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De Magalhaes J.T.,Minas Gerais State University | Sodre G.A.,Comissao Executiva do Plano da Lavoura Cacaueira | Viscogliosi H.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Grenier-Loustalot M.-F.,French National Center for Scientific Research
Food Control | Year: 2011

In the present work studied the occurrence of Ochratoxin A (OTA) in dried beans from southern Bahia (Brazil) harvested in two periods of the year (early crop and harvest seasons) then fermented and dried under the sun. Nearly 92.5% of the cocoa samples presented OTA levels below the limits suggested by the European Community (2 μg/kg). The highest toxin content was found in fine and flavour cocoa beans harvested in the early crop. Ochratoxigenic species of the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium were isolated from the cocoa beans. Both harvesting time and production model influenced OTA content in cocoa. These results show that, according to the current world standards for Ochratoxin A levels, beans from southern Bahia give a good quality cocoa. © 2010.


Moura W.M.,Empresa Pesquisa Agropecuaria de Minas Gerais | Soares Y.J.B.,Comissao Executiva do Plano da Lavoura Cacaueira | Amaral Junior A.T.,State University of Norte Fluminense | Gravina G.A.,State University of Norte Fluminense | And 2 more authors.
Genetics and Molecular Research | Year: 2016

Genetic parameters and associations between morpho-agronomic traits and nutritional efficiencies of arabica coffee cultivars were estimated to identify promising traits to assist in the selection of coffee genotypes efficient in potassium use, under limiting conditions of this nutrient. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse with 20 arabica coffee cultivars grown in nutrient solution with a low potassium level (1.5 mM), using a randomized block design with three replicates. The traits evaluated were plant height, number of leaves, number of nodes, internode length, stem diameter, leaf area, rooting efficiency, potassium absorption efficiency, potassium translocation efficiency, biomass production efficiency, and potassium use efficiency. Genetic variability among coffee cultivars for all the evaluated traits was found. The phenotypic variance for all traits showed a higher contribution of genetic variance compared to environmental variance. Plant height, internode length, stem diameter, leaf area, biomass production efficiency, and potassium use efficiency had a genotypic determination coefficient (H2) above 80% and variation index greater than one. Leaf area and stem diameter had significant and positive genetic correlations with rooting, biomass production, and potassium use efficiencies. Stem diameter has great potential for use in breeding programs with a goal of indirect selection of cultivars that have greater potassium use efficiency in environments with restrictions of this nutrient. © 2016 The Authors.


PubMed | State University of Norte Fluminense, Empresa Pesquisa Agropecuaria de Minas Gerais, Comissao Executiva do Plano da Lavoura Cacaueira and Federal University of Viçosa
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Genetics and molecular research : GMR | Year: 2016

Genetic parameters and associations between morpho-agronomic traits and nutritional efficiencies of arabica coffee cultivars were estimated to identify promising traits to assist in the selection of coffee genotypes efficient in potassium use, under limiting conditions of this nutrient. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse with 20 arabica coffee cultivars grown in nutrient solution with a low potassium level (1.5 mM), using a randomized block design with three replicates. The traits evaluated were plant height, number of leaves, number of nodes, internode length, stem diameter, leaf area, rooting efficiency, potassium absorption efficiency, potassium translocation efficiency, biomass production efficiency, and potassium use efficiency. Genetic variability among coffee cultivars for all the evaluated traits was found. The phenotypic variance for all traits showed a higher contribution of genetic variance compared to environmental variance. Plant height, internode length, stem diameter, leaf area, biomass production efficiency, and potassium use efficiency had a genotypic determination coefficient (H2) above 80% and variation index greater than one. Leaf area and stem diameter had significant and positive genetic correlations with rooting, biomass production, and potassium use efficiencies. Stem diameter has great potential for use in breeding programs with a goal of indirect selection of cultivars that have greater potassium use efficiency in environments with restrictions of this nutrient.


PubMed | University Estadual Of Santa Cruz, Instituto Federal Baiano IF BAIANO, State University of Southwest Bahia, Federal University of Bahia and Comissao Executiva do Plano da Lavoura Cacaueira
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Tropical animal health and production | Year: 2016

The aim of this study was to evaluate the intake and apparent digestibility of nutrients, performance, and plasma glucose concentration of ram lambs fed diets containing peach palm meal substituting maize (0, 10, 40, 60, and 85% dry matter (DM)). Thirty Santa Ins rams with an average initial body weight of 21.60.87kg were distributed in a completely randomized design with five diets and six replicates. The substitution of the maize for the peach palm meal affected (P<0.05) the intakes of DM, organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber corrected for ash and protein (NDFap), total carbohydrates (TC), total digestible nutrients (TDN), and metabolizable energy (ME), which decreased linearly (P<0.05); the intake of ether extract (EE), however, fit an increasing linear equation (P<0.05). The apparent digestibility coefficients of DM, OM, NDFap, and TC decreased linearly (P<0.05) as the level of peach palm meal in the concentrate was increased. The total weight gain and the average daily gain decreased by 0.09 and 0.001kg with each level of substitution of the maize for peach palm meal, respectively. It is recommended to substitute 40% of the maize for peach palm meal.


