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Ataallah T.M.,Communicable Disease Control Center | Hanan K.A.,Communicable Disease Control Center | Maysoun K.S.,National Blood Transfusion Center
Saudi Medical Journal

Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of hepatitis B and C among blood donors attending the National Blood Transfusion Center (NBTC) in Baghdad, Iraq from 2006-2009 and to compare the results with previous year's results and results from studies on a normal population, and to identify certain demographic characteristics such as age, gender, and residence of positive cases. Methods: This is a retrospective cross-sectional observational study. Monthly reports from the NBTC during the year 2006-2009 were collected. This study took place at Communicable Disease Control Center (CDC), Baghdad, Iraq in January 2010. Analysis of the reports regarding age, gender, and residence was carried out using Excel 2007. Results: The sample size was 495,648 blood donors. Out of them, only 3258 (0.6%) were positive for hepatitis B and 933 (0.3%) were positive for hepatitis C. The average prevalence of HBsAg was higher in men (0.7%) than women (0.5%) with no statistical significance (p=0.07) while the prevalence of anti-HCV was higher in women (0.4%) than in men (0.2%) with statistical significance (p=0.000). Residence distribution of the positive cases for HbsAg and Anti HCV Ab in both genders was found to be higher in urban areas than in rural areas. Regarding age distributions, most of the affected donors were between 20-40 years age. Conclusions: The findings indicate that Baghdad is of low endemicity with hepatitis B and hepatitis C infection. Generally, men are affected more than women and urban areas more than rural areas. Further studies are needed to provide more details about the status of HBV and HCV infection in other provinces of Iraq. Results of these studies could be utilized to determine the most feasible and useful approaches for strengthening prevention and control activities. Source

Majeed B.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Sobel J.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Nawar A.,Communicable Disease Control Center | Badri S.,Communicable Disease Control Center | Muslim H.,Communicable Disease Control Center
Epidemiology and Infection

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an endemic parasitic disease transmitted by the bite of sand flies. To describe trends and demographics of reported VL cases, we reviewed surveillance data from 1990-2009. Reported VL incidence per 100 000 population was 2·6 in 2007, 3·1 in 2008, and 4·8 in 2009, mostly in children aged <5 years. The number of cases varied greatly in step with prevailing economic and security conditions, raising concerns about the completeness and quality of surveillance data. Nevertheless, we conclude that VL remains an important endemic disease in Iraq and that surveillance system is recovering the capacity to detect cases as the country experiences greater stability. We recommend conducting formal entomological investigations, and evaluating existing control measures. © 2012 Cambridge University Press. Source

Majeed B.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Dicker R.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Nawar A.,Communicable Disease Control Center | Badri S.,Communicable Disease Control Center | And 2 more authors.
Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

Although Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is endemic in the Middle East, its incidence in Iraq has not been well described since the early 1980s. To document trends and patterns of CCHF occurrence, we analyzed CCHF case reports from Iraq's National Surveillance System in 2010 and aggregate reports from previous years. A suspected case was defined as fever, hemorrhagic symptoms and a history of animal contact. Serologic testing was conducted for confirmation. Between 1998 and 2009, the annual number of confirmed cases ranged from zero to six. In 2010, 11 confirmed and 28 suspected cases were reported. The case fatality rate was 36% among confirmed cases, 4% among suspected cases. Most confirmed cases occurred during a three-week period in a single province. While CCHF is uncommon in Iraq, sporadic cases and outbreaks do occur. Surveillance could be strengthened by updating the case definition and case investigation forms. © 2012. Source

Hantosh H.A.,Communicable Disease Control Center | Hassan H.M.,Communicable Disease Control Center | Ahma B.,Communicable Disease Control Center | Al-fatlawy A.,Communicable Disease Control Center
Journal of Vector Borne Diseases

Background & objectives: Mosquitoes transmit diseases to >700 million people annually. Malaria kills three million persons every year, including one child every 30 sec. Worldwide there are >3000 mosquito species. In Iraq, 37 species have been identified in different surveys over several decades. We conducted an entomological survey to determine the mosquito species and their distribution in Iraq in 2009. Methods: Between January 20 and December 31, 2009, mosquitoes in houses in 12 Iraqi provinces were collected and speciated. Five to 10 villages were selected randomly in each province and in each village 10 houses were selected randomly to collect mosquitoes and the density of mosquitoes per room was calculated. Kits for entomological investigation were used and the collected mosquitoes were sent to the vector borne disease section laboratory for classification using the Naval Medical Research Unit 3 standard classification key. Results: A total of 29,156 mosquitoes were collected, representing two genera: Anopheles (n=13,268, or 46% of the total collected) and Culex (n=15,888, or 54% of the total collected). Four Anopheles (An. pulcherrimus, An. stephensi, An. superpictus, and An. sacharovi) and one Culex (Cx. pipiens) species were identified. Anopheles pulcherrimus was found in 11 provinces, An. stephensi in 7, An. superpictus in 2 and An. sacharovi in one province, while Cx. pipiens was found in all the 12 provinces. Two peaks of mosquito density were found: the first from April-June and the other from September-October. Interpretation & conclusion: There are clear differences in Anopheles mosquito species geographical distribution and density among Iraqi provinces, while Cx. pipiens mosquitoes are distributed all over Iraq. All mosquito genera show clear seasonal density variation. The study highlights that the manual mosquito classification is not enough to identify all the species of mosquitoes in Iraq. Source

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