Time filter

Source Type

Regan A.K.,University of Western Australia | Blyth C.C.,University of Western Australia | Mak D.B.,Communicable Disease Control Directorate | Richmond P.C.,University of Western Australia | Effler P.V.,University of Western Australia
Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology

Background Trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) has been recommended for pregnant women in Australia for more than a decade and funded since 2009, yet vaccination coverage remains low. Misperceptions of the safety of TIV in pregnancy have been identified as a major contributor to low vaccination rates. Ongoing safety monitoring with dissemination of results could help improve antenatal influenza vaccine uptake. Aim To implement a real-time safety monitoring program for TIV administered to pregnant women. Materials and Methods Between March and July 2013, a cohort of 3,173 pregnant women who received the 2013 TIV agreed to follow-up regarding possible adverse events following immunisation (AEFI); 3,047 (96%) provided a mobile telephone number and were sent a short message service (SMS) inquiring whether they had experienced an AEFI; attempts were made to contact the remaining 126 (4%) women by voice telephone call. Results Responses were obtained from 2,885 (90.9%) women, 413 (14.3%) of whom reported a suspected AEFI. Local reactions were the most frequently reported AEFI (4.9%), followed by headache (3.3%), fever (2.7%), fatigue (2.5%), diarrhoea (2.5%) and malaise (1.2%); 39 women (1.4%) sought medical advice and no serious vaccine-related AEFIs were identified. Response rates were higher for SMS compared to telephone (84% vs 63%; P < 0.001). Conclusions These findings support the safety of TIV in pregnant women. Mobile phone technology proved an efficient method for timely surveillance of adverse events following vaccination. The low level of AEFI observed should be reassuring to antenatal patients and their providers and help promote TIV uptake. © 2014 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. Source

Selvey L.A.,Curtin University Australia | Dailey L.,Independent Consultant | Lindsay M.,Environmental Health Directorate | Armstrong P.,Communicable Disease Control Directorate | And 4 more authors.
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases

Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV) is the most serious of the endemic arboviruses in Australia. It was responsible for six known large outbreaks of encephalitis in south-eastern Australia in the 1900s, with the last comprising 58 cases in 1974. Since then MVEV clinical cases have been largely confined to the western and central parts of northern Australia.In 2011, high-level MVEV activity occurred in south-eastern Australia for the first time since 1974, accompanied by unusually heavy seasonal MVEV activity in northern Australia. This resulted in 17 confirmed cases of MVEV disease across Australia. Record wet season rainfall was recorded in many areas of Australia in the summer and autumn of 2011. This was associated with significant flooding and increased numbers of the mosquito vector and subsequent MVEV activity. This paper documents the outbreak and adds to our knowledge about disease outcomes, epidemiology of disease and the link between the MVEV activity and environmental factors.Clinical and demographic information from the 17 reported cases was obtained. Cases or family members were interviewed about their activities and location during the incubation period.In contrast to outbreaks prior to 2000, the majority of cases were non-Aboriginal adults, and almost half (40%) of the cases acquired MVEV outside their area of residence. All but two cases occurred in areas of known MVEV activity.This outbreak continues to reflect a change in the demographic pattern of human cases of encephalitic MVEV over the last 20 years. In northern Australia, this is associated with the increasing numbers of non-Aboriginal workers and tourists living and travelling in endemic and epidemic areas, and also identifies an association with activities that lead to high mosquito exposure. This outbreak demonstrates that there is an ongoing risk of MVEV encephalitis to the heavily populated areas of south-eastern Australia. © 2014 Selvey et al. Source

Lehmann D.,Telethon Institute for Child Health Research | Willis J.,Telethon Institute for Child Health Research | Moore H.C.,Telethon Institute for Child Health Research | Giele C.,Communicable Disease Control Directorate | And 6 more authors.
Clinical Infectious Diseases