Silva C.R.S.,Comissao Executiva Do Plano da Lavoura Cacaueira | Albuquerque P.S.B.,Comissao Executiva Do Plano da Lavoura Cacaueira | Ervedosa F.R.,Comissao Executiva Do Plano da Lavoura Cacaueira | Mota J.W.S.,Comissao Executiva Do Plano da Lavoura Cacaueira | And 2 more authors.
Heredity | Year: 2011

Understanding the mating patterns of populations of tree species is a key component of ex situ genetic conservation. In this study, we analysed the genetic diversity, spatial genetic structure (SGS) and mating system at the hierarchical levels of fruits and individuals as well as pollen dispersal patterns in a continuous population of Theobroma cacao in Pará State, Brazil. A total of 156 individuals in a 0.56 ha plot were mapped and genotyped for nine microsatellite loci. For the mating system analyses, 50 seeds were collected from nine seed trees by sampling five fruits per tree (10 seeds per fruit). Among the 156 individuals, 127 had unique multilocus genotypes, and the remaining were clones. The population was spatially aggregated; it demonstrated a significant SGS up to 15 m that could be attributed primarily to the presence of clones. However, the short seed dispersal distance also contributed to this pattern. Population matings occurred mainly via outcrossing, but selfing was observed in some seed trees, which indicated the presence of individual variation for self-incompatibility. The matings were also correlated, especially within (r̂p(m) = 0.607) rather than among the fruits (r̂p(m) = 0.099), which suggested that a small number of pollen donors fertilised each fruit. The paternity analysis suggested a high proportion of pollen migration (61.3%), although within the plot, most of the pollen dispersal encompassed short distances (28 m). The determination of these novel parameters provides the fundamental information required to establish long-term ex situ conservation strategies for this important tropical species. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.


Litholdo C.G.,University of Sao Paulo | Litholdo C.G.,University of Sydney | Leal G.A.,University of Sao Paulo | Leal G.A.,Federal University of Alagoas | And 2 more authors.
Plant Cell Reports | Year: 2015

Key message: The resistance mechanism of cacao againstM. perniciosais likely to be mediated by JA/ET-signaling pathways due to the preferentialTcAOSandTcSAMinduction in a resistant genotype. Abstract: The basidiomycete Moniliophthora perniciosa causes a serious disease in cacao (Theobroma cacao L.), and the use of resistant varieties is the only sustainable long-term solution. Cacao resistance against M. perniciosa is characterized by pathogen growth inhibition with reduced colonization and an attenuation of disease symptoms, suggesting a regulation by jasmonate (JA)/ethylene (ET) signaling pathways. The hypothesis that genes involved in JA biosynthesis would be active in the interaction of T. cacao and M. perniciosa was tested here. The cacao JA-related genes were evaluated for their relative quantitative expression in susceptible and resistant genotypes upon the exogenous application of ET, methyl-jasmonate (MJ), and salicylic acid (SA), or after M. perniciosa inoculation. MJ treatment triggered changes in the expression of genes involved in JA biosynthesis, indicating that the mechanism of positive regulation by exogenous MJ application occurs in cacao. However, a higher induction of these genes was observed in the susceptible genotype. Further, a contrast in JA-related transcriptional expression was detected between susceptible and resistant plants under M. perniciosa infection, with the induction of the allene oxide synthase gene (TcAOS), which encodes a key enzyme in the JA biosynthesis pathway in the resistant genotype. Altogether, this work provides additional evidences that the JA-dependent signaling pathway is modulating the defense response against M. perniciosa in a cacao-resistant genotype. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Moura J.I.L.,Comissao Executiva do Plano da Lavoura Cacaueira | Santos L.P.D.,Comissao Executiva do Plano da Lavoura Cacaueira | Bittencourt M.A.L.,University Estadual Of Santa Cruz | Krug C.,Embrapa Amazonia Ocidental
Pesquisa Agropecuaria Brasileira | Year: 2013

The objective of this work was to determine, in the field, the preference of the palm weevil (Rhynchophorus palmarum) for trunks of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis), caiaué (Elaeis oleifera), and for the interspecific hybrid between caiaué and oil palm. The experiment was carried out at the oil palm germplasm bank of Comissão Executiva de Planejamento da Lavoura Cacaueira, Brazil. Among the three tested genotypes, caiaué is significantly less preferred by Rhynchophorus palmarum, followed by the interspecific hybrid, and oil palm.


