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Llarena-Reino M.,CSIC - Institute of Marine Research | Gonzalez T.F.,CSIC - Institute of Marine Research | Vello C.,Comercial Hospitalaria Grupo 3 | Outeirino L.,Comercial Hospitalaria Grupo 3 | Pascual S.,CSIC - Institute of Marine Research
Food Control | Year: 2012

The importance of the zoonoses caused by L3 Anisakidae larvae lies in the repercussion that this parasite exerts on food safety and quality. EU legislation recommends fish operators to do visual inspection of the whole fish abdominal cavity and gut to control the risk of visible parasites, thus ensuring that no contaminated fish reach the consumers. The accuracy of the above visual inspection method should fall on a well-tested statistical significance between the number of observable parasites in the abdominal cavity and the number of parasites in the edible part of the fish (i.e., musculature). The aim of this study was to analyze this statistical significance, and the efficacy of the washing practice to remove Anisakis spp. from gut. To carry out this work, 322 fresh individuals of Micromesistius poutassou and 230 of Scomber scombrus were necropsied within 12 h and 48 h post-capture. Then, descriptive statistics, correlation and regression analyses were used to evaluate the significant statistical relationship between the number of anisakid larvae found in the gut and musculature of both fish species. Additionally, livers and gonads of 25 fresh specimens of Merluccius merluccius were vigorously washed under tap water, and examined under stereomicroscope looking for Anisakis spp. larvae. Results evidenced the low efficiency of visual inspection of gut parasites as a commonly recommended method for predicting nematode larvae in the flesh of fish. Therefore, a direct-invasive inspection of musculature is stressed as the only criteria with scientific merit for accurately detecting contaminated fishes by anisakids. Moreover, fresh European hake liver and gonads showed at least one larva remained inside the tissue after washing vigorously under tap water. Results suggested that critical control points at Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) programmes should be reviewed to improve the risk of anisakid-induced allergies and gastrointestinal anisakiasis among consumers. © 2011.


Llarena-Reino M.,CSIC - Institute of Marine Research | Llarena-Reino M.,University of Aveiro | Pineiro C.,CSIC - Institute of Marine Research | Antonio J.,CSIC - Institute of Marine Research | And 4 more authors.
Veterinary Parasitology | Year: 2013

During the last 50 years human anisakiasis has been rising while parasites have increased their prevalence at determined fisheries becoming an emergent major public health problem. Although artificial enzymatic digestion procedure by CODEX (STAN 244-2004: standard for salted Atlantic herring and salted sprat) is the recommended protocol for anisakids inspection, no international agreement has been achieved in veterinary and scientific digestion protocols to regulate this growing source of biological hazard in fish products. The aim of this work was to optimize the current artificial digestion protocol by CODEX with the purpose of offering a faster, more useful and safer procedure for factories workers, than the current one for anisakids detection. To achieve these objectives, the existing pepsin chemicals and the conditions of the digestion method were evaluated and assayed in fresh and frozen samples, both in lean and fatty fish species. Results showed that the new digestion procedure considerably reduces the assay time, and it is more handy and efficient (the quantity of the resulting residue was considerably lower after less time) than the widely used CODEX procedure. In conclusion, the new digestion method herein proposed based on liquid pepsin format is an accurate reproducible and user-friendly off-site tool, that can be useful in the implementation of screening programs for the prevention of human anisakiasis (and associated gastroallergic disorders) due to the consumption of raw or undercooked contaminated seafood products. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

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