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Stefanazzi L.,CONICET | Oliva A.R.,CONICET | Paolini E.E.,Comision de Investigaciones Cientificas CIC | Paolini E.E.,CONICET
IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics | Year: 2013

An alias-free, discrete-time click modulator is developed in this paper. Previous approaches rely on translating the continuous-time click modulator to a discrete-time setting, although a key component in the click modulator - the analytic exponential modulator-cannot be exactly transformed to the discrete domain. Every discrete-time version of the click modulator reported in the literature is prone to aliasing effects that are ameliorated, but not eliminated, using interpolation techniques. The precision of the switching times of the output square wave is critical to click modulation because uncertainties in their determination adversely affect the performance and SNR of the modulator. A novel method that uses frequency domain information to compute these switching times without error is also presented. This two techniques are used to develop an off-line discrete-time click modulator that achieves a SNR larger than 180 dB for both multitonal and bandpass signals. © 2012 IEEE. Source


Simonetti S.,CONICET | Simonetti S.,National University of Costa Rica | Company A.D.,Comision de Investigaciones Cientificas CIC | Pronsato E.,CONICET | And 3 more authors.
Applied Surface Science | Year: 2015

Silica-based mesoporous materials have been recently proposed as an efficient support for the controlled release of a popular anticancer drug, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). Although the relevance of this topic, the atomistic details about the specific surface-drug interactions and the energy of adsorption are almost unknown. In this work, theoretical calculations using the Vienna Ab-initio Simulation Package (VASP) applying Grimme's - D2 correction were performed to elucidate the drug-silica interactions and the host properties that control 5-FU drug adsorption on β-cristobalite (1 1 1) hydroxylated surface. This study shows that hydrogen bonding, electron exchange, and dispersion forces are mainly involved to perform the 5-FU adsorption onto silica. This phenomenon, revealed by favorable energies, results in optimum four adsorption geometries that can be adopted for 5-FU on the hydroxylated silica surface. Silanols are weakening in response to the molecule approach and establish H-bonds with polar groups of 5-FU drug. The final geometry of 5-FU adopted on hydroxylated silica surface is the results of H-bonding interactions which stabilize and fix the molecule to the surface and dispersion forces which approach it toward silica (1 1 1) plane. The level of hydroxylation of the SiO2 (1 1 1) surface is reflected by the elevated number of hydrogen bonds that play a significant role in the adsorption mechanisms. ©2015 Published by Elsevier B.V. Source


Cicora F.,National University of La Plata | Roberti J.,University of Belgrano | Lausada N.,National University of La Plata | Gonzalez P.,Comision de Investigaciones Cientificas CIC | And 4 more authors.
Medicina (Argentina) | Year: 2012

The ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) remains a major problem in transplantation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of preconditioning a donor group with rapamycin and another donor group with tacrolimus to prevent IRI. Twelve hours before nephrectomy, donor Wistar rats received immunosuppressive drugs. The sample was divided into four experimental groups: a sham group, an untreated control group, a group treated with rapamycin (2 mg/kg) and a group treated with tacrolimus (0.3 mg/kg). Left kidneys were removed and, after three hours of cold ischemia, grafts were transplanted. Twenty-four hours later, the transplanted organs were recovered for histological analysis and evaluation of cytokine expression. The pre-conditioning treatment with rapamycin or tacrolimus significantly reduced donor blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels compared with control group (BUN: p < 0.001 vs. control and creatinine: p < 0.001 vs. control). Acute tubular necrosis was significantly lower in donors treated with immunosuppressant drugs compared with the control group (p < 0.001). Finally, inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-6 and rIL-21 showed lower levels in the graft of pre-treated animals. This exploratory experimental study shows that preconditioning donors with rapamycin and tacrolimus in different groups improves clinical outcome and pathology in recipients and reduces in situ pro-inflammatory cytokines associated with Th17 differentiation, creating a favorable environment for the differentiation of regulatory T cells (Tregs). Source


Duval M.E.,CONICET | Galantini J.A.,Comision de Investigaciones Cientificas CIC | Capurro J.E.,Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria | Martinez J.M.,CONICET
Soil and Tillage Research | Year: 2016

