La Plata, Argentina
La Plata, Argentina

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Ferraro S.,National University of San Martín of Argentina | Ferraro S.,Committee for Scientific Research | Orona N.,National University of San Martín of Argentina | Orona N.,Committee for Scientific Research | And 5 more authors.
Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology | Year: 2015

Epidemiological studies have associated air particulate matter (PM) inhalation with a decline in lung function and increased morbo-mortality due to cardiorespiratory diseases, particularly in susceptible populations. Sjögren's Syndrome (SS) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by cellular infiltration in exocrine glands and extraglandular tissue, being the respiratory tract an important target. We evaluated the effect of PM on the airways of NOD mice, which develop SS and BALB/c mice.BALB/c or NOD mice (2-3 months) were randomized in two groups and exposed to intranasal instillation either with saline (control) or ROFA solution (1. mg/kg body weight). After 24. h, mice were euthanized in order to perform lung histology, or measure total cell number (TCN), differential cell count (DCC) and superoxide anion generation in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid.BALB/c mice showed normal histoarchitecture, while NOD mice showed lymphocytic peribronchial infiltrates. ROFA exposure affected the respiratory tract from both BALB/c and NOD mice, with a significant increase in the TCN (p< 0.05) and generation of O2- (p< 0.05), as well as an imbalance in the DCC (p< 0.05). All histological observations correlated with the cellular parameters evaluated. Lesions in NOD mice were more severe than those of BALB/c, showing cellular infiltration in the alveoli and leading to a greater decrease in the alveolar space.We have proved that in this experimental Sjögren's Syndrome animal model (NOD mice); airborne pollution exacerbates pre-existing pulmonary lesions. These findings show experimental evidence on the harmful effects of airborne pollution on the airways of patients with Sjögren's Syndrome. © 2014 Elsevier GmbH.

Orona N.S.,National University of General San Martín | Orona N.S.,Committee for Scientific Research | Ferraro S.A.,National University of General San Martín | Ferraro S.A.,Committee for Scientific Research | And 10 more authors.
Environmental Pollution | Year: 2015

Exposure to air particulate matter (PM) is associated with increased cardiovascular morbimortality. However, PM doesn't affect equally to all people, being the old cohort the most susceptible and studied. We hypothesized that another specific life phase, the middle-aged subpopulation, may be negatively affected. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze invivo the acute biological impact of two environmental particles, Urban Air Particles from Buenos Aires and Residual Oil Fly Ash, on the cardiorespiratory system of middle-aged mice, evaluating oxidative metabolism and inflammation. Both PM provoked a local and systemic inflammatory response, leading to a reduced alveolar area in the lung, an epicard inflammation in the heart, an increment of IL-6, and a reduction on PON 1 activity in serum of middle-aged animals. The positive correlation of local parameters with systemic markers of oxidative stress and inflammation could be responsible for associations of cardiovascular morbimortality in this subpopulation. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Orona N.S.,National University of General San Martín | Orona N.S.,Committee for Scientific Research | Astort F.,National University of General San Martín | Maglione G.A.,National University of General San Martín | And 5 more authors.
Toxicology in Vitro | Year: 2014

Air particulate matter has been associated with adverse impact on the respiratory system leading to cytotoxic and proinflammatory effects. The biological mechanisms behind these associations may be initiated by inhaled small size particles, particle components (soluble fraction) and/or mediators released by particle-exposed cells (conditioned media). The effect of Urban Air Particles from Buenos Aires (UAP-BA) and Residual Oil Fly Ash (ROFA) a surrogate of ambient air pollution, their Soluble Fractions (SF) and Conditioned Media (CM) on A549 lung epithelial cells was examined. After 24. h exposure to TP (10 and 100. μg/ml), SF or CM, several biological parameters were assayed on cultured A549 cells. We tested cell viability by MTT, superoxide anion (O2-) generation by NBT and proinflammatory cytokine (TNFα, IL-6 and IL-8) production by ELISA.UAP-BA particles or its SF (direct effect) did not modify cell viability and generation of O2- for any of the doses tested. On the contrary, UAP-BA CM (indirect effect) reduced cell viability and increased both generation of O2- and IL-8 production. Exposure to ROFA particles, SF or ROFA CM reduced proliferation and O2- but, stimulated IL-8. It is worth to note that UAP-BA and ROFA depicted distinct effects on particle-exposed A549 cells implicating morphochemical dependence. These in vitro findings support the hypothesis that particle-induced lung inflammation and disease may involve lung-derived mediators. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Astort F.,National University of General San Martín | Sittner M.,National University of General San Martín | Ferraro S.A.,National University of General San Martín | Ferraro S.A.,Committee for Scientific Research | And 6 more authors.
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology | Year: 2014

