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Guzman-Medina C.A.,UPIITA IPN | Rivero-Angeles M.E.,Communication Networks Laboratory | Orea-Flores I.Y.,UPIITA IPN
2015 International Conference on Computing Systems and Telematics, ICCSAT 2015 | Year: 2015

WSNs are complex systems that are mainly limited by the battery life of the nodes in order to have an adequate performance. In most cases, it is possible to have a re-deployment of new nodes in order to prolong the system's lifetime. This leads to a situation where some nodes have a low energy level while other nodes have high energy levels. This scenario can also be found due to the use of a preferred route, where intermediate nodes consume more energy than the rest of the nodes. In these environments, and others, low energy nodes, i.e., nodes with very low residual energy must reduce the energy consumption since their operational lifetime is almost over. In this paper, we consider cluster-based WSNs for the event detection where there is a high concentration of high energy nodes and a low concentration of low energy nodes. Building on this, we propose to extend the battery life of low energy nodes in the steady stat phase. Specifically, we consider the case where nodes have random times in the sleep and active modes. To this end, we consider the case where dwelling times in each mode are related to the residual energy level. The system and the impact of the proposed residual energy-based mechanisms are evaluated and studied. © 2015 IEEE. Source


Leyva-Mayorga I.,Polytechnic University of Valencia | Rivero-Angeles M.E.,Communication Networks Laboratory | Carreto-Arellano C.,SEPI ESCOM IPN | Pla V.,Polytechnic University of Valencia
International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks | Year: 2015

Evolution in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) has allowed the introduction of new applications with increased complexity regarding communication protocols, which have to ensure that certain QoS parameters are met. Specifically, mobile applications require the system to respond in a certain manner in order to adequately track the target object. Hybrid algorithms that perform Continuous Monitoring (CntM) and Event-Driven (ED) duties have proven their ability to enhance performance in different environments, where emergency alarms are required. In this paper, several types of environments are studied using mathematical models and simulations, for evaluating the performance of WALTER, a priority-based nonpreemptive hybrid WSN protocol that aims to reduce delay and packet loss probability in time-critical packets. First, randomly distributed events are considered. This environment can be used to model a wide variety of physical phenomena, for which report delay and energy consumption are analyzed by means of Markov models. Then, mobile-only environments are studied for object tracking purposes. Here, some of the parameters that determine the performance of the system are identified. Finally, an environment containing mobile objects and randomly distributed events is considered. It is shown that by assigning high priority to time-critical packets, report delay is reduced and network performance is enhanced. © 2015 Israel Leyva-Mayorga et al. Source


Ramirez-Reyna M.A.,CINVESTAV | Cruz-Perez F.A.,CINVESTAV | Rivero-Angeles M.E.,Communication Networks Laboratory | Hernandez-Valdez G.,Metropolitan Autonomous University
IEEE International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications, PIMRC | Year: 2015

In this paper, dynamic spectrum leasing strategies (with and without anticIPated resource leasing) for coordinated cognitive radio networks with delay-tolerant (best effort) traffic are proposed and analyzed to mitigate the effects of unpredictable resource availability. To exploit the tolerance to delay a buffer for preempted secondary calls is considered. From the mathematical point of view, our contribution is to develop a teletraffic model for the performance evaluation of the proposed strategies. The tradeoff between the spectrum leasing cost and system Erlang capacity is also investigated. For a given maximum allowed number of simultaneously rented channels and Quality of Service (QoS) requirement in terms of new call blocking probability, maximum Erlang capacity is obtained for different traffic scenarios. Numerical results reveal that system performance strongly depends on the value of the mean secondary channel holding time relative to the mean primary channel holding time. Finally, the cost per capacity and mean transmission delay as a function of both the utilization factor of the primary resources and the maximum allowed number of simultaneously rented channels is evaluated. It is shown that anticIPated resource leasing is an effective mechanism to increase the possibility to have available resources when needed for the secondary network. © 2014 IEEE. Source


Leyva-Mayorga I.,SEPI | Rivero-Angeles M.E.,Communication Networks Laboratory | Arellano C.C.,SEPI
Proceedings - 2014 IEEE 28th International Conference on Advanced Information Networking and Applications Workshops, IEEE WAINA 2014 | Year: 2014

Evolution in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) has allowed new applications that led to an increase in the complexity of communication protocols. Specifically, mobile surveillance applications (where the network is set to monitor mobile objects) require the system to respond in a certain manner so adequate and reliable object tracking and status reporting takes place. Mobile objects can be either independent or controlled by the system, in the former, some sort of transmitter is attached to the mobile entity in order to perform status reporting duties, which, in the case of human beings or specimens may comprise the reporting of vital signs. In view of this, information obtained from mobile objects must be sent with minimal delay and with certain degree of reliability in order to achieve adequate emergency handling when required. Furthermore, mobile environments usually incorporate additional phenomena that creates a multi-event environment, increasing the rate of detection and transmission in the nodes, hence, delaying the report. Hybrid algorithms that allow sensor networks to perform continuous monitoring and event driven applications have proven their ability to enhance performance in different environments where emergency alarms are required while performing a permanent surveillance of the phenomena. Also, these protocols may consider priority assignment in order to reduce report delay and increase reliability in important packets, thus enhancing QoS parameters. In this work, the performance of a non-preemptive hybrid protocol for WSN is studied considering multi-event environments containing mobile targets. Results show that, by using different transmission probabilities, assigned to high and low priority data packets, mobile event reporting delay can be reduced despite the occurrence of other events within the network. As such, a better performance is obtained for critical-time applications where emergency handling is a must. © 2014 IEEE. Source


Leyva-Mayorga I.,SEPI | Rivero-Angeles M.E.,Communication Networks Laboratory | Arellano C.C.,SEPI
Proceedings - International Conference on Advanced Information Networking and Applications, AINA | Year: 2014

Evolution in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) has allowed new applications that led to an increase in the complexity of communication protocols. This in turn has led to the study of additional Quality of Service (QoS) parameters in order to provide an acceptable system performance. As such, hybrid algorithms that allow sensor networks to perform continuous monitoring (CntM) and event driven detection (EDD) duties have proven their value in different environments where emergency alarms are required in addition to a permanent surveillance of the phenomena, specially when considering time-critical applications. Furthermore, priority assignment may help reduce report delay and enhance transmission probability in important packets, specifically when different types of events are considered or certain data from the same event has higher relevance to the end user than the rest of the packets. In this paper, event report delay and energy consumption in a priority-based hybrid WSN protocol is studied using a Markov chain, when considering a two-priority event detection scheme in a hybrid WSN. Results show that, by using different transmission probabilities, assigned to high and low priority data packets, event reporting delay can be reduced, representing better performance for critical-time applications. On the other hand, energy consumption and network lifetime are not affected by the selected priority assignment scheme. © 2014 IEEE. Source

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