Comision Nacional Del Agua

San Juan Bautista Valle Nacional, Mexico

Comision Nacional Del Agua

San Juan Bautista Valle Nacional, Mexico
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Faustino De Luna C.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Fuentes M.O.A.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Horacio Rubio G.,Comision Nacional Del Agua | Laura Velez M.,National Autonomous University of Mexico
E3S Web of Conferences | Year: 2016

The main objective of the research reflects the great need to generate hazard maps and calculate risk in the basin Huahuatay Rosarito in Baja California Sur, Mexico. For the topography in the study area, it is associated with a basin with fast response to rainfall-runoff relationship, because of that is considered necessary to establish the cell size of 50 m side and a time increment of 0.65 seconds. The estimate of the flow of water on the surface from the rain was based on the characterization of soils and vegetation cover, through the called number of the runoff curve proposed by the Soil Conservation Service. Flood areas calculated with a mathematical model of two-dimensional hydraulically from rain (FLUBIDI); they are sensitive to the quality of the input data. Thus, a digital terrain model with good resolution is undoubtedly necessary, and it depends on the path of the runoff. A good estimate of the effective rainfall, in time and space allows for a volume of runoff, flood areas and depths according to the hydraulic conditions of the study area. The size of the elements of the mesh used in the calculations generally is higher than the resolution of digital terrain models available, so that processing time would be suitable and which are related to cell size. The results successfully represent runoff within the watershed. Appropriate selection of the value of the friction coefficient of the Manning formula influences, largely, in the magnitudes of the velocities and depths of flow. Maps maximum depths, maximum speed and severity parameter (or multiplication deep drag velocity) for return periods of two, 5, 10, 50 and 100 years for river floods and storm were obtained. The maximum values that appear in the maps refer to the largest amount came to present at a certain point in each of the cells in the spreadsheet grid. Maps where the expected damage is presented annually were also developed. The damages were estimated at 60,250 homes and be led risk analysis for return periods from 2 to 100 years. Not necessarily, the works are constructed to reduce flood damages. Sometimes the water that temporarily occupied an area of land can be shifted to other areas where it could cause further injury; it is therefore advisable to make comprehensive basin-wide studies to evaluate the goodness of the proposed works, usually with simulation models embracing the basin where the floodplains are located... © 2016 The Authors, published by EDP Sciences.

Moeder M.,Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research | Carranza-Diaz O.,Autonomous University of Sinaloa | Lopez-Angulo G.,Autonomous University of Sinaloa | Vega-Avina R.,University of Buenos Aires | And 6 more authors.
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2017

This case study presents the fate of selected organic, priority and emerging pollutants along a 3.6 km sector of a vegetated, agricultural ditch situated in Sinaloa (Mexico). The ditch receives runoff of agriculture and domestic wastewater from an adjacent community. During 2013, the occurrence of 38 organic pollutants (pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), artificial sweeteners and pharmaceutical residues) was monitored monthly at five selected points in the ditch water. Additionally, sediment and Typha domingensis (cattail) plants were collected in March, June, and September 2013 and investigated concerning their ability to absorb and accumulate pollutants. The concentrations of the selected pollutants in the ditch water ranged from sub ng L− 1 (metolachlor, atrazine) to μg L− 1 (metalaxyl, acesulfame). The metabolites endosulfan sulfate and endosulfan lactone exceeded mostly the concentration of the precursor insecticide endosulfan. Sorption on sediments was of minor relevance for accumulation of pollutants in the ditch system. Concentrations in the sediments varied seasonally and ranged from 0.2 to 12,432 μg kg− 1 dry weight (d.w.). T. domingensis accumulated ten of the studied pollutants mainly in roots (5–1065 μg kg− 1 d.w.). Overall, the monitoring results of the ditch compartments indicated that downstream the concentrations of the target pollutants decreased. Under no-flow conditions in the hot season, the ditch revealed a noticeable potential to mitigate pollutants. Among the high microbial activity in the water and the subtropical climate conditions, the ditch vegetation contributed to natural attenuation of the selected pollutants. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.

