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Murviel-lès-Montpellier, France

Hribova E.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic | Christelova P.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic | Roux N.,Commodities for Livelihoods Programme | Dolezel J.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic
Acta Horticulturae

Banana and plantain (Musa spp.) are seed-sterile vegetatively propagated crops, which originated as intraspecific hybrids of Musa acuminata and interspecific hybrids between M. acuminata and Musa balbisiana. The rich genetic diversity of this crop is, however, endangered by diseases, adverse environmental conditions and changing farming practices. To set up an efficient and effective strategy for breeding improved banana cultivars and support the choice of crossing-parents, a solid understanding of the genetic diversity of available resources is needed, underlining the need for characterization and conservation of this genetic diversity. With the aim to provide a simple and robust approach for genotyping in Musa, we have developed an optimized genotyping platform using SSR markers. The genotyping system is based on 19 microsatellite loci, originally developed by CIRAD, which are scored using fluorescently labeled primers and high-throughput capillary electrophoresis separation with high resolution. The knowledge gained during the course of this study is used by the Musa Genotyping Centre, which serves the Musa research and breeding community by determining DNA ploidy and SSR profiles of unknown samples. The Centre operates on a cost-recovery basis and guarantees that all analyses are performed under strictly controlled conditions, enabling direct comparison of various accessions from different parts of the world. Source

Hribova E.,Institute of Experimental Botany | Neumann P.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic | Matsumoto T.,Japan National Institute of Agrobiological Science | Roux N.,Commodities for Livelihoods Programme | And 2 more authors.
BMC Plant Biology

Background: Bananas and plantains (Musa spp.) are grown in more than a hundred tropical and subtropical countries and provide staple food for hundreds of millions of people. They are seed-sterile crops propagated clonally and this makes them vulnerable to a rapid spread of devastating diseases and at the same time hampers breeding improved cultivars. Although the socio-economic importance of bananas and plantains cannot be overestimated, they remain outside the focus of major research programs. This slows down the study of nuclear genome and the development of molecular tools to facilitate banana improvement.Results: In this work, we report on the first thorough characterization of the repeat component of the banana (M. acuminata cv. 'Calcutta 4') genome. Analysis of almost 100 Mb of sequence data (0.15× genome coverage) permitted partial sequence reconstruction and characterization of repetitive DNA, making up about 30% of the genome. The results showed that the banana repeats are predominantly made of various types of Ty1/copia and Ty3/gypsy retroelements representing 16 and 7% of the genome respectively. On the other hand, DNA transposons were found to be rare. In addition to new families of transposable elements, two new satellite repeats were discovered and found useful as cytogenetic markers. To help in banana sequence annotation, a specific Musa repeat database was created, and its utility was demonstrated by analyzing the repeat composition of 62 genomic BAC clones.Conclusion: A low-depth 454 sequencing of banana nuclear genome provided the largest amount of DNA sequence data available until now for Musa and permitted reconstruction of most of the major types of DNA repeats. The information obtained in this study improves the knowledge of the long-range organization of banana chromosomes, and provides sequence resources needed for repeat masking and annotation during the Musa genome sequencing project. It also provides sequence data for isolation of DNA markers to be used in genetic diversity studies and in marker-assisted selection. © 2010 Hřibová et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Roux N.,Commodities for Livelihoods Programme | Rouard M.,Commodities for Livelihoods Programme | Huang X.L.,Sun Yat Sen University | Smith M.,Australian Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries
Acta Horticulturae

Banana (Musa spp.) represents one of the most important commodity crops in the world. They are important as an export crop but also play a major role in local food security in developing countries. Banana is susceptible to an everincreasing range of pests and diseases requiring increased use of pesticides that have adverse environmental and health impacts and threaten the sustainability of the crop. There is an urgent need to develop improved banana cultivars with a wider range of pest and disease resistance. In addition, new cultivars better adapted to the environment (i.e. tolerant to abiotic constraints) and which satisfy consumer needs are also needed. Breeding programmes aiming at broadening the genetic basis and providing new genes of interest face many obstacles (e.g. low fertility, structural heterozygosity, polyploidy). The Global Musa Genomics Consortium (http://www.musagenomics.org) an international network of investigators committed to understanding genomic evolution in relation to biotic and abiotic stresses in a polyploid, vegetatively propagated crop and also to provide meaningful insights for the plant community. Indeed, Musa lies taxonomically within the monocots, although distant from the grass family (Graminiaceae), in a position that is important for comparative and evolutionary genomics. The Consortium currently brings together expertise from 40 institutions in 24 countries. Members are committed to close collaboration and agree to share materials and resources, including sequence data and enabling technologies. Wherever possible, the products of the Consortium are placed in the public domain. With the soon-to-be-available Musa acuminata sequence, it is essential that the community be ready to use this information as efficiently as possible. This paper summarises the discussions and recommendations of participants at a workshop held during this Symposium to address the gap between genomics and breeding and suggest a number of collaborative areas of work to accelerate Musa breeding efforts around the world. Source

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