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Wadonda-Kabondo N.,Community Health Services Unit | Bennett D.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Van Oosterhout J.J.,University of Malawi | Moyo K.,Community Health Services Unit | And 21 more authors.
Clinical Infectious Diseases | Year: 2012

Since 2004, the Malawi antiretroviral treatment (ART) program has provided a public health-focused system based on World Health Organization clinical staging, standardized first-line ART regimens, limited laboratory monitoring, and no patient-level monitoring of human immunodeficiency virus drug resistance (HIVDR). The Malawi Ministry of Health conducts periodic evaluations of HIVDR development in prospective cohorts at sentinel clinics. We evaluated viral load suppression, HIVDR, and factors associated with HIVDR in 4 ART sites at 12-15 months after ART initiation. More than 70% of patients initiating ART had viral suppression at 12 months. HIVDR prevalence (6.1%) after 12 months of ART was low and largely associated with baseline HIVDR. Better follow-up, removal of barriers to on-time drug pickups, and adherence education for patients 16-24 years of age may further prevent HIVDR. © 2011 The Author.


PubMed | WHO Country office, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Community Health Services Unit, United States Agency for International Development and 2 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Malaria journal | Year: 2016

Susceptibility of principal Anopheles malaria vectors to common insecticides was monitored over a 5-year period across Malawi to inform and guide the national malaria control programme.Adult blood-fed Anopheles spp. and larvae were collected from multiple sites in sixteen districts across the country between 2011 and 2015. First generation (FMortality of Anopheles funestus to deltamethrin, permethrin, bendiocarb and propoxur declined significantly over the 5-year (2011-2015) monitoring period. There was wide variation in susceptibility to DDT but it was not associated with time. In contrast, An. funestus exhibited 100% mortality to the organophosphates (malathion and pirimiphos-methyl) at all sites tested. There was reduced mortality of Anopheles arabiensis to deltamethrin over time though this was not statistically significant. However, mortality of An. arabiensis exposed to permethrin declined significantly over time. Anopheles arabiensis exposed to DDT were more likely to be killed if there was high ITN coverage in the mosquito collection area the previous year. There were no other associations between mosquito mortality in a bioassay and ITN coverage or IRS implementation. Mortality of An. funestus from four sites exposed to deltamethrin alone ranged from 2 to 31% and from 41 to 94% when pre-exposed to the synergist piperonyl butoxide followed by deltamethrin. For permethrin alone, mortality ranged from 2 to 13% while mortality ranged from 63 to 100% when pre-exposed to PBO.Pyrethroid resistance was detected in An. funestus and An. arabiensis populations across Malawi and has worsened over the last 5years. New insecticides and control strategies are urgently needed to reduce the burden of malaria in Malawi.

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