Arciniega-Esparza S.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Brena-Naranjo J.A.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Hernandez-Espriu A.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Pedrozo-Acuna A.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Hydrology | Year: 2017

Water resources development and landscape alteration exert marked impacts on water-cycle dynamics, including areas subjected to hydraulic fracturing (HF) for exploitation of unconventional oil and gas resources found in shale or tight sandstones. Here we apply a conceptual framework for linking baseflow analysis to changes in water demands from different sectors (e.g. oil/gas extraction, irrigation, and municipal consumption) and climatic variability in the semiarid Eagle Ford play in Texas, USA. We hypothesize that, in water-limited regions, baseflow (Qb) changes are partly due (along with climate variability) to groundwater abstraction. For a more realistic assessment, the analysis was conducted in two different sets of unregulated catchments, located outside and inside the Eagle Ford play. Three periods were considered in the analysis related to HF activities: pre-development (1980–2000), moderate (2001–2008) and intensive (2009–2015) periods. Results indicate that in the Eagle Ford play region, temporal changes in baseflow cannot be directly related to the increase in hydraulic fracturing. Instead, substantial baseflow declines during the intensive period of hydraulic fracturing represent the aggregated effects from the combination of: (1) a historical exceptional drought during 2011–2012; (2) increased groundwater-based irrigation; and (3) an intensive hydraulic fracturing activity. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.

Arreguin-Cortes F.I.,Comision Nacional Del Agua | Murillo-Fernandez R.,Comision Nacional Del Agua | Marengo-Mogollon H.,Comisión Federal de Electricidad
Tecnologia y Ciencias del Agua | Year: 2013

Water infrastructure is a valuable national asset which makes it possible not only to make use of water resources but also to manage water courses to protect the population and conserve volume reserves during dry seasons or prolonged drought. This work presents information about storage works, control of courses and diversions in the country. It includes all of the dams registered in the national inventory, with over 20 years of documentation and direct site observations. This study also comments on the structural conditions and functioning of the dams.

Cuenca-Castro A.J.,Comision Nacional Del Agua | Cardoso-Landa G.,Chilpancingo Institute of Technology
Dam Maintenance and Rehabilitation II - Proceedings of the 2nd International Congress on Dam Maintenance and Rehabilitation | Year: 2011

The present paper focuses on research possible causes of deterioration processes the curtain of land dam "El Batan" in Querétaro, Mexico, including the design of the fineness of the employee filter during the construction of the curtain was verified since this depends greatly on the proper functioning of this filter. To carry out the required analysis, it was necessary to document elements provided understanding about the composition and behavior of the land curtain, and the main types of failure in these curtains. The general characteristics of the land dam curtain "El Batan", the composition of the filter, as well as possible causes resulted in the failure were also analyzed. Once obtained data starting, the actual analysis was carried out by reviewing the following possible deterioration processes: fails due to a poor constructive process of the curtain, failure due to hydraulic suppression, fails due to a structural design wrong, fails due to a geotechnical design wrong, fails due to a hydraulic design wrong, fails due to an inadequate design of the curtain filter. It is concluded that the type of the filter employed in the land dam curtain of "El Batan", located in the municipality of Querétaro, México, do not have adequate characteristics, outside of the ranges of design, using the curves: Terzaghi criteria, Sherard and Dunnigan criteria, UCSCS criteria, and Foster and Fell criteria. © 2011 Taylor & Francis Group, London.

Alcocer-Yamanaka V.H.,Mexican Institute of Water Technology | Tzatchkov V.G.,Mexican Institute of Water Technology | Arreguin-Cortes F.I.,Comision Nacional del Agua
Water Resources Management | Year: 2012

Residential water demand is one of the most difficult parameters to determine when modeling drinking water distribution networks. It has been proven to be a stochastic process that can be characterized as a series of rectangular pulses with a set intensity, duration and frequency. These parameters can be determined using stochastic models such as the Neyman-Scott Rectangular Pulse (NSRP) model. The NSRP model is based on the solution of a non-linear optimization problem. This solution involves theoretical moments that represent the synthetic demand series (equiprobable) and the observed moments (field measurements) that statistically establish the measured demand series. The NSRP model has been applied for residential demand, and the results have been published. However, this model has not been validated for a real distribution network or compared with traditional methods. The present study compared the results of synthetic stochastic demand series, which were calculated using the NSRP model, applied to the determination of pressures, flow rates and leaks; to the results obtained using traditional simulation methods, which use the curve of hourly variation in demand, and to actual pressure and flow rate measurements. The Humaya sector of Culiacan, Sinaloa, Mexico, was used as the study area. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012.