Background. In 2001, Australia introduced a unique 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7vPCV) 2- , 4-, and 6-month schedule with a 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (23vPPV) booster for Aboriginal children, and in 2005, 7vPCV alone in a 2-, 4-, and 6-month schedule for non-Aboriginal children. Aboriginal adults are offered 23vPPV but coverage is poor. We investigated trends in invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in Western Australia (WA). Methods. Enhanced IPD surveillance has been ongoing since 1996. We calculated IPD incidence rates for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians before and after introduction of 7vPCV. Results. A total of 1792 cases occurred during the period 1997-2007; the IPD incidence rate was 47 cases per 100, 000 population per year among Aboriginal people and 7 cases per 100, 000 population per year in nonAboriginal people. After introduction of 7vPCV, IPD rates among Aboriginal children decreased by 46% for those <2 years of age and by 40% for those 2-4 years of age; rates decreased by 64% and 51% in equivalent age groups for non-Aboriginal children. IPD rates decreased by >30% in non-Aboriginal people ≥50 years of age but increased among Aboriginal adults (eg, from 59.1 to 109.6 cases per 100, 000 population per year among those 30-49 years of age). Although IPD due to 7vPCV serotypes decreased in all age groups, IPD incidence due to non-7vPCV serotypes increased, and it almost doubled among Aboriginal adults 30-49 years of age (from 48.3 to 97.0 cases per 100, 000 population per year). Among non-Aboriginal children, 37% of IPD is now due to serotype 19A. Conclusions. IPD incidence rates have decreased markedly among children and non-Aboriginal adults with a 3-dose infant 7vPCV schedule. However, IPD due to non-7vPCV serotypes has increased and is of particular concern among young Aboriginal adults, for whom an intensive 23vPPV campaign is needed. An immunization register covering all age groups should be established. © 2010 by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. Source

Van Buynder P.G.,University of Western Australia | Carcione D.,Communicable Disease Control Directorate | Rettura V.,Communicable Disease Control Directorate | Daly A.,Health Outcomes Assessment Unit | Woods E.,Advertising
Influenza and other Respiratory Viruses

Objectives After a cluster of rapidly fulminant influenza related toddler deaths in a Western Australian metropolis, children aged six to 59 months were offered influenza vaccination in subsequent winters. Some parental resistance was expected and previous poor uptake of paediatric influenza vaccination overseas was noted. A marketing campaign addressing barriers to immunization was developed to maximise uptake.Design Advertising occurred in major statewide newspapers, via public poster displays and static 'eye-lite' displays, via press releases, via a series of rolling radio advertisements, via direct marketing to child care centres, and via a linked series of web-sites. Parents were subsequently surveyed to assess reasons for vaccination.Main Outcome Results The campaign produced influenza vaccination coverage above that previously described elsewhere and led to a proportionate reduction in influenza notifications in this age group compared to previous seasons.Conclusions Influenza in children comes with significant morbidity and some mortality. Paediatric influenza vaccination is safe, well tolerated and effective if two doses are given. A targeted media campaign can increase vaccine uptake if it reinforces the seriousness of influenza and addresses community 'myths' about influenza and influenza vaccine. The lessons learned enabling enhancements of similar programs elsewhere. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source

Carcione D.,Communicable Disease Control Directorate | Giele C.M.,Communicable Disease Control Directorate | Goggin L.S.,Communicable Disease Control Directorate | Kwan K.S.H.,Communicable Disease Control Directorate | And 4 more authors.

Understanding household transmission of the pandemic influenza A(H1N1)2009 virus, including risk factors for transmission, is important for refining public health strategies to reduce the burden of the disease. During the influenza season of 2009 we investigated transmission of the emerging virus in 595 households in which the index case was the first symptomatic case of influenza A(H1N1)2009. Secondary cases were defined as household contacts with influenzalike illness (ILI) or laboratory-confirmed influenza A(H1N1)2009, occurring at least one day after but within seven days following symptom onset in the index case. ILI developed in 231 of the 1,589 household contacts, a secondary attack rate of 14.5% (95% confidence interval (CI): 12.9-16.4). At least one secondary case occurred in 166 of the 595 households (a household transmission rate of 27.9%; 95% CI: 24.5-31.6). Of these, 127 (76.5%) households reported one secondary case and 39 (23.5%) households reported two or more secondary cases. Secondary attack rates were highest in children younger than five years (p=0.001), and young children were also more efficient transmitters (p=0.01). Individual risk was not associated with household size. Prophylactic antiviral therapy was associated with reduced transmission (p=0.03). The secondary attack rate of ILI in households with a confirmed pandemic influenza A(H1N1)2009 index case was comparable to that described previously for seasonal influenza. Source

Discover hidden collaborations