Comision Nacional para el Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad CONABIO

Mexico City, Mexico

Comision Nacional para el Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad CONABIO

Mexico City, Mexico

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Kolb M.,Comision Nacional para el Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad CONABIO | Mas J.-F.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Galicia L.,National Autonomous University of Mexico
International Journal of Geographical Information Science | Year: 2013

Understanding and analysis of drivers of land-use and -cover change (LUCC) is a requisite to reduce and manage impacts and consequences of LUCC. The aim of the present study is to analyze drivers of LUCC in Southern Mexico and to see how these are used by different conceptual and methodological approaches for generating transition potential maps and how this influences the effectiveness to produce reliable LUCC models. Spatial factors were tested for their relation to main LUCC processes, and their importance as drivers for the periods 1993-2002 and 2002-2007 was evaluated by hierarchical partitioning analysis and logistic regression models. Tested variables included environmental and biophysical variables, location measures of infrastructure and of existing land use, fragmentation, and demographic and social variables. The most important factors show a marked persistence over time: deforestation is mainly driven by the distance of existing land uses; degradation and regeneration by the distance of existing disturbed forests. Nevertheless, the overall number of important factors decreases slightly for the second period. These drivers were used to produce transition potential maps calibrated with the 1993-2002 data by two different approaches: (1) weights of evidence (WoE) to represent the probabilities of dominant change processes, namely deforestation, forest degradation, and forest regeneration for temperate and tropical forests and (2) logistic RM that show the suitability regarding the different land-use and -cover (LUC) classes. Validation of the transition potential maps with the 2002-2007 data indicates a low precision with large differences between LUCC processes and methods. Areas of change evaluated by difference in potential showed that WoE produce transition potential maps that are more accurate for predicting LUCC than those produced with RM. Relative operating characteristic (ROC) statistics show that transition potential models based on RM do usually better predict areas of no change, but the difference is rather small. The poor performance of maps based on RM could be attributed to their too general representation of suitability for certain LUC classes when the goal is modeling complex LUCC and the LUC classes participate in several transitions. The application of a multimodel approach enables to better understand the relations of drivers to LUCC and the evaluation of model calibration based on spatial explanatory factors. This improved understanding of the capacity of LUCC models to produce accurate predictions is important for making better informed policy assessments and management recommendations to reduce deforestation. © 2013 Taylor & Francis.

Toledo-Aceves T.,Comision Nacional para el Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad CONABIO | Meave J.A.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Gonzalez-Espinosa M.,Colegio de Mexico | Ramirez-Marcial N.,Colegio de Mexico
Journal of Environmental Management | Year: 2011

Tropical montane cloud forests (TMCF) are among the most threatened ecosystems globally in spite of their high strategic value for sustainable development due to the key role played by these forests in hydrological cycle maintenance and as reservoirs of endemic biodiversity. Resources for effective conservation and management programs are rarely sufficient, and criteria must be applied to prioritise TMCF for conservation action. This paper reports a priority analysis of the 13 main regions of TMCF distribution in Mexico, based on four criteria: (1) forest quality, (2) threats to forest permanence, (3) threats to forest integrity, and (4) opportunities for conservation. Due to the diverse socio-environmental conditions of the local communities living in Mexican TMCF regions, their associated social characteristics were also evaluated to provide a background for the planning of conservation actions. A set of indicators was defined for the measurement of each criterion. To assign priority values for subregions within each main region, an international team of 40 participants evaluated all the indicators using multicriteria decision-making analysis. This procedure enabled the identification of 15 subregions of critical priority, 17 of high priority, and 10 of medium priority; three more were not analysed due to lack of information. The evaluation revealed a number of subjects that had hitherto been undetected and that may prove useful for prioritisation efforts in other regions where TMCF is similarly documented and faces equally severe threats. Based on this analysis, key recommendations are outlined to advance conservation objectives in those TMCF areas that are subjected to high pressure on forest resources. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Adame M.F.,Griffith University | Santini N.S.,University of Queensland | Tovilla C.,Colegio de Mexico | Vazquez-Lule A.,Comision Nacional para el Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad CONABIO | And 2 more authors.
Biogeosciences | Year: 2015