Rivera-Trejo F.,Juarez Autonomous University of Tabasco | Uh-Us F.,Comision Nacional del Agua | Soto-Cortes G.,Metropolitan Autonomous University | Diaz-Flores L.L.,Juarez Autonomous University of Tabasco
Tecnologia y Ciencias del Agua | Year: 2013

River studies generally begin with field inspection visits in order to collect information. Nevertheless, these visits often need to be repeated because there is not enough data, its quality is poor, the right tools are not available to properly collect them or some data are omitted for lack of clarity about what is needed. In practice, an increase in the number of visits is not desirable. It increases costs and external factors also exist that make additional visits impossible (for example, access has been changed or the conditions to be analyzed no longer exist). This paper proposes a methodological field survey guide to study rivers and hydraulics in such a way that ensures gathering the greatest amount and the best quality information as possible in one visit. An example of the application of the implementation of the guide is shown in a 10 km section of the Hondo River, located on the outskirts of the city of Chetumal, Quintana Roo, Mexico. The guide itself does not provide classifications or evaluations of the channel, but rather the elements needed to achieve these objectives. This guide is considered useful for engineers, technicians and river specialists wishing to undertake field studies, or for agencies such as Conagua, the CFE, state and federal governments, as well as universities and institutes involved in the maintenance, conservation, evaluation and management of rivers.

Arreguin Cortes F.I.,Comision Nacional del Agua | Lopez Perez M.,Comision Nacional del Agua | Angeles F.R.,Comision Nacional del Agua
Drought: Research and Science-Policy Interfacing - Proceedings of the International Conference on Drought: Research and Science-Policy Interfacing | Year: 2015

Since 2013, the Government of Mexico began the implementation of the National Drought Policy, changing the paradigm for drought management. Its main objective is reducing vulnerability through the implementation of actions planned under a preventive, holistic and participatory approach. Its fundamental elements are drought monitoring and alert on a fortnightly basis, the formulation and implementation of a Preventive and Mitigation Measures Programme for Drought for each Basin Council, a research program, a training program, the creation of technical and operative staff to coordinate drought response, a communication strategy and securing water supply to impacted populations. The creation of a Commission for the attention of droughts and floods gives the institutional and budgetary viability to the implementation of the policy. The shift to a proactive drought management is difficult and requires time to consolidate, however, given the historical background of Mexico and the effects of climate change, it is indispensable. © 2015 Taylor & Francis Group, London, UK.

Lomeli R.,Instituto Mexicano Of Tecnologia Del Agua | Alvarez N.,Comision Nacional del Agua
WIT Transactions on Ecology and the Environment | Year: 2011

The surface dedicated to agriculture in Mexico is of approximately 21 million hectares, of which 6.4 million count as irrigation infrastructure, and 3.5 million (54%) correspond to 86 great areas called Irrigation Districts. The irrigated farming generates more than half of the national agricultural production. One of the main problems of the infrastructure maintenance is the accumulation of sediments in the distribution and drainage networks, caused fundamentally by insufficient actions of soils and water conservation in the basins of the irrigation dams. The present work analyzes the impact of the catchment basins degradation in the accumulation of sediments in the Irrigation Districts. © 2011 WIT Press.

De Jesus A.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Brena-Naranjo J.A.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Pedrozo-Acuna A.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Yamanaka V.H.A.,Comision Nacional del Agua
Water (Switzerland) | Year: 2016

Drought has been a recurrent phenomenon in Mexico. For its assessment and monitoring, several studies have monitored meteorological droughts using standardized indices of precipitation deficits. Such conventional studies have mostly relied on rain gauge-based measurements, with the main limitation being the scarcity of rain gauge spatial coverage. This issue does not allow a robust spatial characterization of drought. A recent alternative for monitoring purposes can be found in satellite-based remote sensing of meteorological variables. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the standardized precipitation index (SPI) in Mexico during the period 1998 to 2013, using the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite product 3B42. Results suggest that Mexico experienced the driest conditions during the great drought between 2011 and 2012; however, temporal variability in the SPI was found across different climatic regions. Nevertheless, a comparison of the SPI derived by TRMM against the rain gauge-based SPI computed by the official Mexican Drought Monitor showed low to medium correlation of the time series though both SPIs managed to capture the most relevant droughts at the national scale. We conclude that the TRMM product can properly monitor meteorological droughts despite its relative short dataset length (~15 years). Finally, we recommend an assimilation of rain gauge and satellite-based precipitation data to provide more robust estimates of meteorological drought severity. © 2016 by the authors.

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