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Komle N.I.,Austrian Academy of Sciences | Tiefenbacher P.,Austrian Academy of Sciences | Weiss P.,Comex Inc | Bendiukova A.,University of Warsaw
Icarus | Year: 2017

Melting probes as vehicles to explore terrestrial ice sheets have been designed and applied successfully since the early 1960's. Later on, in the 1990's, various proposals were made to apply such probes also as a means to explore ice sheets on other bodies of the solar system, e.g. Jupiter's icy satellite Europa or the ice caps of Mars. For this type of subsurface probes the name cryobot has become common. We review both early developments and more recent efforts to develop probes for application in planetary environments, i.e. under low pressures and low temperatures. The current state of art as well as the pros and cons of the different concepts hitherto considered are described. While many tests with various probes have been done in terrestrial environments, experiments under low surface pressure conditions are rare. Therefore, we report here on lab tests with a simple melting probe under the range of pressure and temperature conditions that would be encountered on the surface of Mars and compare them with corresponding tests under a much lower gas pressure, possibly representative for icy satellites. The contribution of evaporation during the melting and its variation with surface pressure is also considered.All surface pressure measurements that have been performed on Mars up to now indicate a surface pressure above the water triple point pressure (612[U+202F] Pa). This means that water ice always transforms into the liquid phase when warmed up to 0°C, before it evaporates into the ambient atmosphere. The temporary existence of the liquid phase around the heated tip of the cryobot allows good thermal conductance between probe and surrounding ice, which is an important pre-requisite for efficient melt penetration. Our experiments indicate that under all possible Mars surface pressures the liquid phase is present when the probe is heated up. This finding confirms experimentally that a probe as it was proposed by Paige (1992) for in situ exploration of the Mars north polar layers would work in the expected way, although the penetration velocity must be expected be lower than under Earth pressure conditions. A test with the same probe, but under an almost two orders of magnitude lower gas pressure than on Mars, still indicates the temporary existence of the liquid phase in the contact region between the probe and the surrounding ice. © 2017 Elsevier Inc.

Garcia-Valenzuela A.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Contreras-Tello H.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Olivares J.A.,Comex Inc | Cuppo F.L.S.,Comex Inc
Journal of the Optical Society of America A: Optics and Image Science, and Vision | Year: 2013

We study theoretically the extinction of collimated light in random systems of highly scattering particles embedded in nonabsorbing media. We aim to provide rough guidelines on the behavior of the extinction coefficient in the so-called dependent-scattering regime. We base our analysis on Keller's second order perturbative approximation to the effective propagation constant. To gain physical insight, we also analyze a simple model based on the physical notion that particles in a dense system scatter light in an effective medium. © 2013 Optical Society of America.

Comex Inc | Date: 2012-01-10

Fans for motors and engines, electric fans for motors and engines, fans for vehicle motors and engines, electric fans for vehicle motors and engines, all for vehicles and sold to vehicle manufacturers and vehicle repair facilities. Electric motors and engines for land vehicles.

Comex Inc | Date: 2012-04-10


Comex Inc | Date: 2011-03-29

Basic dyes; Coating compositions in the nature of paint for industrial applications; Coatings in the nature of industrial sealants for waterproofing and surface hardening; Colorants; Concrete moisture barrier coating; Corrosion inhibitants in the nature of a coating; Fluorescent brightening agents; Lacquers; Paint thinners; Paints, lacquers, varnishes; Primers; Rapid dyes; Weatherproofing coatings.

Comex Inc | Date: 2013-01-15

Chemicals for use in industry, science, photography, agriculture, horticulture and forestry; unprocessed artificial resins and primers, unprocessed plastics; fire extinguishing compositions, tempering and soldering preparations for metals, food preserving chemicals; adhesives in the nature of glues used in industry; unprocessed acrylic resins. Coatings in the nature of paints, varnishes and lacquers; preservatives in the nature of coatings used for rust preventatives and against deterioration of blacksmithing and wood materials; mordant dyes; raw natural resins, metals in foil and powder for painters, decorators, printers and artists. Rubber, gutta-percha, gum asbestos, mica and mica for use as a filler in plastics; semi-finished plastic in the form of films, sheets, and tubes; caulking compounds for caulking, towing and insulating, non metallic flexible pipes.

Comex Inc | Date: 2012-04-24

Adhesives for industrial use; asphalt release agents; waterproofing chemical composition for use in masonry, wood and other building and/or construction surfaces; chemicals for industrials use in the manufacture of sealers; and aromatic solvents, all above to be used in the chemical and construction industries; polyurethanes. Interior and exterior paints; industrial maintenance coatings, namely, epoxy coating for use on concrete industrial floors, polyurethane coatings for floors, storage tanks, oil, fuel and gas tanks and pipelines, water and wastewater tanks, bridges, ships, and other such surfaces that are exposed corrosive mixtures, industrial lacquers, industrial coatings, namely, lacquers and stains in the nature of finishes for exterior and interior use on metal; protective coatings in the nature of an acrylic textured finish to be applied over concrete surfaces; concrete sealers in the form of a coating; decorative coating for concrete surfaces, namely, coatings comprised of cement synthetic plasters. Building materials, namely, asphalt roof coatings, bituminous roof coatings, tar based asphalt sealants, bitumen based asphalt sealants, tar based roofing sealants and bitumen based roofing sealants, fiber cement floor and wall panels, bricks, cement brick and plastered wall boards; slabs of clay, cement fillers and plaster for use in repairing, decorating and protecting surfaces made of concrete.

Comex Inc | Date: 2012-01-17

manuals and catalogues featuring advice on interior and exterior design and decoration as it relates to paint colors; and printed material in the nature of paint color samples.

News Article | June 18, 2015

Well-known developer Steve Troughton-Smith, who previously was able to get real UIKit-backed apps running on Apple Watch with watchOS 2.0, now says that he has gotten native UIKit apps running on watchOS 1.0. Smith shared a video showing off the feat, which can be seen via the embed below. Smith also notes that developers can use the PepperUICore framework to build apps like the native systems apps, allowing Watch functions like Digital Crown scrolling to function. Previously, Comex was able to hack a web browser to run on watchOS 1.0. With watchOS 2.0, Apple is touting the ability to run truly native apps on Apple Watch, although developers have discovered that while logic code runs on the watch, raw access to the user interface is not allowed with watchOS 2.0. Native watchOS apps, however, run directly on Apple Watch, which increases performance and allows them to run more sufficiently when not paired with an iPhone. The native watch SDK can also tap directly into the watch’s hardware sensors and digital crown, much like Smith’s latest discovery. View the video demo of UIKit apps running on watchOS 1.0 below:

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