of total cancer cases. The most common encountered cancers were leukemia (34.1%), followed by lymphoma (15.2%), brain (12.4%), and kidney cancers (5.3%). The overall incidence of childhood cancers increased from 8.8 per 100,000 in 1999 to 9.8 per 100,000 in 2008. The incidence rates of cancers per 100,000 in the years 1999 and 2008 were generally higher among males, (9.4 and 11.5 in males vs. 8.3 and 8.1 in females). The highest incidence rate in the surveyed years was apparent in the birth to age 4 years group. Conclusions: Cancer is an important public health problem in Saudi Arabia and a major ascending contributor to mortality and morbidity in children. More studies are required to describe the patterns of childhood cancers and related risk factors in Saudi Arabia.

de Cindio F.,Community Informatics | Ripamonti L.A.,Community Informatics
AI and Society | Year: 2010

This paper draws on the authors more than 10 years of involvement in the action research experience of the Milan Community Network. It discusses the roles that community networks play in the Information Society: starting from a neat characterization of "online community", community networks are presented as ICT learning communities, as local online communities and as complementary to Digital Cities. Finally, critical insights into institutional aspects of community networks are considered from the perspective of their sustainability. © 2009 Springer-Verlag London Limited.

Jradi H.,Community Informatics | Al-Shehri A.,Community Informatics
Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health | Year: 2014

Introduction: Tobacco smoking is the leading cause of preventable death worldwide. Educating and training medical students about tobacco dependence prevention and treatment will prepare them for the task of helping smokers quit. In Saudi Arabia, little is known about medical students' knowledge on this topic. Methods: This study was conducted among 237 medical students (89% response rate) from three medical schools in Saudi Arabia. Students were asked to complete a 55-item questionnaire about the knowledge of smoking epidemiology, smoking cessation practice and benefits, and treatment of tobacco dependence. Results: The majority of the students (91.4%) do not have adequate knowledge about the epidemiology of smoking. Students demonstrated a low knowledge of the health risks associated with tobacco use (average score 53%; SD. =. 11.6), a fair understanding of the benefits of smoking cessation, and insufficient information about treatment of tobacco dependence. Respondents thought they were adequately prepared to counsel their patients to quit smoking. Conclusions: Medical students in Saudi Arabia are not well informed and trained in tobacco dependence and treatment. It is necessary to address this deficit by prioritizing these topics in medical education curricula. © 2014 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia.

News Article | July 4, 2005

The Journal Of Community Informatics: The study titled, Cybercafes and their Potential as Community Development Tools in India, starts with the assumption that cybercafes can bridge the digital divide, as they provide Internet access to people who cannot afford to have Internet connections at their homes or who need help in order to make use of ICT. It is part of a doctoral thesis of Anikar M. Haseloff, Universität Augsburg. Abstract: The study examines the role of Cybercafés in urban, semiurban and suburban areas of India. Cybercafés have become an important access point for different urban communities in India, and the paper discusses their role in an urban development context. To examine the role of Cybercafés, a broad quantitative and qualitative analysis of cybercafes has been made in different urban, semiurban and suburban areas in India, including a user survey of 1500 users and 30 interviews. This paper discusses some of the findings, shows some up to date trends of the Indian Cybercafe Scene and shows some interesting potentials that Cybercafés in urban areas have to serve different communities. According to a reader in response to this study: “The biggest weakeness in the current cyber cafe infrastructure (apart from Reliance and Sify and maybe few other significant players) in our country is the fact that most cybercafes don’t pay for software. Had they had to purchase software licenses, not many would be able to survive. This state is untenable in the future, so we need to find a way out. Otherwise, they will largely continue to remain outside the domain of legitimate business.” A very valid point, indeed.

PubMed | Community Informatics
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Internal medicine (Tokyo, Japan) | Year: 2017

Objective It is recommended that middle-aged and elderly individuals reduce their salt intake because of the high prevalence of hypertension. The consumption of miso soup is associated with salt intake, and the reduced consumption of miso soup has been recommended. Recent studies have demonstrated that the consumption of miso soup can attenuate an autonomic imbalance in animal models. However, it is unclear whether these results are applicable to humans. This study examined the cross-sectional association between the frequency of miso soup consumption and the blood pressure and heart rate of human subjects. Methods A total of 527 subjects of 50 to 81 years of age who participated in our hospital health examination were enrolled in the present study and divided into four groups based on the frequency of their miso soup consumption ([bowl(s) of miso soup/week] Group 1, <1; Group2, <4; Group3, <7; Group4, 7). The blood pressure levels and heart rates of the subjects in each group were compared. Furthermore, a multivariable analysis was performed to determine whether miso soup consumption was an independent factor affecting the incidence of hypertension or the heart rate. Results The frequency of miso soup consumption was not associated with blood pressure. The heart rate was, however, lower in the participants who reported a high frequency of miso soup consumption. A multivariable analysis revealed that the participants who reported a high frequency of miso soup consumption were more likely to have a lower heart rate, but that the consumption of miso soup was not associated with the incidence of hypertension. Conclusion These results indicate that miso soup consumption might decrease the heart rate, but not have a significant effect on the blood pressure of in middle-aged and elderly Japanese individuals.

Stillman L.,Community Informatics
ACM International Conference Proceeding Series | Year: 2013

This Note discusses current and prospective research into understandings of Participatory Action Research (PAR) and its relationship to the development of inclusive and pluralistic forms of Information and Knowledge Management (IKM) in ICT4D/ICTD contexts through the Oxfam Australia-Monash University Partnership. It is intended that an innovative demonstration project to trial new ways of implementing PAR & pluralistic IKM will be then be undertaken with international development NGOs with an aim to more widespread adoption of these techniques.

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