Riverine wetlands are created and transformed by geomorphological processes that determine their vegetation composition, primary production and soil accretion, all of which are likely to influence C stocks. Here, we compared ecosystem C stocks (trees, soil and downed wood) and soil N stocks of different types of riverine wetlands (marsh, peat swamp forest and mangroves) whose distribution spans from an environment dominated by river forces to an estuarine environment dominated by coastal processes. We also estimated soil C sequestration rates of mangroves on the basis of soil C accumulation. We predicted that C stocks in mangroves and peat swamps would be larger than marshes, and that C, N stocks and C sequestration rates would be larger in the upper compared to the lower estuary. Mean C stocks in mangroves and peat swamps (784.5 ± 73.5 and 722.2 ± 63.6 MgC ha-1, respectively) were higher than those of marshes (336.5 ± 38.3 MgC ha-1). Soil C and N stocks of mangroves were highest in the upper estuary and decreased towards the lower estuary. C stock variability within mangroves was much lower in the upper estuary (range 744-912 MgC ha−1) compared to the intermediate and lower estuary (range 537-1115 MgC ha-1) probably as a result of a highly dynamic coastline. Soil C sequestration values were 1.3 ± 0.2 MgC ha-1 yr-1 and were similar across sites. Estimations of C stocks within large areas need to include spatial variability related to vegetation composition and geomorphological setting to accurately reflect variability within riverine wetlands. © Author(s) 2015.

Ochoa-Ochoa L.M.,University of Oxford | Ochoa-Ochoa L.M.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Rodriguez P.,Comision Nacional para el Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad CONABIO | Mora F.,Comision Nacional para el Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad CONABIO | And 3 more authors.
Biological Conservation | Year: 2012

The aim of this article is to characterize at fine scale alpha and beta diversity patterns for Mexican amphibians and analyze how these patterns might change under a moderate climate-change scenario, highlighting the overall consequences for amphibian diversity at the country level. We used a geo-referenced database gathered from museums worldwide as a basis for climatic envelope models, based on the working assumptions that we can accurately model the ecological niche, niche conservatism, and that the future climate scenario is realistic. We generated six sets of models with different parameters (threshold of presence and dispersal capability) in the modelling processes. We simulated the base line (2000) and future scenarios for Mexican amphibian diversity (2020, 2050, 2080), using climate data layers constructed for Mexico. Using moving-window analyses of different sizes (9, 25, 100, 225 and 400km2) we calculated beta diversity with R.H. Whittaker's formula β=γ/αmean. We analyzed the changes of alpha- and beta-diversity spatial patterns during these periods, and performed an analysis of sensitivity for the beta-diversity patterns. We found that setting low dispersal capability generates high levels of species extinctions, but the overall geographic pattern of beta diversity remained stable. Zones of high beta diversity resulted that were associated with topographic formations, while the values of beta diversity initially increased, and then declined over time. Extinctions (complete loss of range within country boundaries) were particularly intense during the period 2020-2050. The results implied that heterogeneous zones associated with mountain ranges will remain particularly important for amphibian diversity and thus constitute areas for continued conservation prioritization in the face of climate change. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Burgeff C.,Comision Nacional para el Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad CONABIO | Huerta E.,Comision Nacional para el Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad CONABIO | Acevedo F.,Comision Nacional para el Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad CONABIO | Sarukhan J.,Comision Nacional para el Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad CONABIO
AgBioForum | Year: 2014

The relevance of addressing coexistence between GM, conventional, and organic agricultural production mostly has been driven in industrialized countries by (international) commercial issues and consumer choices. While some of these drivers are also relevant in less industrialized countries, coexistence of the different agricultural options in these countries might be more complex and have indirect consequences that need to be considered in a more integrated way. Mexico is a megadiverse country and also a center of origin and genetic diversity of many crops of great global economic value, among these maize and cotton. Presently GM cotton, maize, and soybean releases are taking place at different scales in the country. Coexistence of cultivation schemes in maize and cotton represent challenges that should be carefully evaluated. The genetic pool available for future seed development could be compromised; GM constructs have been recently detected in wild cotton populations, while in maize (the main staple food in the country), traditional cultural practices include seed exchange between farmers. For historical and cultural reasons, maize has a different significance to a large part of the Mexican population than any other crop. On the other hand, cultivation of GM soybean, a non-Mexican crop, has affected negatively the exportation of honey (a major income for rural populations) produced in the southeast, as GM pollen presence has been questioned by importing countries. Further aspects on coexistence issues are discussed in relation to these three cases.© 2014 AgBioForum.

Mas J.-F.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Kolb M.,Comision Nacional para el Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad CONABIO | Paegelow M.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Camacho Olmedo M.T.,University of Granada | Houet T.,French National Center for Scientific Research
Environmental Modelling and Software | Year: 2014

