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Atahualpa, Ecuador

Bauer G.R.,University of Western Ontario | Travers R.,Wilfrid Laurier University | Scanlon K.,Community Center | Coleman T.A.,University of Western Ontario
BMC Public Health | Year: 2012

Background: Studies of HIV-related risk in trans (transgender, transsexual, or transitioned) people have most often involved urban convenience samples of those on the male-to-female (MTF) spectrum. Studies have detected high prevalences of HIV-related risk behaviours, self-reported HIV, and HIV seropositivity. Methods: The Trans PULSE Project conducted a multi-mode survey using respondent-driven sampling to recruit 433 trans people in Ontario, Canada. Weighted estimates were calculated for HIV-related risk behaviours, HIV testing and self-reported HIV, including subgroup estimates for gender spectrum and ethno-racial groups. Results: Trans people in Ontario report a wide range of sexual behaviours with a full range of partner types. High proportions - 25% of female-to-male (FTM) and 51% of MTF individuals - had not had a sex partner within the past year. Of MTFs, 19% had a past-year high-risk sexual experience, versus 7% of FTMs. The largest behavioural contributors to HIV risk were sexual behaviours some may assume trans people do not engage in: unprotected receptive genital sex for FTMs and insertive genital sex for MTFs. Overall, 46% had never been tested for HIV; lifetime testing was highest in Aboriginal trans people and lowest among non-Aboriginal racialized people. Approximately 15% of both FTM and MTF participants had engaged in sex work or exchange sex and about 2% currently work in the sex trade. Self-report of HIV prevalence was 10 times the estimated baseline prevalence for Ontario. However, given wide confidence intervals and the high proportion of trans people who had never been tested for HIV, estimating the actual prevalence was not possible. Conclusions: Results suggest potentially higher than baseline levels of HIV; however low testing rates were observed and self-reported prevalences likely underestimate seroprevalence. Explicit inclusion of trans people in epidemiological surveillance statistics would provide much-needed information on incidence and prevalence. Given the wide range of sexual behaviours and partner types reported, HIV prevention programs and materials should not make assumptions regarding types of behaviours trans people do or do not engage in. © 2012 Bauer et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Nader J.A.,Hospital Medica Sur | Andrade M.D.L.L.,Hospital Medica Sur | Espinosa V.,Hospital Medica Sur | Zambrano M.,Community Center | And 2 more authors.
European Neurology | Year: 2015

Background: There is no information on transcranial Doppler (TCD) failures due to poor insonation among native inhabitants of Latin America. Methods: Seventy Ecuadorian natives and 70 age- and sex-matched individuals of European origin underwent TCD. The same investigators performed all exams using the same equipment and protocol. Using the McNemar's test for correlated proportions, we compared TCD failures related to poor insonation across ethnic groups. Results: Out of 140 participants, 56 (40%) had one or more suboptimal/absent acoustic windows. These persons were older (p = 0.01) and were more often women (p < 0.0001) than those with all optimal windows (irrespective of race/ethnicity). In the matched-pair analysis, Amerindians were more likely to have suboptimal/absent acoustic windows than individuals of European origin (OR: 2.8, 95% CI: 1.3-6.5, p = 0.006). Conclusion: Amerindians are almost three times more likely to have insonation failures related to poor acoustic windows than their European counterparts. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel. Source

Del Brutto O.H.,University of Miami | Mera R.M.,Vanderbilt University | Zambrano M.,Community Center | Lama J.,Hospital Clinica Kennedy
Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases | Year: 2015

