Johnson C.J.,U.S. Geological Survey |
Gilbert P.U.P.A.,University of Wisconsin - Madison |
Abrecht M.,University of Wisconsin - Madison |
Abrecht M.,COMET AG |
And 5 more authors.
Accumulation of aggregates rich in an abnormally folded form of the prion protein characterize the neurodegeneration caused by transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). The molecular triggers of plaque formation and neurodegeneration remain unknown, but analyses of TSE-infected brain homogenates and preparations enriched for abnormal prion protein suggest that reduced levels of copper and increased levels of manganese are associated with disease. The objectives of this study were to: (1) assess copper and manganese levels in healthy and TSE-infected Syrian hamster brain homogenates; (2) determine if the distribution of these metals can be mapped in TSE-infected brain tissue using X-ray photoelectron emission microscopy (X-PEEM) with synchrotron radiation; and (3) use X-PEEM to assess the relative amounts of copper and manganese in prion plaques in situ. In agreement with studies of other TSEs and species, we found reduced brain levels of copper and increased levels of manganese associated with disease in our hamster model. We also found that the in situ levels of these metals in brainstem were sufficient to image by X-PEEM. Using immunolabeled prion plaques in directly adjacent tissue sections to identify regions to image by X-PEEM, we found a statistically significant relationship of copper-manganese dysregulation in prion plaques: copper was depleted whereas manganese was enriched. These data provide evidence for prion plaques altering local transition metal distribution in the TSE-infected central nervous system. © 2013 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Source
Ataman C.,Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne |
Ataman C.,Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg |
Lani S.,Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne |
Lani S.,Swiss Center for Electronics and Microtechnology |
And 3 more authors.
Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering
A large-aperture and large-angle MEMS-based 2D pointing mirror is presented. The device is electromagnetically actuated by a moving-magnet/ stationary-coil pair and potentially suited for high power laser beam shaping and beam pointing applications, such as LIDAR. The 4×4 mm2 mirror, the radially symmetric compliant membrane, and the off-the-shelf permanent magnet are manually assembled, with the planar coil kept at a well-defined vertical distance from the permanent magnet by simple alignment pins. The mirror and the compliant membrane structures are separately microfabricated on bulk silicon and SOI wafers, respectively. The hybrid integration of microfabricated and off-the-shelf components enable low-risk/high-yield fabrication, while limiting the throughput. The device features minimum inter-axis cross coupling and good linearity and is highly immune to alignment and assembly imperfections, thanks to the robust actuation principle. All the components including the bi-axial electromagnetic actuator provide a device footprint as small as the top mirror, allowing the design to be used in compact and high-fill-factor mirror arrays. With a drive coil of 400 mA and 5.12 W drive power, the total uniaxial dc rotation exceeds ±16° (optical) for both axes with good decoupling. At maximum measured angle (biaxial 10° (mechanical)), a position stability better than 0.05° over 7 h, and a position repeatability of 0.04° over 5000 switching cycles is reported. Thermally, the simulated mirror temperature increases to 64 K above the heat sink temperature with a thermal in-flux of 1 kW m-2, under absolute vacuum. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd. Source
Schulz J.W.,COMET AG
In the Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) industry, the mayor trends are from film and stand alone applications to digital and inline inspection. Furthermore the quality requirements are growing driven by pushing design and material limits. Especially for field applications based on security reasons as well as image quality, replacement of isotopes can be monitored. With the move to digital the need for small focal spots at increased power requirements brought new challenges to the x-ray supplier. With the move to inline inspection systems, requirements for high uptime, fast throughput at the best possible resolution became the key challenges for the x-ray industry. The target to replace isotopes brings high challenges for weight size and energy. The innovation program of COMET delivers solutions for those challenges. Comparison between 600 Kilovolts (kV) and conventional 450kV x-ray sources will show the advantages in penetration and resolution and with this in defect recognition. The resolution gain with adaptive focal spots compared to stand. Source
Comet Ag | Date: 2014-05-28
A vacuum variable vapacitor includes a pre-vacuum enclosure for reducing a pressure differential across the bellows, wherein a drive is disposed outside the enclosures of the vacuum variable capacitor. The vacuum force load on the drive system can thereby be reduced, allowing faster movement of the movable electrode, faster capacitance adjustment of the vacuum variable capacitor and longer lifetimes of the device.
Comet AG | Date: 2010-06-28
A vacuum capacitor has at least two electrodes in a vacuum, the electrodes being manufactured from, or coated with, aluminium or an aluminium alloy; and the housing of the vacuum capacitor includes an insulating (e.g., ceramic) part and two or more conducting parts.