Land use/cover change (LUCC), as an important factor in global change, is a topic that has recently received considerable attention in the prospective modeling domain. There are many approaches and software packages for modeling LUCC, many of them are empirical approaches based on past LUCC such as CLUE-S, DINAMICA EGO, CA_MARKOV and Land Change Modeler (both available in IDRISI). This study reviews the possibilities and the limits of these four modeling software packages. First, a revision of the methods and tools available for each model was performed, taking into account how the models carry out the different procedures involved in the modeling process: quantity of change estimate, change potential evaluation, spatial allocation of change, reproduction of temporal and spatial patterns, model evaluation and advanced modeling options. Additional considerations, such as flexibility and user friendliness were also taken into account. Then, the four models were applied to a virtual case study to illustrate the previous descriptions with a typical LUCC scenario that consists of four processes of change (conversion of forest to two different types of crops, crop abandonment and urban sprawl) that follow different spatial patterns and are conditioned by different drivers. The outputs were compared to assess the quantity of change estimates, the change potential and the simulated prospective maps. Finally, we discussed some basic criteria to define a "good" model. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Kolb M.,Comision Nacional para el Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad CONABIO | Kolb M.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Galicia L.,National Autonomous University of Mexico
Geographical Journal | Year: 2012

In the Neotropics increased rates of land use and land cover change (LULCC) and a strong deforestation trend in the second half of the twentieth century have caused environmental degradation and biodiversity loss. This study analysed patterns and processes of LULCC and deforestation for the Grijalva-Usumacinta watershed, one of the hydrologically and biologically most important watersheds in southern Mexico in face of the discussion about beginning forest transitions in the Neotropics. Maps of land use and land cover for 1992, 2002 and 2007 derived from satellite and aerial imagery were analysed to test the hypothesis of changing trends on a regional scale. Change rates and probabilities were calculated for two time periods and dominant LULCC processes were identified. LULCC is complex and cannot be explained by the predominant linear deforestation narrative alone. A crucial finding was an unusually high rate of forest degradation for all primary forest types, being 1.7 times the area of forest deforestation; and that deforestation processes occur mainly in secondary forests. Agricultural activities fostered by public policies are the principal drivers for LULCC, among which pastures have the highest impact on deforestation. Deforestation and LULCC rates and probabilities have stagnated, and natural reforestation has increased. Although these trends are essential for the onset of forest transition, deforestation and degradation outweigh by far vegetation regrowth. © 2011 The Authors. The Geographical Journal © 2011 Royal Geographical Society(with the Institute of British Geographers).

Kiehn M.,University of Vienna | Benitez-Diaz H.,Comision Nacional Para El Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad CONABIO
Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden | Year: 2013

Several international treaties contain provisions to regulate and reduce negative impacts of international trade on endangered plant species. Focusing on the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) and the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation (GSPC) of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), this paper aims to elaborate existing and potential linkages between provisions and activities of these conventions. Based on an evaluation of CITES documentation, fields of potential synergies and/or joint activities between CITES and the GSPC are indicated.

Valencia-A S.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Gual-Diaz M.,Comision Nacional para el Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad CONABIO
Botanical Sciences | Year: 2014

Cloud forest in Mexico is one of the most fragile biomes, wherein some species of Fagaceae family play a key ecological role. Based on data from reviews of herbarium material, publications of Mexican cloud forest, field visits and Mexico's cloud forest biodiversity information system housed by Comisión Nacional para el Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad, we present an analysis of the Fagaceae family in the cloud forests of Mexico, with special emphasis in the 13 main regions proposed by Comisión Nacional para el Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad as priority for the conservation of cloud forests in the country. Likewise, we compiled the risk categories of the Fagaceae family from the cloud forest. Results show that the family is represented in this community by 46 species of Quercus (32 from the Lobatae section and 14 from the Quercus section), and one species of Fagus. Thirteen of these species are considered exclusive or almost exclusive to this community and endemic to Mexico. Among the priority regions, region III (Huasteca Alta Hidalguense) is the most diverse with 26 species; while region VII (Los Tuxtlas) is the less diverse with only two species. The ß diversity analysis shows intermediate to high rates between the 13 regions (from 0.41-1). Most similar regions in Fagaceae species were III (Huasteca Alta Hidalguense) and V (Centro de Veracruz). The Fagaceae species of Mexican cloud forest classified in some level of risk or threat are 41. Among them, we highlight eight oak species of section Lobatae, considered critically endangered, and five of section Quercus in the same category.

PubMed | University of Kansas, National Autonomous University of Mexico and Comision Nacional para el Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad CONABIO
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Science advances | Year: 2015

Numerous climate change effects on biodiversity have been anticipated and documented, including extinctions, range shifts, phenological shifts, and breakdown of interactions in ecological communities, yet the relative balance of different climate drivers and their relationships to other agents of global change (for example, land use and land-use change) remains relatively poorly understood. This study integrated historical and current biodiversity data on distributions of 115 Mexican endemic bird species to document areas of concentrated gains and losses of species in local communities, and then related those changes to climate and land-use drivers. Of all drivers examined, at this relatively coarse spatial resolution, only temperature change had significant impacts on avifaunal turnover; neither precipitation change nor human impact on landscapes had detectable effects. This study, conducted across species geographic distributions, and covering all of Mexico, thanks to two large-scale biodiversity data sets, could discern relative importance of specific climatic drivers of biodiversity change.

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