Flamatt, Switzerland
Flamatt, Switzerland

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Johnson C.J.,U.S. Geological Survey | Gilbert P.U.P.A.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Abrecht M.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Abrecht M.,Comet AG | And 5 more authors.
Viruses | Year: 2013

Accumulation of aggregates rich in an abnormally folded form of the prion protein characterize the neurodegeneration caused by transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). The molecular triggers of plaque formation and neurodegeneration remain unknown, but analyses of TSE-infected brain homogenates and preparations enriched for abnormal prion protein suggest that reduced levels of copper and increased levels of manganese are associated with disease. The objectives of this study were to: (1) assess copper and manganese levels in healthy and TSE-infected Syrian hamster brain homogenates; (2) determine if the distribution of these metals can be mapped in TSE-infected brain tissue using X-ray photoelectron emission microscopy (X-PEEM) with synchrotron radiation; and (3) use X-PEEM to assess the relative amounts of copper and manganese in prion plaques in situ. In agreement with studies of other TSEs and species, we found reduced brain levels of copper and increased levels of manganese associated with disease in our hamster model. We also found that the in situ levels of these metals in brainstem were sufficient to image by X-PEEM. Using immunolabeled prion plaques in directly adjacent tissue sections to identify regions to image by X-PEEM, we found a statistically significant relationship of copper-manganese dysregulation in prion plaques: copper was depleted whereas manganese was enriched. These data provide evidence for prion plaques altering local transition metal distribution in the TSE-infected central nervous system. © 2013 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


Schulz J.W.,COMET AG
Revista Materia | Year: 2011

In the Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) industry, the mayor trends are from film and stand alone applications to digital and inline inspection. Furthermore the quality requirements are growing driven by pushing design and material limits. Especially for field applications based on security reasons as well as image quality, replacement of isotopes can be monitored. With the move to digital the need for small focal spots at increased power requirements brought new challenges to the x-ray supplier. With the move to inline inspection systems, requirements for high uptime, fast throughput at the best possible resolution became the key challenges for the x-ray industry. The target to replace isotopes brings high challenges for weight size and energy. The innovation program of COMET delivers solutions for those challenges. Comparison between 600 Kilovolts (kV) and conventional 450kV x-ray sources will show the advantages in penetration and resolution and with this in defect recognition. The resolution gain with adaptive focal spots compared to stand.


Patent
Comet AG | Date: 2010-06-28

A vacuum capacitor has at least two electrodes in a vacuum, the electrodes being manufactured from, or coated with, aluminium or an aluminium alloy; and the housing of the vacuum capacitor includes an insulating (e.g., ceramic) part and two or more conducting parts.


Patent
Comet Ag | Date: 2013-05-30

A vacuum variable capacitor includes a pre-vacuum enclosure for reducing a pressure differential across the bellows. The vacuum force load on the drive system can thereby be reduced, allowing faster movement of the movable electrode, faster capacitance adjustment of the vacuum variable capacitor and longer lifetimes of the device.


A variable vacuum capacitor includes two pairs of electrodes ganged together in series such that no moving parts are required to connect electrically to any static pans. Two sets, or gangs, of movable electrodes are connected mechanically and electrically together such that they move together and such that they require no electrical connection to any other part of the device. The ganged arrangement means that the device can be constructed with a smaller diameter, but without significantly increasing the overall length of the device. The variable vacuum capacitor may be a component of e.g., a power delivery system for a plasma process, a power delivery system for surface treatment, semi-conductor manufacturing equipment, photovoltaic manufacturing equipment, and flat panel manufacturing equipment.


The invention describes a method of frequency tuning an electrical generator (100) for supplying electrical power to a plasma, wherein the method comprises a pulsed mode, the pulse mode comprising at least a high power pulse (314) comprising a high power level (304) and a low power pulse (312) comprising a low power level (302) different to zero power, the method comprising the steps of:- providing RF-power with a high power starting frequency set comprising at least one high power starting frequency (502, 504, 506) at the high power pulse (314) with a predefined high power pulse shape;- providing RF-power with a low power starting frequency set comprising at least one low power starting frequency (512, 514) at the low power pulse (312) with a predefined low power pulse shape;- determining a reflected high power at the high power starting frequency (502, 504, 506);- tuning the high power starting frequency (502, 504, 506) to a different first high power frequency if the reflected high power exceeds a high power threshold value such that the reflected high power decreases below the high power threshold value;- determining a reflected low power at the low power starting frequency (512, 514);- tuning the low power starting frequency (512, 514) to a different first low power frequency if the reflected low power exceeds a low power threshold value such that the reflected low power decreases below the low power threshold value. The invention further describes a corresponding electrical generator (100), plasma processing system and computer program product. The method, the electrical generator, the plasma processing system and the computer program product may have the advantage that the stability of the plasma with respect to repeated and essentially identical high and low power pulses is used to reduce the controlling effort and to check the stability of the plasma process.


Patent
Comet Ag | Date: 2013-03-19

A high-voltage capacitor includes a gas-tight enclosure containing interleaved electrodes. The dielectric of the capacitor is a pressurized gas at a pressure of at least 6 bar, and preferably 10 or 15 bar. In order to withstand this level of internal pressure, the insulating body section of the capacitor may be formed of a high-strength polymeric material.


Patent
Comet AG | Date: 2015-07-22

A biorefinery facility and a method for refining biomass comprises a primary refining process including a mechanical treatment resulting in a size reduction of biomass material, and a secondary refining process including at least one conversion treatment resulting in one or more refined products (A, B, C, D, E, F). The primary refining process comprises a separation treatment, in particular a fractionation treatment, for separating fractions of different components from the biomass material. At least one of the fractions of different components is irradiated for structural modification of said component of the fraction.


Patent
Comet Ag | Date: 2014-05-28

A vacuum variable vapacitor includes a pre-vacuum enclosure for reducing a pressure differential across the bellows, wherein a drive is disposed outside the enclosures of the vacuum variable capacitor. The vacuum force load on the drive system can thereby be reduced, allowing faster movement of the movable electrode, faster capacitance adjustment of the vacuum variable capacitor and longer lifetimes of the device.


Patent
Comet Ag | Date: 2012-02-03

A variable vacuum capacitor includes two pairs of electrodes ganged together in series such that no moving parts are required to connect electrically to any static pans. Two sets, or gangs, of movable electrodes are connected mechanically and electrically together such that they move together and such that they require no electrical connection to any other part of the device. The ganged arrangement means that the device can be constructed with a smaller diameter, but without significantly increasing the overall length of the device.

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