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Khalil K.M.,Commission for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering | Ahmed A.A.,University of Khartoum | Elrayah L.E.,Institute of Tropical Medicine
International Journal of Tropical Medicine | Year: 2012

Toxoplasma gondii is one of the most common parasites that cause infection to human. The aim of this study was to conduct a sero-prevalence survey of toxoplasmosis in several target groups. A total of 1146 serum samples were collected and detected against Toxoplasma gondii antibodies using LAT. Five hundred (out of 1146 cases) were positive cases giving prevalence rate of (43.6%). High a prevalence was found among HIV patients (75%), aborters (58.3%) and suspected cases (55.5%). More positive cases were detected by (LAT) in age groups (26-30) years than other groups (p = 0.0001). Prevalence rate by sex was found to be higher in females than males (p<0.05). Residence was found to be significant in rural areas (p = 0.001). The relationship between positive (LAT) and women who aborted was significant (p Source

Hassan M.M.,Environment and Natural Resources Research Institute | Sugmuto Y.,Kobe University | Babiker A.G.E.,Sudan University of Science and Technology | Yamauchi Y.,Kobe University | And 2 more authors.
Bioscience Research | Year: 2010

The parasitic plants Orobanche and Striga spp. are holo- and hemi-parasites respectively, which largely depend on a host plant to obtain their nutrients and water. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of NaCl on Orobanche and Striga seed germination under laboratory condition. Seeds of Orobanche minor were exposed to 50, 75, 100 and 150 mM NaCl solutions during or after conditioning period (for 7 days) and induced to germinate by a synthetic germination stimulant GR24. As a result, seed germination was decreased significantly with the increase in salt solution concentration during conditioning. Significant reduction in O. minor seed germination was observed at highest NaCl level (150 mM). It reduced germination by 92% as compared to the corresponding control. On the other hands, germination response of O. minor seeds conditioned in water and then treated with mixture of GR24 and NaCl 1:1 (v/v) was studied, and results displayed that germination of O. minor seeds was inhibited with increasing NaCl concentrations. Seeds treated with 150 mM, exhibited reduced germination by 77% as compared with control. With respect to O. crenata and Striga, results showed that all concentrations of NaCl decrease seeds germination. Of all NaCl concentration tested, 100 mM displayed the most inhibitory effect. Osmotic potential may significantly affect germination and radicle elongation of parasitic weeds. Source

Hassan M.M.,Environment and Natural Resources Research Institute | Osman M.G.,Commission for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering | Mohammed Ahmed M.M.,Commission for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering | Abdalaleem K.G.,Neelain University | And 2 more authors.
Advances in Environmental Biology | Year: 2011

This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of media type, sugars, Ammonium nitrate, Potassium phosphate, auxins and cytokinine in different concentrations on in vitro Striga seed germination. Medium B5 was showed to induce Striga germination after short period of time. Striga germination reached 100% after 10 day of culture. This may be due to chemical components of this media that induced Striga germination. Results indicated that Striga seeds germination was affected by sugars. Sucrose and glucose at 60g/1 were the most inhibitory to Striga seeds germination. It reduced Striga seeds germination by 20 and 60% after 50 and 45 days, respectively. The depressive effects of the Striga germination increased with increasing sugar concentrations. Furthermore, all Ammonium nitrate and Potassium phosphate concentrations tested delayed Striga germination. Different concentrations of auxins and cytokinines were tested to evaluate their effects on seeds germination of Striga. Striga seeds treated with different auxins displayed various results. Both 2, 4-D and NAA auxins, irrespective of concentrations level displayed no Striga seeds germination. However, IAA and IBA displayed 100% germination as compared to the control. Cytokinines (kin and BAP) induced Striga seeds germination. Moreover, it was concluded that morphogenesis of cultured S. hermonthica is influenced by exogenous growth regulators. Source

Khalafalla M.M.,Commission for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering | Abdellatef E.,Commission for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering | Dafalla H.M.,Commission for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering | Nassrallah A.A.,Cairo University | And 4 more authors.
African Journal of Biotechnology | Year: 2010

Medicinal plants are important elements of indigenous medical system that have persisted in developing countries. Many of the pharmacological principles currently used as anticancer gents were first isolated from plants. However, some important anticancer agents are still extracted from plants because they cannot be synthesized chemically on a commercial scale due to their complex structures that often contain several chiral centers. The aim of this study was to test different extracts from the leaves of Moringa or drumstick tree (Moringa oleifera) for activity against leukemia and hepatocarcinoma cells in vitro. The extracts could kill majority (70 - 86%) of the abnormal cells among primary cells harvested from 10 patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and 15 with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) as well as a culture of hepatocarcinoma cells (75% death), but most significantly by the hot water and ethanol extracts. In conclusion, M. oleifera may have potential for use as source of natural treatment for diseases such as cancer. © 2010 Academic Journals. Source

Khalafalla M.M.,Commission for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering | Dafalla H.M.,Commission for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering | Nassrallah A.,Cairo University | Aboul-Enein K.M.,Cairo University | And 2 more authors.
African Journal of Biotechnology | Year: 2011

The present study was aimed at developing an efficient protocol for callus induction from the leaves of Moringa oleifera and to investigate its crude extract antileukemia activity on leukemia cells. Several secondary metabolites are present in M. oleifera as the plant serves as reservoirs for various bioactive compounds. Callus cultures of M. oleifera were induced from leaf explants incubated on MS medium supplemented with different concentrations of 2,4-dichloro-phenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). The crude extracts of the callus were evaluated in vitro for their activity against leukemia cells and hepatocarcinoma. Among the different concentrations, 2,4-D at 0.1 mg/l induced highest frequencies of callus growth index (7.8) when compared with other concentrations. Ethanolic extracts killed about 36% of abnormal cells among primary cells harvested from 3 patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and hepatocarcinoma cells HpG2. These results provide an in vitro evidence and support the traditional use of M. oleifera leaf as a potent source of anticancer. However, more researches are needed at phytochemical and clinical levels to confirm the traditional use of this plant as anticancer. © 2011 Academic Journals. Source

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