Background Studies looking for an association between incompleteness of the Circle of Willis (CoW) and small vessel disease (SVD) markers are scarce and conflicting. We aimed to evaluate this association in an unbiased population-based study conducted in Atahualpa (rural Ecuador). Methods Atahualpa residents 60 years of age or more were identified during a door-to-door survey and invited to undergo magnetic resonance imaging for identification of SVD markers, including white matter hyperintensities (WMHs), strokes, and deep microbleeds. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRA) was used for classifying the CoW according to the presence or absence of one A1 segment of the anterior cerebral artery or one or both P1 segments of posterior cerebral arteries. Results Of 311 eligible persons, 258 were enrolled. Mean age was 70 ± 8 years, 59% were women, and 74% had a poor cardiovascular health (CVH) status. Of these, 172 patients (67%) had WMH, 40 patients (16%) had SVD-related strokes, and 23 patients (9%) had deep microbleeds. MRA revealed a complete CoW in 157 persons (61%). Persons with SVD markers were older than those without markers (P <.0001). A poor CVH status was noted in 79% of persons with at least 1 SVD marker and in 65% of those with no markers (P =.02). Logistic regression models showed no association of incompleteness of the CoW with any marker of SVD - alone or in combination - after adjusting for age, sex, and CVH status. Conclusions Lack of association between incompleteness of CoW and SVD markers suggest that genetically determined variants in the intracranial vasculature are not responsible for the high prevalence of SVD among native South American populations. © 2015 National Stroke Association. Source

Del Brutto V.J.,Louis A. Weiss Memorial Hospital | Zambrano M.,Community Center | Mera R.M.,Vanderbilt University | Del Brutto O.H.,University of Miami
Stroke | Year: 2015

Background and Purpose-Prevalence of cerebral microbleeds (CMB) in white and Asian populations range from 4% to 15%. However, there is no information from indigenous Latin American people. We aimed to assess prevalence and cerebrovascular correlates of CMB in stroke-free older adults living in rural Ecuador. Methods-Of 311 Atahualpa residents aged ≥60 years identified during a door-to-door survey, 258 (83%) underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging. Twenty-one were further excluded for a diagnosis of overt stroke. Using multivariate logistic regression models, adjusted for demographics and cardiovascular risk factors, we evaluated whether CMB were independently associated with silent strokes, white matter hyperintensities, and global cortical atrophy. Results-Twenty-six (11%) of 237 participants had CMB, which were single in 54% of cases. CMB were deep in 11 patients, cortical in 9, and located both deep and cortical in 6. In univariate analyses, CMB were associated with age, systolic blood pressure, moderate-to-severe white matter hyperintensities, silent lacunar infarcts, and cortical atrophy. Mean (±SD) values for systolic blood pressure were 155±27 mm Hg in patients who had CMB versus 142±26 mm Hg in those who did not (P=0.017). In the adjusted models, moderate-to-severe white matter hyperintensities (P=0.009), silent lacunar infarcts (P=0.003), and global cortical atrophy (P=0.04) were independently associated with CMB. Conclusions-Prevalence of CMB in stroke-free older adults living in Atahualpa is comparable with those reported from other ethnic groups. There is a strong relationship between CMB and increased age, high systolic blood pressure, silent markers of cerebral small vessel disease, and cortical atrophy. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc. Source

Castillo P.R.,Sleep Disorders Center | Mera R.M.,Vanderbilt University | Zambrano M.,Community Center | Del Brutto O.H.,Espiritu Santo University, Guayaquil
Pathophysiology | Year: 2014

Studies in patients seeking attention for nasal obstruction or pharyngeal disorders suggest that craniofacial abnormalities correlate with obstructive sleep apnea, but there is little information on the relevance of this association in the population at large. We aimed to determine whether characteristics of facial morphology correlate with excessive daytime somnolence (EDS) in a population-based, door-to-door survey. Residents of a village in rural Ecuador were screened with the Epworth sleepiness scale to assess EDS and underwent physical examination with attention to nasal septum deflection, mandibular retrognathia and presence of Friedman's palate position type IV. From 665 participants aged ≥40 years, 155 had EDS, 98 had nasal septum deflection, 47 had mandibular retrognathia and 528 had a Friedman's palate position type IV. In a logistic regression model adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, and nightly sleep hours, persons with nasal septum deflection were twice as likely to have EDS (p=. 0.009). The other two variables were not associated with EDS. Identification of nasal septum deflection may be a cost-effective method of detecting persons at risk for obstructive sleep apnea in remote areas where sophisticated technology is not readily available. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source

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