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Stephens N.,University of Tasmania | Coleman D.,Communicable Diseases Prevention Unit | Shaw K.A.,Population Health | O'Sullivan M.,Gold Coast Health and Hospital Services | Venn A.,University of Tasmania
Sexual Health | Year: 2015

Background Chlamydia remains Australia's most frequently notified communicable disease; however, interpretation of notification data is difficult without knowledge of testing practices. This study examined the value of reporting positivity trends. Methods: Tasmanian population-level chlamydia laboratory tests and notification data from 2001 to 2010 were compared. Results: Notifications, tests and positivity increased, most significantly in males and females aged 15-29 years. Conclusions: Analysis of chlamydia positivity trends can inform the development, monitoring and evaluation of prevention and control activities and improves the interpretation of notification trends. After allowing for testing effort, an increase in chlamydia infections in young people was found. © CSIRO 2015.


Lodo K.,Communicable Diseases Prevention Unit
Communicable diseases intelligence quarterly report | Year: 2015

Enhanced surveillance for invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) was conducted in all Australian states and territories in 2009 and 2010 with comprehensive comparative data available since 2002. There were 1,556 cases of IPD notified to the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System in Australia in 2009, a notification rate of 7.2 cases per 100,000 population. In 2010 there were 1,640 cases, a notification rate of 7.4 cases per 100,000. The overall rate of IPD in Indigenous Australians was almost 6 times the rate in non-Indigenous Australians in both 2009 and 2010. In 2009 and 2010, notification rates of IPD caused by serotypes included in the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7vPCV) continued to decrease across all age groups. Rates of IPD caused by non-7vPCV serotypes continued to show an increasing trend in both Indigenous and non-Indigenous children aged less than 5 years. In Indigenous adults (≥50 years), rates of IPD caused by both 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (23vPPV) serotypes and non-23vPPV serotypes continued to show an overall increase, particularly in 2010. There were 110 deaths attributed to IPD in 2009 and 137 in 2010, although it should be noted that deaths may be under-reported. The number of invasive pneumococcal isolates with reduced penicillin susceptibility remained low and reduced susceptibility to third generation cephalosporins was rare. This work is copyright. You may download, display, print and reproduce the whole or part of this work in unaltered form for your own personal use or, if you are part of an organisation, for internal use within your organisation, but only if you or your organisation do not use the reproduction for any commercial purpose and retain this copyright notice and all disclaimer notices as part of that


PubMed | Communicable Diseases Prevention Unit
Type: Historical Article | Journal: Communicable diseases intelligence quarterly report | Year: 2015

Enhanced surveillance for invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) was conducted in all Australian states and territories in 2009 and 2010 with comprehensive comparative data available since 2002. There were 1,556 cases of IPD notified to the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System in Australia in 2009, a notification rate of 7.2 cases per 100,000 population. In 2010 there were 1,640 cases, a notification rate of 7.4 cases per 100,000. The overall rate of IPD in Indigenous Australians was almost 6 times the rate in non-Indigenous Australians in both 2009 and 2010. In 2009 and 2010, notification rates of IPD caused by serotypes included in the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7vPCV) continued to decrease across all age groups. Rates of IPD caused by non-7vPCV serotypes continued to show an increasing trend in both Indigenous and non-Indigenous children aged less than 5 years. In Indigenous adults (50 years), rates of IPD caused by both 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (23vPPV) serotypes and non-23vPPV serotypes continued to show an overall increase, particularly in 2010. There were 110 deaths attributed to IPD in 2009 and 137 in 2010, although it should be noted that deaths may be under-reported. The number of invasive pneumococcal isolates with reduced penicillin susceptibility remained low and reduced susceptibility to third generation cephalosporins was rare.


PubMed | Gold Coast Health and Hospital Services, Population Health, Communicable Diseases Prevention Unit and University of Tasmania
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Sexual health | Year: 2016

Background Chlamydia remains Australias most frequently notified communicable disease; however, interpretation of notification data is difficult without knowledge of testing practices. This study examined the value of reporting positivity trends.Tasmanian population-level chlamydia laboratory tests and notification data from 2001 to 2010 were compared.Notifications, tests and positivity increased, most significantly in males and females aged 15-29 years.Analysis of chlamydia positivity trends can inform the development, monitoring and evaluation of prevention and control activities and improves the interpretation of notification trends. After allowing for testing effort, an increase in chlamydia infections in young people was found.


Stephens N.,Communicable Diseases Prevention Unit | O'Sullivan M.,Sexual Health Service | Coleman D.,Communicable Diseases Prevention Unit | Shaw K.,Population Health
Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health | Year: 2010

Objectives: To investigate trends in notification rates of Chlamydia trachomatis in Tasmania, Australia, by population sub-groups, from 1 January 2001 to 31 December 2007. Methods: An enhanced surveillance dataset was used to supplement case notifications. Rates based on age group were analysed by sex, geographic region, indigenous status, sexual exposure, reason for testing and healthcare provider. Results: In all age groups, the notification rate increased steeply. The highest rates were seen in the ages 15-24 years; this age group represented 15% of the population but accounted for 74% of the chlamydial notifications. The increased rates in females aged 15-24 years and males 15-19 years in Tasmania were larger than the increases observed nationally. Rates were consistently higher in urban areas. Females were more likely to have been tested as a result of screening, and males were more likely to have been tested when presenting with symptoms or as a result of contact tracing. The majority of cases reported sexual exposure with opposite sex partners only. Conclusions: This study highlights the increasing significance of chlamydial infection as a public health issue, the gender differences in health-seeking behaviour, and the discrepancies in testing patterns. These findings will assist with the design of health promotion programs. ©2010 The Authors.

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