The current agricultural production systems in the Pampas Region have been significantly simplified by cultivating large land areas under no tillage (NT), where soybean is the predominant crop. These systems with long periods of fall-winter fallow and poor annual input of carbon (C) into the soil lead to soil degradation, thereby affecting physical and chemical properties. A 6-year cover crop study was carried out on a Typic Argiudoll under NT in the south of Santa Fe, Argentina. Various winter species were used as cover crops: wheat (W), oat (O), vetch (V), an oat + vetch mixture (O + V) and a control (Ct) treatment without a cover crop. We examined the influence of cover crops on the following soil organic C-fractions: coarse particulate organic carbon (POCc), fine particulate organic carbon (POCf) and mineral-associated organic carbon (MOC) from 2008 to 2011. Aboveground carbon input by the cover crops was related to the June to October rainfalls. In general, the W and O treatments supplied a higher amount of C to the soil; these gramineous species produced 22 and 86% more biomass than O + V and V. The water cost of including cover crops ranged from 13 to 93 mm compared with Ct. However, this water-use did not affect soybean yields. On average, gramineous species (pure stand or mixture) supplied more than 3.0 Mg C ha-1 year-1 to the soil, whereas V supplied less than 2.0 Mg C ha-1 year-1. Increase in the mean annual C-input by residues into the soil (cover crop + soybean) explained most SOC variation (R2 = 0.61; p < 0.05). This relationship was more evident with labile soil organic fractions, both for POCc (R2 = 0.91; p < 0.001) and POCc + POCf (R2 = 0.81; p < 0.001). The stratification ratios of SOC (SI, 0-5:10-20 cm) reflected differences among treatments, where >2.0 for W; 1.7 for O, O + V and V, and <1.5 for Ct. Soil physical fractionation by particle size showed that cover crops affected the most dynamic fraction directly associated with residue input (POCc) at 0-5 and 5-10 cm. At 0-5 cm, the effects were observed in the most transformed fractions (MOC and POCf) 4 years after the experiment started, whereas at 0-20 cm, differences in the labile fractions (POCc and POCf) were found at the end of the experiment (6 years). Although C-input by the cover crops fueled decomposition of labile soil organic fractions, concentration of surface SOC and its associated fractions (POCc, POCf and MOC) was modified after 6 years. This effect became noticeable during the third year when the plots under cover crops showed a higher SI than the traditional fallow. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. Source


Cicora F.,National University of La Plata | Cicora F.,Kidney Transplant Unit | Lausada N.,National University of La Plata | Vasquez D.N.,Fundacion para la Investigacion y Asistencia de la Enfermedad Renal FINAER | And 6 more authors.
Transplant Immunology | Year: 2011

Background: Ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) is one of the risk factors for delayed graft function, acute rejection and long term allograft survival after kidney transplantation. IRI is an independent antigen inflammatory process that produces tissue damage. Our objective was to study the impact of immunosuppressive treatment (IS) on IRI applying only one dose of IS before orthotopic kidney autotransplantation. Methods: Twenty-four rats allocated in four groups were studied. One group served as control (G1: autotransplanted rats without IS) and the rest received IS 12. h before kidney autotransplantation (G2: Rapamycin, G3: Mycophenolate mofetil and G4: Tacrolimus). Results: Improved renal function and systemic inflammatory response were found among IS groups compared to the control group (Delta Urea p < 0.0001; Delta Creatinine p < 0.0001; Delta C3 p < 0.001). The number of apoptotic nuclei in renal medulla in G1 was higher than in IS groups (p < 0.0001). Tubular damage was less severe in IS groups respecting G1 (p < 0.001). C3, TNF-γ and IL-6 expression in kidney samples was reduced when IS was used compared to the control group. No differences were observed among the different immunosuppressive drugs tested. However, Heme oxygenase-1(HO-1) was increased only in Rapamycin treatment. Conclusions: These data suggest that the use of IS administered before transplant attenuates the IRI process after kidney transplantation in an animal model. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. Source

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