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De Magalhaes J.T.,Minas Gerais State University | Sodre G.A.,Comissao Executiva do Plano da Lavoura Cacaueira | Viscogliosi H.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Grenier-Loustalot M.-F.,French National Center for Scientific Research
Food Control | Year: 2011

In the present work studied the occurrence of Ochratoxin A (OTA) in dried beans from southern Bahia (Brazil) harvested in two periods of the year (early crop and harvest seasons) then fermented and dried under the sun. Nearly 92.5% of the cocoa samples presented OTA levels below the limits suggested by the European Community (2 μg/kg). The highest toxin content was found in fine and flavour cocoa beans harvested in the early crop. Ochratoxigenic species of the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium were isolated from the cocoa beans. Both harvesting time and production model influenced OTA content in cocoa. These results show that, according to the current world standards for Ochratoxin A levels, beans from southern Bahia give a good quality cocoa. © 2010.

Litholdo C.G.,University of Sao Paulo | Litholdo C.G.,University of Sydney | Leal G.A.,University of Sao Paulo | Leal G.A.,Federal University of Alagoas | And 2 more authors.
Plant Cell Reports | Year: 2015

Key message: The resistance mechanism of cacao againstM. perniciosais likely to be mediated by JA/ET-signaling pathways due to the preferentialTcAOSandTcSAMinduction in a resistant genotype. Abstract: The basidiomycete Moniliophthora perniciosa causes a serious disease in cacao (Theobroma cacao L.), and the use of resistant varieties is the only sustainable long-term solution. Cacao resistance against M. perniciosa is characterized by pathogen growth inhibition with reduced colonization and an attenuation of disease symptoms, suggesting a regulation by jasmonate (JA)/ethylene (ET) signaling pathways. The hypothesis that genes involved in JA biosynthesis would be active in the interaction of T. cacao and M. perniciosa was tested here. The cacao JA-related genes were evaluated for their relative quantitative expression in susceptible and resistant genotypes upon the exogenous application of ET, methyl-jasmonate (MJ), and salicylic acid (SA), or after M. perniciosa inoculation. MJ treatment triggered changes in the expression of genes involved in JA biosynthesis, indicating that the mechanism of positive regulation by exogenous MJ application occurs in cacao. However, a higher induction of these genes was observed in the susceptible genotype. Further, a contrast in JA-related transcriptional expression was detected between susceptible and resistant plants under M. perniciosa infection, with the induction of the allene oxide synthase gene (TcAOS), which encodes a key enzyme in the JA biosynthesis pathway in the resistant genotype. Altogether, this work provides additional evidences that the JA-dependent signaling pathway is modulating the defense response against M. perniciosa in a cacao-resistant genotype. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Lopes M.A.,University Estadual Of Santa Cruz | Lopes M.A.,State University of Feira de Santana | Hora Junior B.T.,University Estadual Of Santa Cruz | Dias C.V.,University Estadual Of Santa Cruz | And 6 more authors.
Genetics and Molecular Research | Year: 2010

Cacao (Theobroma cacao) is one of the most important tropical crops; however, production is threatened by numerous pathogens, including the hemibiotrophic fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa, which causes witches' broom disease. To understand the mechanisms that lead to the development of this disease in cacao, we focused our attention on cacao transcription factors (TFs), which act as master regulators of cellular processes and are important for the fine-tuning of plant defense responses. We developed a macroarray with 88 TF cDNA from previously obtained cacao-M. perniciosa interaction libraries. Seventy-two TFs were found differentially expressed between the susceptible (Catongo) and resistant (TSH1188) genotypes and/or during the disease time course-from 24 h to 30 days after infection. Most of the differentially expressed TFs belonged to the bZIP, MYB and WRKY families and presented opposite expression patterns in susceptible and resistant cacao-M. perniciosa interactions (i.e., up-regulated in Catongo and down-regulated in TSH1188). The results of the macroarray were confirmed for bZIP and WRKY TFs by real-time PCR. These differentially expressed TFs are good candidates for subsequent functional analysis as well as for plant engineering. Some of these TFs could also be localized on the cacao reference map related to witches' broom resistance, facilitating the breeding and selection of resistant cacao trees. © FUNPEC-RP.

Dos Santos A.B.,State University of Southwest Bahia | Pereira M.L.A.,State University of Southwest Bahia | de Oliveira Silva H.G.,State University of Southwest Bahia | de Carvalho G.G.P.,Federal University of Bahia | And 6 more authors.
Tropical Animal Health and Production | Year: 2016

The aim of this study was to evaluate the intake and apparent digestibility of nutrients, performance, and plasma glucose concentration of ram lambs fed diets containing peach palm meal substituting maize (0, 10, 40, 60, and 85 % dry matter (DM)). Thirty Santa Inês rams with an average initial body weight of 21.6 ± 0.87 kg were distributed in a completely randomized design with five diets and six replicates. The substitution of the maize for the peach palm meal affected (P < 0.05) the intakes of DM, organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber corrected for ash and protein (NDFap), total carbohydrates (TC), total digestible nutrients (TDN), and metabolizable energy (ME), which decreased linearly (P < 0.05); the intake of ether extract (EE), however, fit an increasing linear equation (P < 0.05). The apparent digestibility coefficients of DM, OM, NDFap, and TC decreased linearly (P < 0.05) as the level of peach palm meal in the concentrate was increased. The total weight gain and the average daily gain decreased by 0.09 and 0.001 kg with each level of substitution of the maize for peach palm meal, respectively. It is recommended to substitute 40 % of the maize for peach palm meal. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht

Moura J.I.L.,Comissao Executiva do Plano da Lavoura Cacaueira | Santos L.P.D.,Comissao Executiva do Plano da Lavoura Cacaueira | Bittencourt M.A.L.,University Estadual Of Santa Cruz | Krug C.,Embrapa Amazonia Ocidental
Pesquisa Agropecuaria Brasileira | Year: 2013

The objective of this work was to determine, in the field, the preference of the palm weevil (Rhynchophorus palmarum) for trunks of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis), caiaué (Elaeis oleifera), and for the interspecific hybrid between caiaué and oil palm. The experiment was carried out at the oil palm germplasm bank of Comissão Executiva de Planejamento da Lavoura Cacaueira, Brazil. Among the three tested genotypes, caiaué is significantly less preferred by Rhynchophorus palmarum, followed by the interspecific hybrid, and oil palm.

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