PubMed | Comissao Executiva do Plano da Lavoura Cacaueira and University of Sao Paulo
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Plant cell reports | Year: 2015

The resistance mechanism of cacao against M. perniciosa is likely to be mediated by JA/ET-signaling pathways due to the preferential TcAOS and TcSAM induction in a resistant genotype. The basidiomycete Moniliophthora perniciosa causes a serious disease in cacao (Theobroma cacao L.), and the use of resistant varieties is the only sustainable long-term solution. Cacao resistance against M. perniciosa is characterized by pathogen growth inhibition with reduced colonization and an attenuation of disease symptoms, suggesting a regulation by jasmonate (JA)/ethylene (ET) signaling pathways. The hypothesis that genes involved in JA biosynthesis would be active in the interaction of T. cacao and M. perniciosa was tested here. The cacao JA-related genes were evaluated for their relative quantitative expression in susceptible and resistant genotypes upon the exogenous application of ET, methyl-jasmonate (MJ), and salicylic acid (SA), or after M. perniciosa inoculation. MJ treatment triggered changes in the expression of genes involved in JA biosynthesis, indicating that the mechanism of positive regulation by exogenous MJ application occurs in cacao. However, a higher induction of these genes was observed in the susceptible genotype. Further, a contrast in JA-related transcriptional expression was detected between susceptible and resistant plants under M. perniciosa infection, with the induction of the allene oxide synthase gene (TcAOS), which encodes a key enzyme in the JA biosynthesis pathway in the resistant genotype. Altogether, this work provides additional evidences that the JA-dependent signaling pathway is modulating the defense response against M. perniciosa in a cacao-resistant genotype.


Moura-Cunha E.F.,Embrapa Amazonia Oriental | De Sousa Silva C.R.,Comissao Executiva do Plano da Lavoura Cacaueira | De Albuquerque P.S.B.,Comissao Executiva do Plano da Lavoura Cacaueira | Ramalho G.F.,Federal University of Pará | And 2 more authors.
Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology | Year: 2016

Genetic variability of a set of 81 accessions of ‘sweet’ cassavas (Manihot esculenta) collected mostly in the North region of Brazil was investigated with nine microsatellite loci. All loci were polymorphic, with mean of 6.33 alleles per locus. Analyses indicated that 35 multiloci profiles were represented by a single accession, and 46 showed non-unique profiles, represented by eleven genotypes. Forty-six different multiloci profiles were detected. Most of the putative duplicated accessions were collected in different locations. After the removal of putative duplicated genotypes, genetic parameters were estimated and expected heterozygosity was high (HE=0.73), indicating genetic variability. Structure analysis of this set of ‘sweet’ cassavas divided the 46 genotypes into two clusters (K=2), and a few genotypes had mixed ancestry. Results indicated the habit of exchange of materials among farmers of the North region of Brazil, and the genetic variability to be exploited in genetic breeding efforts. © 2016, Brazilian Society of Plant Breeding. All Rights Reserved.


Understanding the mating patterns of populations of tree species is a key component of ex situ genetic conservation. In this study, we analysed the genetic diversity, spatial genetic structure (SGS) and mating system at the hierarchical levels of fruits and individuals as well as pollen dispersal patterns in a continuous population of Theobroma cacao in Par State, Brazil. A total of 156 individuals in a 0.56ha plot were mapped and genotyped for nine microsatellite loci. For the mating system analyses, 50 seeds were collected from nine seed trees by sampling five fruits per tree (10 seeds per fruit). Among the 156 individuals, 127 had unique multilocus genotypes, and the remaining were clones. The population was spatially aggregated; it demonstrated a significant SGS up to 15m that could be attributed primarily to the presence of clones. However, the short seed dispersal distance also contributed to this pattern. Population matings occurred mainly via outcrossing, but selfing was observed in some seed trees, which indicated the presence of individual variation for self-incompatibility. The matings were also correlated, especially within ((p(m))=0.607) rather than among the fruits ((p(m))=0.099), which suggested that a small number of pollen donors fertilised each fruit. The paternity analysis suggested a high proportion of pollen migration (61.3%), although within the plot, most of the pollen dispersal encompassed short distances (28m). The determination of these novel parameters provides the fundamental information required to establish long-term ex situ conservation strategies for this important tropical species.

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