Comillas Pontifical University is a private university located in Madrid, Spain. It is a Catholic university run by the Society of Jesus.Ranked as one of the best universities in Spain, Comillas is the only Spanish university that appears in the Times Higher Education 2013 ranking.The university is involved in a number of academic exchange programmes, work practice schemes and international projects with over 200 institutions of higher education in Europe, Latin America, North America and Asia. Wikipedia.
Batlle C.,Comillas Pontifical University
Energy Policy | Year: 2011
In a new context of growing need for renewable energy sources (RES), tariff design has become a critical component of energy system regulation. A methodology for allocating the cost of RES subsidies that ensures an optimal balance between compliance with the main regulatory principles of tariff design and each state's specific policy is of cardinal importance in the current context. This paper presents and discusses a novel methodology to allocate the RES subsidy costs, which consists of distributing them among final energy consumers, in proportion to their consumption, regardless of the type of final energy consumed (liquid fuels, gas, electricity or coal).First, the different designs of RES subsidies are categorized and a review of a good number of the RES burden sharing mechanisms implemented in the EU is presented. Then, the proposed methodology is developed on the basis of the basic regulatory principles underlying the tariff design and the current regulatory context in force in the EU. Finally, to illustrate its actual impact in a real case example, the proposed methodology is applied to the Spanish system, in which the burden of extra costs incurred for RES amounts to a very large proportion of the overall energy system costs. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source
Banzo M.,Iberdrola |
Ramos A.,Comillas Pontifical University
IEEE Transactions on Power Systems | Year: 2011
In the coming years, an extensive development of large-scale offshore wind farms (OWFs) is foreseen in Europe. Electric power systems of OWFs need to be optimized in order to minimize investment and operational costs. This paper proposes a comprehensive decision support model that covers the three key factors that characterize the design of ac electric power systems of OWFs: investment costs of the components, system efficiency, and system reliability. Stochasticity of wind speed and reliability of the main system components are also considered. The main decisions concern the layout and the cross-sections of cable connections and the location of the central collection point for the medium voltage cables. GAMS language has been used to implement the model. It has been validated using a real OWF. An application example has also been carried out to explain the extension of the model to OWFs with dc power systems. The proposed model is useful for basic engineering design and as a decision tool for planning the electric power system of OWFs. © 2011 IEEE. Source
Castro M.,Comillas Pontifical University |
Cuerno R.,Charles III University of Madrid
Applied Surface Science | Year: 2012
On the proper timescale, amorphous solids can flow. Solid flow can be observed macroscopically in glaciers or lead pipes, but it can also be artificially enhanced by creating defects. Ion Beam Sputtering (IBS) is a technique in which ions with energies in the 0.1-10 keV range impact against a solid target inducing defect creation and dynamics, and eroding its surface leading to formation of ordered nanostructures. Despite its technological interest, a basic understanding of nanopattern formation processes occurring under IBS of amorphizable targets has not been clearly established, recent experiments on Si having largely questioned knowledge accumulated during the last two decades. A number of interfacial equations have been proposed in the past to describe these phenomena, typically by adding together different contributions coming from surface diffusion, ion sputtering or mass redistribution, etc. in a non-systematic way. Here, we exploit the general idea of solids flowing due to ion impacts in order to establish a general framework into which different mechanisms (such as viscous flow, stress, diffusion, or sputtering) can be incorporated, under generic physical conservation laws. As opposed to formulating phenomenological interfacial equations, this approach allows to assess systematically the relevance and interplay of different physical mechanisms influencing surface pattern formation by IBS. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source
Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: CSA | Phase: LCE-04-2014 | Award Amount: 1.90M | Year: 2015
The flexibility of the industrial electricity demand has been identified as a potential that through innovative business models can facilitate further growth of variable renewable energy, while reducing the industrial electricity costs and contributing to the European energy policy goals. In this project the large industry is working with the renewable energy community to identify and implement business models for supplying variable renewable electricity to industrial users with flexibility in their demand, creating win-win situations. Several variations of the business models will be described covering different options like on and off-site renewable energy production. The business models will be adapted to 5 industrial sectors (Chemicals, non-ferrous metals, cold storage, steel, and water treatment) and 6 target countries (Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Spain and UK). Tools will be developed to facilitate adoption of the business models: Model contracts adapted to the target countries and the different business models and a methodology that assesses the flexibility in industrial units and its value within the business models. The methodology will be transferred to third parties and will be applied in 6 case studies covering all target sectors and countries. Recommendations for improvements in the regulatory and market framework will be formulated and promoted. A top-down and a bottom-up methodology will be used to quantify the potential for further cost-effective grid integration of variable renewable electricity by the exploitation of the industrial electricity demand flexibility. The use of a sophisticated power system model and detailed analysis will provide reliable data on the impact the policy recommendations could have. An ambitious campaign will be carried out for engaging the target groups in direct action implementing the business models and informing the interested actors about the project activities and results.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: LCE-21-2015 | Award Amount: 4.00M | Year: 2016
SET-Nav will support strategic decision making in Europes energy sector, enhancing innovation towards a clean, secure and efficient energy system. Our research will enable the EC, national governments and regulators to facilitate the development of optimal technology portfolios by market actors. We will comprehensively address critical uncertainties and derive appropriate policy and market responses. Our findings will support the further development of the SET-Plan and its implementation by continuous stakeholder involvement. These contributions of the SET-Nav project rest on three pillars: The wide range of objectives and analytical challenges set out by the call for proposals can only be met by developing a broad and technically-advanced modelling portfolio. Advancing this portfolio and enabling knowledge exchange via a modelling forum is our first pillar. The EUs energy, innovation and climate challenges define the direction of a future EU energy system, but the specific technology pathways are policy sensitive and need careful comparative evaluation. This is our second pillar. Using our strengthened modelling capabilities in an integrated modelling hierarchy, we will analyse multiple dimensions of impact of future pathways: sustainability, reliability and supply security, global competitiveness and efficiency. This analysis will combine bottom-up case studies linked to the full range of SET-Plan themes with holistic transformation pathways. Stakeholder dialogue and dissemination is the third pillar of SET-Nav. We have prepared for a lively stakeholder dialogue through a series of events on critical SET-Plan themes. The active involvement of stakeholders in a two-way feedback process will provide a reality check on our modelling assumptions and approaches, and ensure high policy relevance. Our aim is to ensure policy and market actors alike can navigate effectively through the diverse options available on energy innovation and system transformation.