Epidemiological studies have shown that air particulate matter (PM) can increase respiratory morbidity and mortality being the lungs the main target organ to PM body entrance. Even more, several in vivo and in vitro studies have shown that air PM has a wide toxicity spectra depending among other parameters, on its size, morphology, and chemical composition. The Reconquista River is the second most polluted river from Buenos Aires, and people living around its basin are constantly exposed to its contaminated water, soil and air. However, the air PM from the Reconquista River (RR-PMa) has not been characterized, and its biological impact on lung has yet not been assessed. Therefore, the present investigation was undertaken to study (1) RR-PMa morphochemical characteristic and (2) RR-PMa lung acute effects after intranasal instillation exposure through the analysis of three end points: oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis. A single acute exposure of RR-PMa (1 mg/kg body weight) after 24 h caused significant (p < 0.05) enrichment in bronchoalveolar total cell number and polymorphonuclear (PNM) fraction, superoxide anion generation, production of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6, and induction of apoptosis. It was also observed that in lung homogenates, none of the antioxidant enzymes assayed showed differences between exposed RR-PMa and control mice. These data demonstrate that air PM from the Reconquista River induce lung oxidative stress, inflammation, and cell death therefore represents a potential hazard to human health. © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013.

Ferraro S.A.,National University of General San Martín | Ferraro S.A.,Committee for Scientific Research | Yakisich J.S.,Karolinska Huddinge Hospital | Gallo F.T.,National University of General San Martín | And 2 more authors.
Inhalation Toxicology | Year: 2011

Air particulate pollution negatively affects the health of the population exposed, being the lung the main target organ. Simvastatin (SV) is widely used for the prevention and risk reduction of coronary disease. Its pleiotropic effects may provide benefit for lung diseases. Here, we investigated the preventive effect of simvastatin pretreatment on acute intranasal exposure to ROFA (Residual Oil Fly Ash), and UAP (Urban Air Particle from Buenos Aires). Male BALB/c mice were randomized in two groups to receive either saline (control, C) solution or SV (1mg/kg bw /day; ip) for 14 days. After SV treatment, ROFA or UAP (1mg/kg bw) or saline were intranasally delivered for 24 hours generating 4 subgroups for the ROFA experiment (C, SV, ROFA and SV+ROFA) and 3 subgroups for the UAP experiment (C, SV, UAP and SV+UAP). Biomarkers of lung injury were examined in BAL cells evaluating total cell number (TCN), cell differential (CD) and superoxide anion generation (O2-), in lung homogenates assessing superoxide dismutase activity (SOD) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα); and in blood samples determining interleukin 6 (IL-6) production. ROFA and UAP produced an acute pulmonary injury, characterized by an increase in BAL, TCN and neutrophilic inflammatory influx, a rise in O2- generation, and production of the proinflammatory TNFα cytokine. SV pretreatment had no significant effect per se on any of these biomarkers but prevented the pulmonary cytotoxicity and inflammation induced by ROFA and UAP. Our results encourage further studies to determine the preventive effects on lung injury induced by air pollutants. © 2011 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.

Ferraro S.A.,National University of General San Martín | Ferraro S.A.,Committee for Scientific Research | Curutchet G.,National University of General San Martín | Tasat D.R.,National University of General San Martín | Tasat D.R.,University of Buenos Aires
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry | Year: 2012

The Reconquista River (RR), one of the most polluted watercourses in Argentina, receives effluent discharges from heavily industrialized and highly populated settlements. During winter and summer, the floodplain remains dry, producing the oxidation of sulfide and organic matter present in the sediment, making heavy metals more bioaccessible. Dispersion of this sediment occurs, and thus harmful effects on the pulmonary health of residents and workers inhabiting the RR bank may take place. The authors characterized the sediment particles of the RR (RR-PM) morphologically by scanning electron microscopy and its elemental composition by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) sequential extraction. Furthermore, the authors evaluated its biological impact on the respiratory system of BALB/c mice, generating four groups: control healthy, sensibilized with ovalbumin, exposed to particles, and sensibilized and exposed to particles. Sediment particles of the Reconquista River contained fine particulate matter, with a high concentration of bioaccessible Cu and Zn. The authors found that animal exposure to RR-PM caused polymorphonuclear cell lung infiltration, augmentation of O2-, increase of proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNFα], interleukin-6 [IL-6]) and apoptosis. This adverse response was more dramatic in the sensibilized and exposed to particles group. Even more, they proved the bioaccessible fraction present in the RR-PM to be responsible for these harmful effects. The authors conclude that RR-PM produces an adverse biological impact on the airways of healthy animals, which is largely aggravated in previously sensibilized animals. © 2012 SETAC.

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