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Department of Public, Kuwait

Brotherton J.M.L.,Victorian Cytology Service | Brotherton J.M.L.,University of Sydney | Murray S.L.,U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention | Hall M.A.,Queensland Health | And 4 more authors.
Medical Journal of Australia | Year: 2013

Objective: To describe quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination coverage achieved in the HPV vaccination catch-up program for girls aged 12-17 years. Design: Analysis of data from the Australian National HPV Vaccination Program Register. Participants: Girls aged 12-17 years as at 30 June 2007. Main outcome measures: HPV vaccine coverage by dose (1, 2 and 3), age and state of residence, using Australian Bureau of Statistics estimates of resident populations as the denominator. Results: Notified vaccination coverage for girls aged 12-17 years nationally was 83% for dose 1, 78% for dose 2 and 70% for dose 3. The Australian Capital Territory and Victoria recorded the highest three-dose coverage for the 12-17- year-old cohort overall at 75%. The highest national three-dose coverage rate by age was achieved in 12-year-olds (74%). In Queensland, coverage among Indigenous girls compared with non-Indigenous girls was lower with each dose (lower by 4% for dose 1, 10% for dose 2 and 15% for dose 3). This pattern was not seen in the NT, where initial coverage was 17% lower among Indigenous girls, but the course completion rate among those who started vaccination was identical (84%). Conclusions: The catch-up HPV vaccination program delivered over 1.9 million doses of HPV vaccine to girls aged 12-17 years, resulting in 70% of girls in this age group being fully vaccinated. The range in coverage achieved and the lower uptake documented among Indigenous girls suggest that HPV vaccination programs can be further improved. © The Medical Journal of Australia 2013.

Wallensten A.,Public Health Agency of Sweden | Wallensten A.,Uppsala University | Fredlund H.,Orebro University | Runehagen A.,Communicable Diseases Control Unit
Eurosurveillance | Year: 2014

Proven transmission of Chlamydia psittaci between humans has been described on only one occasion previously. We describe an outbreak which occurred in Sweden in early 2013, where the epidemiological and serological investigation suggests that one patient, severely ill with psittacosis after exposure to wild bird droppings, transmitted the disease to ten others: Two family members, one hospital roommate and seven hospital caregivers. Three cases also provided respiratory samples that could be analysed by PCR. All the obtained C. psittaci sequences were indistinguishable and clustered within genotype A. The finding has implications for the management of severely ill patients with atypical pneumonia, because these patients may be more contagious than was previously thought. In order to prevent nosocomial person-to person transmission of C. psittaci, stricter hygiene measures may need to be applied. © 2014 European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). All rights reserved.

Ayu S.M.,University of Malaya | Lai L.R.,University of Malaya | Chan Y.F.,University of Malaya | Hatim A.,University of Malaya | And 3 more authors.
American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Year: 2010

In 2006, an outbreak of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) of the Asian genotype affected over 200 people in Bagan Panchor village in Malaysia. One year later, a post-outbreak survey was performed to determine attack rate, asymptomatic rate, and post-infection sequelae. Findings were compared with recent CHIKV outbreaks of the Central/East African genotype. A total of 180 residents were interviewed for acute symptoms and post-infection physical quality of life and depressive symptoms. Sera from 72 residents were tested for CHIKV neutralizing antibodies. The estimated attack rate was 55.6%, and 17.5% of infected residents were asymptomatic. Arthralgia was reported up to 3 months after infection, but there were no reports of long-term functional dependence or depression. Symptomatic and seropositive residents were significantly more likely to live in the area with the most dense housing and commercial activities. CHIKV had a high attack rate and considerable clinical impact during the Bagan Panchor outbreak. Copyright © 2010 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

Husain E.H.,University of Sfax | Barakat M.,Communicable Diseases Control Unit | Al-Saleh M.,Communicable Diseases Control Unit
Journal of Infection and Public Health | Year: 2015

The introduction of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine and conjugate pneumococcal vaccine into routine childhood vaccination in Kuwait has resulted in the emergence of Neisseria meningitidis as the leading cause of invasive bacterial infection in children. Currently, a quadrivalent ACYW-135 meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine is administered as part of routine childhood vaccination in Kuwait at the age of 2 years. Conjugate meningococcal vaccines have been shown to be more effective in preventing meningococcal infection in young children. The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiology of meningococcal disease (MD) in Kuwait and evaluate the need for conjugate vaccine in routine childhood immunization. We have reviewed the MD surveillance data from the communicable disease unit, Ministry of Health, Kuwait during the period from 1987 to 2013. The analysis included microbiologically confirmed cases of N. meningitidis in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid. There were 293 cases of confirmed MD during the study period. Two hundred and four cases (70%) were in children ≤14 years of age. The mean incidence rate was 0.5/100,000 persons. The dominant serogroups were W-135 and B, accounting for 80 cases (32%) each. Serogroup B accounted for 69/204 (34%) of all cases in children ≤14 years and serogroup A accounted for 36/89 40% of all adult cases. There were three outbreaks: 1987 (caused by serogroup A), 1989 (caused by serogroup W-135) and 2002 (caused by serogroup B). The mean case fatality rate was 13.5%. In conclusion, despite childhood routine vaccination with ACYW-135 polysaccharide vaccine, infants and young children remain at high risk for MD, which supports the introduction of conjugate meningococcal vaccine to the routine childhood vaccination schedule. © 2015 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences.

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